# Integer

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public final class Integer extends Number
implements Comparable<Integer>

The `Integer` class wraps a value of the primitive type `int` in an object. An object of type `Integer` contains a single field whose type is `int`.

In addition, this class provides several methods for converting an `int` to a `String` and a `String` to an `int`, as well as other constants and methods useful when dealing with an `int`.

Implementation note: The implementations of the "bit twiddling" methods (such as `highestOneBit` and `numberOfTrailingZeros`) are based on material from Henry S. Warren, Jr.'s Hacker's Delight, (Addison Wesley, 2002).

### Constant Summary

 int BYTES The number of bytes used to represent a `int` value in two's complement binary form. int MAX_VALUE A constant holding the maximum value an `int` can have, 231-1. int MIN_VALUE A constant holding the minimum value an `int` can have, -231. int SIZE The number of bits used to represent an `int` value in two's complement binary form.

### Field Summary

 public static final Class TYPE The `Class` instance representing the primitive type `int`.

### Public Constructor Summary

 Integer(int value) Constructs a newly allocated `Integer` object that represents the specified `int` value. Integer(String s) Constructs a newly allocated `Integer` object that represents the `int` value indicated by the `String` parameter.

### Public Method Summary

 static int bitCount(int i) Returns the number of one-bits in the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value. byte byteValue() Returns the value of this `Integer` as a `byte` after a narrowing primitive conversion. static int compare(int x, int y) Compares two `int` values numerically. int compareTo(Integer anotherInteger) Compares two `Integer` objects numerically. static int compareUnsigned(int x, int y) Compares two `int` values numerically treating the values as unsigned. static Integer decode(String nm) Decodes a `String` into an `Integer`. static int divideUnsigned(int dividend, int divisor) Returns the unsigned quotient of dividing the first argument by the second where each argument and the result is interpreted as an unsigned value. double doubleValue() Returns the value of this `Integer` as a `double` after a widening primitive conversion. boolean equals(Object obj) Compares this object to the specified object. float floatValue() Returns the value of this `Integer` as a `float` after a widening primitive conversion. static Integer getInteger(String nm, Integer val) Returns the integer value of the system property with the specified name. static Integer getInteger(String nm) Determines the integer value of the system property with the specified name. static Integer getInteger(String nm, int val) Determines the integer value of the system property with the specified name. int hashCode() Returns a hash code for this `Integer`. static int hashCode(int value) Returns a hash code for a `int` value; compatible with `Integer.hashCode()`. static int highestOneBit(int i) Returns an `int` value with at most a single one-bit, in the position of the highest-order ("leftmost") one-bit in the specified `int` value. int intValue() Returns the value of this `Integer` as an `int`. long longValue() Returns the value of this `Integer` as a `long` after a widening primitive conversion. static int lowestOneBit(int i) Returns an `int` value with at most a single one-bit, in the position of the lowest-order ("rightmost") one-bit in the specified `int` value. static int max(int a, int b) Returns the greater of two `int` values as if by calling `Math.max`. static int min(int a, int b) Returns the smaller of two `int` values as if by calling `Math.min`. static int numberOfLeadingZeros(int i) Returns the number of zero bits preceding the highest-order ("leftmost") one-bit in the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value. static int numberOfTrailingZeros(int i) Returns the number of zero bits following the lowest-order ("rightmost") one-bit in the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value. static int parseInt(String s, int radix) Parses the string argument as a signed integer in the radix specified by the second argument. static int parseInt(String s) Parses the string argument as a signed decimal integer. static int parseUnsignedInt(String s) Parses the string argument as an unsigned decimal integer. static int parseUnsignedInt(String s, int radix) Parses the string argument as an unsigned integer in the radix specified by the second argument. static int remainderUnsigned(int dividend, int divisor) Returns the unsigned remainder from dividing the first argument by the second where each argument and the result is interpreted as an unsigned value. static int reverse(int i) Returns the value obtained by reversing the order of the bits in the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value. static int reverseBytes(int i) Returns the value obtained by reversing the order of the bytes in the two's complement representation of the specified `int` value. static int rotateLeft(int i, int distance) Returns the value obtained by rotating the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value left by the specified number of bits. static int rotateRight(int i, int distance) Returns the value obtained by rotating the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value right by the specified number of bits. short shortValue() Returns the value of this `Integer` as a `short` after a narrowing primitive conversion. static int signum(int i) Returns the signum function of the specified `int` value. static int sum(int a, int b) Adds two integers together as per the + operator. static String toBinaryString(int i) Returns a string representation of the integer argument as an unsigned integer in base 2. static String toHexString(int i) Returns a string representation of the integer argument as an unsigned integer in base 16. static String toOctalString(int i) Returns a string representation of the integer argument as an unsigned integer in base 8. String toString() Returns a `String` object representing this `Integer`'s value. static String toString(int i) Returns a `String` object representing the specified integer. static String toString(int i, int radix) Returns a string representation of the first argument in the radix specified by the second argument. static long toUnsignedLong(int x) Converts the argument to a `long` by an unsigned conversion. static String toUnsignedString(int i) Returns a string representation of the argument as an unsigned decimal value. static String toUnsignedString(int i, int radix) Returns a string representation of the first argument as an unsigned integer value in the radix specified by the second argument. static Integer valueOf(String s) Returns an `Integer` object holding the value of the specified `String`. static Integer valueOf(String s, int radix) Returns an `Integer` object holding the value extracted from the specified `String` when parsed with the radix given by the second argument. static Integer valueOf(int i) Returns an `Integer` instance representing the specified `int` value.

