# RecursiveAction

public abstract class RecursiveAction extends ForkJoinTask<Void>

A recursive resultless `ForkJoinTask`. This class establishes conventions to parameterize resultless actions as `Void` `ForkJoinTask`s. Because `null` is the only valid value of type `Void`, methods such as `join` always return `null` upon completion.

Sample Usages. Here is a simple but complete ForkJoin sort that sorts a given `long[]` array:

``` ```static class SortTask extends RecursiveAction {
final long[] array; final int lo, hi;
SortTask(long[] array, int lo, int hi) {
this.array = array; this.lo = lo; this.hi = hi;
}
SortTask(long[] array) { this(array, 0, array.length); }
protected void compute() {
if (hi - lo < THRESHOLD)
sortSequentially(lo, hi);
else {
int mid = (lo + hi) >>> 1;
invokeAll(new SortTask(array, lo, mid),
new SortTask(array, mid, hi));
merge(lo, mid, hi);
}
}
// implementation details follow:
static final int THRESHOLD = 1000;
void sortSequentially(int lo, int hi) {
Arrays.sort(array, lo, hi);
}
void merge(int lo, int mid, int hi) {
long[] buf = Arrays.copyOfRange(array, lo, mid);
for (int i = 0, j = lo, k = mid; i < buf.length; j++)
array[j] = (k == hi || buf[i] < array[k]) ?
buf[i++] : array[k++];
}
}``````
You could then sort `anArray` by creating ```new SortTask(anArray)``` and invoking it in a ForkJoinPool. As a more concrete simple example, the following task increments each element of an array:
``` ```class IncrementTask extends RecursiveAction {
final long[] array; final int lo, hi;
IncrementTask(long[] array, int lo, int hi) {
this.array = array; this.lo = lo; this.hi = hi;
}
protected void compute() {
if (hi - lo < THRESHOLD) {
for (int i = lo; i < hi; ++i)
array[i]++;
}
else {
int mid = (lo + hi) >>> 1;
invokeAll(new IncrementTask(array, lo, mid),
new IncrementTask(array, mid, hi));
}
}
}``````

The following example illustrates some refinements and idioms that may lead to better performance: RecursiveActions need not be fully recursive, so long as they maintain the basic divide-and-conquer approach. Here is a class that sums the squares of each element of a double array, by subdividing out only the right-hand-sides of repeated divisions by two, and keeping track of them with a chain of `next` references. It uses a dynamic threshold based on method `getSurplusQueuedTaskCount`, but counterbalances potential excess partitioning by directly performing leaf actions on unstolen tasks rather than further subdividing.

``` ```double sumOfSquares(ForkJoinPool pool, double[] array) {
int n = array.length;
Applyer a = new Applyer(array, 0, n, null);
pool.invoke(a);
return a.result;
}

class Applyer extends RecursiveAction {
final double[] array;
final int lo, hi;
double result;
Applyer next; // keeps track of right-hand-side tasks
Applyer(double[] array, int lo, int hi, Applyer next) {
this.array = array; this.lo = lo; this.hi = hi;
this.next = next;
}

double atLeaf(int l, int h) {
double sum = 0;
for (int i = l; i < h; ++i) // perform leftmost base step
sum += array[i] * array[i];
return sum;
}

protected void compute() {
int l = lo;
int h = hi;
Applyer right = null;
while (h - l > 1 && getSurplusQueuedTaskCount() <= 3) {
int mid = (l + h) >>> 1;
right = new Applyer(array, mid, h, right);
right.fork();
h = mid;
}
double sum = atLeaf(l, h);
while (right != null) {
if (right.tryUnfork()) // directly calculate if not stolen
sum += right.atLeaf(right.lo, right.hi);
else {
right.join();
sum += right.result;
}
right = right.next;
}
result = sum;
}
}``````

### Public Method Summary

 final Void getRawResult() Always returns `null`.

### Protected Method Summary

 abstract void compute() The main computation performed by this task. final boolean exec() Implements execution conventions for RecursiveActions. final void setRawResult(Void mustBeNull) Requires null completion value.

## Public Methods

#### public final Void getRawResult()

Always returns `null`.

##### Returns
• `null` always

## Protected Methods

#### protected abstract void compute()

The main computation performed by this task.

#### protected final boolean exec()

Implements execution conventions for RecursiveActions.

##### Returns
• `true` if this task is known to have completed normally

#### protected final void setRawResult(Void mustBeNull)

Requires null completion value.

##### Parameters
mustBeNull the value