HttpURLConnection

public abstract class HttpURLConnection extends URLConnection
Known Direct Subclasses

A URLConnection with support for HTTP-specific features. See the spec for details.

Uses of this class follow a pattern:

  1. Obtain a new HttpURLConnection by calling URL.openConnection() and casting the result to HttpURLConnection.
  2. Prepare the request. The primary property of a request is its URI. Request headers may also include metadata such as credentials, preferred content types, and session cookies.
  3. Optionally upload a request body. Instances must be configured with setDoOutput(true) if they include a request body. Transmit data by writing to the stream returned by getOutputStream().
  4. Read the response. Response headers typically include metadata such as the response body's content type and length, modified dates and session cookies. The response body may be read from the stream returned by getInputStream(). If the response has no body, that method returns an empty stream.
  5. Disconnect. Once the response body has been read, the HttpURLConnection should be closed by calling disconnect(). Disconnecting releases the resources held by a connection so they may be closed or reused.

For example, to retrieve the webpage at http://www.android.com/:

   URL url = new URL("http://www.android.com/");
   HttpURLConnection urlConnection = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();
   try {
     InputStream in = new BufferedInputStream(urlConnection.getInputStream());
     readStream(in);
   } finally {
     urlConnection.disconnect();
   }
 

Secure Communication with HTTPS

Calling openConnection() on a URL with the "https" scheme will return an HttpsURLConnection, which allows for overriding the default HostnameVerifier and SSLSocketFactory. An application-supplied SSLSocketFactory created from an SSLContext can provide a custom X509TrustManager for verifying certificate chains and a custom X509KeyManager for supplying client certificates. See HttpsURLConnection for more details.

Response Handling

HttpURLConnection will follow up to five HTTP redirects. It will follow redirects from one origin server to another. This implementation doesn't follow redirects from HTTPS to HTTP or vice versa.

If the HTTP response indicates that an error occurred, getInputStream() will throw an IOException. Use getErrorStream() to read the error response. The headers can be read in the normal way using getHeaderFields(),

Posting Content

To upload data to a web server, configure the connection for output using setDoOutput(true).

For best performance, you should call either setFixedLengthStreamingMode(int) when the body length is known in advance, or setChunkedStreamingMode(int) when it is not. Otherwise HttpURLConnection will be forced to buffer the complete request body in memory before it is transmitted, wasting (and possibly exhausting) heap and increasing latency.

For example, to perform an upload:

   HttpURLConnection urlConnection = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();
   try {
     urlConnection.setDoOutput(true);
     urlConnection.setChunkedStreamingMode(0);

     OutputStream out = new BufferedOutputStream(urlConnection.getOutputStream());
     writeStream(out);

     InputStream in = new BufferedInputStream(urlConnection.getInputStream());
     readStream(in);
   } finally {
     urlConnection.disconnect();
   }
 

Performance

The input and output streams returned by this class are not buffered. Most callers should wrap the returned streams with BufferedInputStream or BufferedOutputStream. Callers that do only bulk reads or writes may om