## Constants

#### public static final int BYTES

The number of bytes used to represent a `int` value in two's complement binary form.

Constant Value: 4

#### public static final int MAX_VALUE

A constant holding the maximum value an `int` can have, 231-1.

Constant Value: 2147483647

#### public static final int MIN_VALUE

A constant holding the minimum value an `int` can have, -231.

Constant Value: -2147483648

#### public static final int SIZE

The number of bits used to represent an `int` value in two's complement binary form.

Constant Value: 32

## Fields

#### public static final Class<Integer> TYPE

The `Class` instance representing the primitive type `int`.

## Public Constructors

#### public Integer(int value)

Constructs a newly allocated `Integer` object that represents the specified `int` value.

##### Parameters
value the value to be represented by the `Integer` object.

#### public Integer(String s)

Constructs a newly allocated `Integer` object that represents the `int` value indicated by the `String` parameter. The string is converted to an `int` value in exactly the manner used by the `parseInt` method for radix 10.

##### Parameters
s the `String` to be converted to an `Integer`.
##### Throws
NumberFormatException if the `String` does not contain a parsable integer.
• `parseInt(java.lang.String, int)`

## Public Methods

#### public static int bitCount(int i)

Returns the number of one-bits in the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value. This function is sometimes referred to as the population count.

##### Parameters
i the value whose bits are to be counted
##### Returns
• the number of one-bits in the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value.

#### public byte byteValue()

Returns the value of this `Integer` as a `byte` after a narrowing primitive conversion.

##### Returns
• the numeric value represented by this object after conversion to type `byte`.

#### public static int compare(int x, int y)

Compares two `int` values numerically. The value returned is identical to what would be returned by:

```    Integer.valueOf(x).compareTo(Integer.valueOf(y))
```

##### Parameters
x the first `int` to compare the second `int` to compare
##### Returns
• the value `0` if `x == y`; a value less than `0` if `x < y`; and a value greater than `0` if `x > y`

#### public int compareTo(Integer anotherInteger)

Compares two `Integer` objects numerically.

##### Parameters
anotherInteger the `Integer` to be compared.
##### Returns
• the value `0` if this `Integer` is equal to the argument `Integer`; a value less than `0` if this `Integer` is numerically less than the argument `Integer`; and a value greater than `0` if this `Integer` is numerically greater than the argument `Integer` (signed comparison).

#### public static int compareUnsigned(int x, int y)

Compares two `int` values numerically treating the values as unsigned.

##### Parameters
x the first `int` to compare the second `int` to compare
##### Returns
• the value `0` if `x == y`; a value less than `0` if `x < y` as unsigned values; and a value greater than `0` if `x > y` as unsigned values

#### public static Integer decode(String nm)

Decodes a `String` into an `Integer`. Accepts decimal, hexadecimal, and octal numbers given by the following grammar:

DecodableString:
Signopt DecimalNumeral
Signopt `0x` HexDigits
Signopt `0X` HexDigits
Signopt `#` HexDigits
Signopt `0` OctalDigits
Sign:
`-`
`+`
DecimalNumeral, HexDigits, and OctalDigits are as defined in section 3.10.1 of The Java™ Language Specification, except that underscores are not accepted between digits.

