public interface ExecutorService implements Executor
Known Indirect Subclasses

An Executor that provides methods to manage termination and methods that can produce a Future for tracking progress of one or more asynchronous tasks.

An ExecutorService can be shut down, which will cause it to reject new tasks. Two different methods are provided for shutting down an ExecutorService. The shutdown() method will allow previously submitted tasks to execute before terminating, while the shutdownNow() method prevents waiting tasks from starting and attempts to stop currently executing tasks. Upon termination, an executor has no tasks actively executing, no tasks awaiting execution, and no new tasks can be submitted. An unused ExecutorService should be shut down to allow reclamation of its resources.

Method submit extends base method execute(Runnable) by creating and returning a Future that can be used to cancel execution and/or wait for completion. Methods invokeAny and invokeAll perform the most commonly useful forms of bulk execution, executing a collection of tasks and then waiting for at least one, or all, to complete. (Class ExecutorCompletionService can be used to write customized variants of these methods.)

The Executors class provides factory methods for the executor services provided in this package.

Usage Examples

Here is a sketch of a network service in which threads in a thread pool service incoming requests. It uses the preconfigured newFixedThreadPool(int) factory method:
 class NetworkService implements Runnable {
   private final ServerSocket serverSocket;
   private final ExecutorService pool;

   public NetworkService(int port, int poolSize)
       throws IOException {
     serverSocket = new ServerSocket(port);
     pool = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(poolSize);

   public void run() { // run the service
     try {
       for (;;) {
         pool.execute(new Handler(serverSocket.accept()));
     } catch (IOException ex) {

 class Handler implements Runnable {
   private final Socket socket;
   Handler(Socket socket) { this.socket = socket; }
   public voi