The sequence of characters following an optional sign and/or radix specifier ("`0x`", "`0X`", "`#`", or leading zero) is parsed as by the `Integer.parseInt` method with the indicated radix (10, 16, or 8). This sequence of characters must represent a positive value or a `NumberFormatException` will be thrown. The result is negated if first character of the specified `String` is the minus sign. No whitespace characters are permitted in the `String`.

##### Parameters
nm the `String` to decode.
##### Returns
• an `Integer` object holding the `int` value represented by `nm`
##### Throws
NumberFormatException if the `String` does not contain a parsable integer.
• `parseInt(java.lang.String, int)`

#### public static int divideUnsigned(int dividend, int divisor)

Returns the unsigned quotient of dividing the first argument by the second where each argument and the result is interpreted as an unsigned value.

Note that in two's complement arithmetic, the three other basic arithmetic operations of add, subtract, and multiply are bit-wise identical if the two operands are regarded as both being signed or both being unsigned. Therefore separate `addUnsigned`, etc. methods are not provided.

##### Parameters
dividend the value to be divided the value doing the dividing
##### Returns
• the unsigned quotient of the first argument divided by the second argument
• `remainderUnsigned(int, int)`

#### public double doubleValue()

Returns the value of this `Integer` as a `double` after a widening primitive conversion.

##### Returns
• the numeric value represented by this object after conversion to type `double`.

#### public boolean equals(Object obj)

Compares this object to the specified object. The result is `true` if and only if the argument is not `null` and is an `Integer` object that contains the same `int` value as this object.

##### Parameters
obj the object to compare with.
##### Returns
• `true` if the objects are the same; `false` otherwise.

#### public float floatValue()

Returns the value of this `Integer` as a `float` after a widening primitive conversion.

##### Returns
• the numeric value represented by this object after conversion to type `float`.

#### public static Integer getInteger(String nm, Integer val)

Returns the integer value of the system property with the specified name. The first argument is treated as the name of a system property. System properties are accessible through the `System.getProperty(java.lang.String)` method. The string value of this property is then interpreted as an integer value, as per the `decode` method, and an `Integer` object representing this value is returned; in summary:

• If the property value begins with the two ASCII characters `0x` or the ASCII character `#`, not followed by a minus sign, then the rest of it is parsed as a hexadecimal integer exactly as by the method `valueOf(java.lang.String, int)` with radix 16.
• If the property value begins with the ASCII character `0` followed by another character, it is parsed as an octal integer exactly as by the method `valueOf(java.lang.String, int)` with radix 8.
• Otherwise, the property value is parsed as a decimal integer exactly as by the method `valueOf(java.lang.String, int)` with radix 10.

The second argument is the default value. The default value is returned if there is no property of the specified name, if the property does not have the correct numeric format, or if the specified name is empty or `null`.

##### Parameters
nm property name. default value.
##### Returns
• the `Integer` value of the property.
##### Throws
SecurityException for the same reasons as `System.getProperty`
• `System.getProperty(java.lang.String)`
• `System.getProperty(java.lang.String, java.lang.String)`

#### public static Integer getInteger(String nm)

Determines the integer value of the system property with the specified name.

The first argument is treated as the name of a system property. System properties are accessible through the `System.getProperty(java.lang.String)` method. The string value of this property is then interpreted as an integer value using the grammar supported by `decode` and an `Integer` object representing this value is returned.

If there is no property with the specified name, if the specified name is empty or `null`, or if the property does not have the correct numeric format, then `null` is returned.

In other words, this method returns an `Integer` object equal to the value of:

`getInteger(nm, null)`

##### Parameters
nm property name.
##### Returns
• the `Integer` value of the property.
##### Throws
SecurityException for the same reasons as `System.getProperty`
• `System.getProperty(java.lang.String)`
• `System.getProperty(java.lang.String, java.lang.String)`

#### public static Integer getInteger(String nm, int val)

Determines the integer value of the system property with the specified name.

The first argument is treated as the name of a system property. System properties are accessible through the `System.getProperty(java.lang.String)` method. The string value of this property is then interpreted as an integer value using the grammar supported by `decode` and an `Integer` object representing this value is returned.

The second argument is the default value. An `Integer` object that represents the value of the second argument is returned if there is no property of the specified name, if the property does not have the correct numeric format, or if the specified name is empty or `null`.

In other words, this method returns an `Integer` object equal to the value of:

`getInteger(nm, new Integer(val))`
but in practice it may be implemented in a manner such as:
``` Integer result = getInteger(nm, null);
return (result == null) ? new Integer(val) : result;
```
to avoid the unnecessary allocation of an `Integer` object when the default value is not needed.

##### Parameters
nm property name. default value.
##### Returns
• the `Integer` value of the property.
##### Throws
SecurityException for the same reasons as `System.getProperty`
• `System.getProperty(java.lang.String)`
• `System.getProperty(java.lang.String, java.lang.String)`

#### public int hashCode()

Returns a hash code for this `Integer`.

##### Returns
• a hash code value for this object, equal to the primitive `int` value represented by this `Integer` object.

#### public static int hashCode(int value)

Returns a hash code for a `int` value; compatible with `Integer.hashCode()`.

##### Parameters
value the value to hash
##### Returns
• a hash code value for a `int` value.

#### public static int highestOneBit(int i)

Returns an `int` value with at most a single one-bit, in the position of the highest-order ("leftmost") one-bit in the specified `int` value. Returns zero if the specified value has no one-bits in its two's complement binary representation, that is, if it is equal to zero.

##### Parameters
i the value whose highest one bit is to be computed
##### Returns
• an `int` value with a single one-bit, in the position of the highest-order one-bit in the specified value, or zero if the specified value is itself equal to zero.

#### public int intValue()

Returns the value of this `Integer` as an `int`.

##### Returns
• the numeric value represented by this object after conversion to type `int`.

#### public long longValue()

Returns the value of this `Integer` as a `long` after a widening primitive conversion.

##### Returns
• the numeric value represented by this object after conversion to type `long`.
• `toUnsignedLong(int)`

#### public static int lowestOneBit(int i)

Returns an `int` value with at most a single one-bit, in the position of the lowest-order ("rightmost") one-bit in the specified `int` value. Returns zero if the specified value has no one-bits in its two's complement binary representation, that is, if it is equal to zero.

##### Parameters
i the value whose lowest one bit is to be computed
##### Returns
• an `int` value with a single one-bit, in the position of the lowest-order one-bit in the specified value, or zero if the specified value is itself equal to zero.

#### public static int max(int a, int b)

Returns the greater of two `int` values as if by calling `Math.max`.

##### Parameters
a the first operand the second operand
##### Returns
• the greater of `a` and `b`
• `BinaryOperator`

#### public static int min(int a, int b)

Returns the smaller of two `int` values as if by calling `Math.min`.

##### Parameters
a the first operand the second operand
##### Returns
• the smaller of `a` and `b`
• `BinaryOperator`

#### public static int numberOfLeadingZeros(int i)

Returns the number of zero bits preceding the highest-order ("leftmost") one-bit in the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value. Returns 32 if the specified value has no one-bits in its two's complement representation, in other words if it is equal to zero.

Note that this method is closely related to the logarithm base 2. For all positive `int` values x:

• floor(log2(x)) = `31 - numberOfLeadingZeros(x)`
• ceil(log2(x)) = `32 - numberOfLeadingZeros(x - 1)`

##### Parameters
i the value whose number of leading zeros is to be computed
##### Returns
• the number of zero bits preceding the highest-order ("leftmost") one-bit in the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value, or 32 if the value is equal to zero.

#### public static int numberOfTrailingZeros(int i)

Returns the number of zero bits following the lowest-order ("rightmost") one-bit in the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value. Returns 32 if the specified value has no one-bits in its two's complement representation, in other words if it is equal to zero.

##### Parameters
i the value whose number of trailing zeros is to be computed
##### Returns
• the number of zero bits following the lowest-order ("rightmost") one-bit in the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value, or 32 if the value is equal to zero.

#### public static int parseInt(String s, int radix)

Parses the string argument as a signed integer in the radix specified by the second argument. The characters in the string must all be digits of the specified radix (as determined by whether `Character.digit(char, int)` returns a nonnegative value), except that the first character may be an ASCII minus sign `'-'` (`'\u002D'`) to indicate a negative value or an ASCII plus sign `'+'` (`'\u002B'`) to indicate a positive value. The resulting integer value is returned.

An exception of type `NumberFormatException` is thrown if any of the following situations occurs:

• The first argument is `null` or is a string of length zero.
• The radix is either smaller than `Character.MIN_RADIX` or larger than `Character.MAX_RADIX`.
• Any character of the string is not a digit of the specified radix, except that the first character may be a minus sign `'-'` (`'\u002D'`) or plus sign `'+'` (`'\u002B'`) provided that the string is longer than length 1.
• The value represented by the string is not a value of type `int`.

Examples:

``` parseInt("0", 10) returns 0
parseInt("473", 10) returns 473
parseInt("+42", 10) returns 42
parseInt("-0", 10) returns 0
parseInt("-FF", 16) returns -255
parseInt("1100110", 2) returns 102
parseInt("2147483647", 10) returns 2147483647
parseInt("-2147483648", 10) returns -2147483648
parseInt("2147483648", 10) throws a NumberFormatException
parseInt("99", 8) throws a NumberFormatException
parseInt("Kona", 10) throws a NumberFormatException
parseInt("Kona", 27) returns 411787
```

##### Parameters
s the `String` containing the integer representation to be parsed the radix to be used while parsing `s`.
##### Returns
• the integer represented by the string argument in the specified radix.
##### Throws
NumberFormatException if the `String` does not contain a parsable `int`.

#### public static int parseInt(String s)

Parses the string argument as a signed decimal integer. The characters in the string must all be decimal digits, except that the first character may be an ASCII minus sign `'-'` (`'\u002D'`) to indicate a negative value or an ASCII plus sign `'+'` (`'\u002B'`) to indicate a positive value. The resulting integer value is returned, exactly as if the argument and the radix 10 were given as arguments to the `parseInt(java.lang.String, int)` method.

##### Parameters
s a `String` containing the `int` representation to be parsed
##### Returns
• the integer value represented by the argument in decimal.
##### Throws
NumberFormatException if the string does not contain a parsable integer.

#### public static int parseUnsignedInt(String s)

Parses the string argument as an unsigned decimal integer. The characters in the string must all be decimal digits, except that the first character may be an an ASCII plus sign `'+'` (`'\u002B'`). The resulting integer value is returned, exactly as if the argument and the radix 10 were given as arguments to the `parseUnsignedInt(java.lang.String, int)` method.

##### Parameters
s a `String` containing the unsigned `int` representation to be parsed
##### Returns
• the unsigned integer value represented by the argument in decimal.
##### Throws
NumberFormatException if the string does not contain a parsable unsigned integer.

#### public static int parseUnsignedInt(String s, int radix)

Parses the string argument as an unsigned integer in the radix specified by the second argument. An unsigned integer maps the values usually associated with negative numbers to positive numbers larger than `MAX_VALUE`. The characters in the string must all be digits of the specified radix (as determined by whether `Character.digit(char, int)` returns a nonnegative value), except that the first character may be an ASCII plus sign `'+'` (`'\u002B'`). The resulting integer value is returned.

An exception of type `NumberFormatException` is thrown if any of the following situations occurs:

• The first argument is `null` or is a string of length zero.
• The radix is either smaller than `Character.MIN_RADIX` or larger than `Character.MAX_RADIX`.
• Any character of the string is not a digit of the specified radix, except that the first character may be a plus sign `'+'` (`'\u002B'`) provided that the string is longer than length 1.
• The value represented by the string is larger than the largest unsigned `int`, 232-1.

##### Parameters
s the `String` containing the unsigned integer representation to be parsed the radix to be used while parsing `s`.
##### Returns
• the integer represented by the string argument in the specified radix.
##### Throws
NumberFormatException if the `String` does not contain a parsable `int`.

#### public static int remainderUnsigned(int dividend, int divisor)

Returns the unsigned remainder from dividing the first argument by the second where each argument and the result is interpreted as an unsigned value.

##### Parameters
dividend the value to be divided the value doing the dividing
##### Returns
• the unsigned remainder of the first argument divided by the second argument
• `divideUnsigned(int, int)`

#### public static int reverse(int i)

Returns the value obtained by reversing the order of the bits in the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value.

##### Parameters
i the value to be reversed
##### Returns
• the value obtained by reversing order of the bits in the specified `int` value.

#### public static int reverseBytes(int i)

Returns the value obtained by reversing the order of the bytes in the two's complement representation of the specified `int` value.

##### Parameters
i the value whose bytes are to be reversed
##### Returns
• the value obtained by reversing the bytes in the specified `int` value.

#### public static int rotateLeft(int i, int distance)

Returns the value obtained by rotating the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value left by the specified number of bits. (Bits shifted out of the left hand, or high-order, side reenter on the right, or low-order.)

Note that left rotation with a negative distance is equivalent to right rotation: ```rotateLeft(val, -distance) == rotateRight(val, distance)```. Note also that rotation by any multiple of 32 is a no-op, so all but the last five bits of the rotation distance can be ignored, even if the distance is negative: ```rotateLeft(val, distance) == rotateLeft(val, distance & 0x1F)```.

##### Parameters
i the value whose bits are to be rotated left the number of bit positions to rotate left
##### Returns
• the value obtained by rotating the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value left by the specified number of bits.

#### public static int rotateRight(int i, int distance)

Returns the value obtained by rotating the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value right by the specified number of bits. (Bits shifted out of the right hand, or low-order, side reenter on the left, or high-order.)

Note that right rotation with a negative distance is equivalent to left rotation: ```rotateRight(val, -distance) == rotateLeft(val, distance)```. Note also that rotation by any multiple of 32 is a no-op, so all but the last five bits of the rotation distance can be ignored, even if the distance is negative: ```rotateRight(val, distance) == rotateRight(val, distance & 0x1F)```.

##### Parameters
i the value whose bits are to be rotated right the number of bit positions to rotate right
##### Returns
• the value obtained by rotating the two's complement binary representation of the specified `int` value right by the specified number of bits.

#### public short shortValue()

Returns the value of this `Integer` as a `short` after a narrowing primitive conversion.

##### Returns
• the numeric value represented by this object after conversion to type `short`.

#### public static int signum(int i)

Returns the signum function of the specified `int` value. (The return value is -1 if the specified value is negative; 0 if the specified value is zero; and 1 if the specified value is positive.)

##### Parameters
i the value whose signum is to be computed
##### Returns
• the signum function of the specified `int` value.

#### public static int sum(int a, int b)

Adds two integers together as per the + operator.

##### Parameters
a the first operand the second operand
##### Returns
• the sum of `a` and `b`
• `BinaryOperator`

#### public static String toBinaryString(int i)

Returns a string representation of the integer argument as an unsigned integer in base 2.

The unsigned integer value is the argument plus 232 if the argument is negative; otherwise it is equal to the argument. This value is converted to a string of ASCII digits in binary (base 2) with no extra leading `0`s.

The value of the argument can be recovered from the returned string `s` by calling `Integer.parseUnsignedInt(s, 2)`.

If the unsigned magnitude is zero, it is represented by a single zero character `'0'` (`'\u0030'`); otherwise, the first character of the representation of the unsigned magnitude will not be the zero character. The characters `'0'` (`'\u0030'`) and `'1'` (`'\u0031'`) are used as binary digits.

##### Parameters
i an integer to be converted to a string.
##### Returns
• the string representation of the unsigned integer value represented by the argument in binary (base 2).
• `parseUnsignedInt(String, int)`
• `toUnsignedString(int, int)`

#### public static String toHexString(int i)

Returns a string representation of the integer argument as an unsigned integer in base 16.

The unsigned integer value is the argument plus 232 if the argument is negative; otherwise, it is equal to the argument. This value is converted to a string of ASCII digits in hexadecimal (base 16) with no extra leading `0`s.

The value of the argument can be recovered from the returned string `s` by calling `Integer.parseUnsignedInt(s, 16)`.

If the unsigned magnitude is zero, it is represented by a single zero character `'0'` (`'\u0030'`); otherwise, the first character of the representation of the unsigned magnitude will not be the zero character. The following characters are used as hexadecimal digits:

`0123456789abcdef`
These are the characters `'\u0030'` through `'\u0039'` and `'\u0061'` through `'\u0066'`. If uppercase letters are desired, the `String.toUpperCase()` method may be called on the result:
`Integer.toHexString(n).toUpperCase()`

##### Parameters
i an integer to be converted to a string.
##### Returns
• the string representation of the unsigned integer value represented by the argument in hexadecimal (base 16).
• `parseUnsignedInt(String, int)`
• `toUnsignedString(int, int)`

#### public static String toOctalString(int i)

Returns a string representation of the integer argument as an unsigned integer in base 8.

The unsigned integer value is the argument plus 232 if the argument is negative; otherwise, it is equal to the argument. This value is converted to a string of ASCII digits in octal (base 8) with no extra leading `0`s.

The value of the argument can be recovered from the returned string `s` by calling `Integer.parseUnsignedInt(s, 8)`.

If the unsigned magnitude is zero, it is represented by a single zero character `'0'` (`'\u0030'`); otherwise, the first character of the representation of the unsigned magnitude will not be the zero character. The following characters are used as octal digits:

`01234567`
These are the characters `'\u0030'` through `'\u0037'`.

##### Parameters
i an integer to be converted to a string.
##### Returns
• the string representation of the unsigned integer value represented by the argument in octal (base 8).
• `parseUnsignedInt(String, int)`
• `toUnsignedString(int, int)`

#### public String toString()

Returns a `String` object representing this `Integer`'s value. The value is converted to signed decimal representation and returned as a string, exactly as if the integer value were given as an argument to the `toString(int)` method.

##### Returns
• a string representation of the value of this object in base 10.

#### public static String toString(int i)

Returns a `String` object representing the specified integer. The argument is converted to signed decimal representation and returned as a string, exactly as if the argument and radix 10 were given as arguments to the `toString(int, int)` method.

##### Parameters
i an integer to be converted.
##### Returns
• a string representation of the argument in base 10.

#### public static String toString(int i, int radix)

Returns a string representation of the first argument in the radix specified by the second argument.

If the radix is smaller than `Character.MIN_RADIX` or larger than `Character.MAX_RADIX`, then the radix `10` is used instead.

If the first argument is negative, the first element of the result is the ASCII minus character `'-'` (`'\u002D'`). If the first argument is not negative, no sign character appears in the result.

The remaining characters of the result represent the magnitude of the first argument. If the magnitude is zero, it is represented by a single zero character `'0'` (`'\u0030'`); otherwise, the first character of the representation of the magnitude will not be the zero character. The following ASCII characters are used as digits:

`0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz`
These are `'\u0030'` through `'\u0039'` and `'\u0061'` through `'\u007A'`. If `radix` is N, then the first N of these characters are used as radix-N digits in the order shown. Thus, the digits for hexadecimal (radix 16) are `0123456789abcdef`. If uppercase letters are desired, the `String.toUpperCase()` method may be called on the result:
`Integer.toString(n, 16).toUpperCase()`

##### Parameters
i an integer to be converted to a string. the radix to use in the string representation.
##### Returns
• a string representation of the argument in the specified radix.
• `Character.MAX_RADIX`
• `Character.MIN_RADIX`

#### public static long toUnsignedLong(int x)

Converts the argument to a `long` by an unsigned conversion. In an unsigned conversion to a `long`, the high-order 32 bits of the `long` are zero and the low-order 32 bits are equal to the bits of the integer argument. Consequently, zero and positive `int` values are mapped to a numerically equal `long` value and negative `int` values are mapped to a `long` value equal to the input plus 232.

##### Parameters
x the value to convert to an unsigned `long`
##### Returns
• the argument converted to `long` by an unsigned conversion

#### public static String toUnsignedString(int i)

Returns a string representation of the argument as an unsigned decimal value. The argument is converted to unsigned decimal representation and returned as a string exactly as if the argument and radix 10 were given as arguments to the `toUnsignedString(int, int)` method.

##### Parameters
i an integer to be converted to an unsigned string.
##### Returns
• an unsigned string representation of the argument.
• `toUnsignedString(int, int)`

#### public static String toUnsignedString(int i, int radix)

Returns a string representation of the first argument as an unsigned integer value in the radix specified by the second argument.

If the radix is smaller than `Character.MIN_RADIX` or larger than `Character.MAX_RADIX`, then the radix `10` is used instead.

Note that since the first argument is treated as an unsigned value, no leading sign character is printed.

If the magnitude is zero, it is represented by a single zero character `'0'` (`'\u0030'`); otherwise, the first character of the representation of the magnitude will not be the zero character.

The behavior of radixes and the characters used as digits are the same as `toString`.

##### Parameters
i an integer to be converted to an unsigned string. the radix to use in the string representation.
##### Returns
• an unsigned string representation of the argument in the specified radix.
• `toString(int, int)`

#### public static Integer valueOf(String s)

Returns an `Integer` object holding the value of the specified `String`. The argument is interpreted as representing a signed decimal integer, exactly as if the argument were given to the `parseInt(java.lang.String)` method. The result is an `Integer` object that represents the integer value specified by the string.

In other words, this method returns an `Integer` object equal to the value of:

`new Integer(Integer.parseInt(s))`

##### Parameters
s the string to be parsed.
##### Returns
• an `Integer` object holding the value represented by the string argument.
##### Throws
NumberFormatException if the string cannot be parsed as an integer.