ForkJoinTask

public abstract class ForkJoinTask extends Object
implements Future<V> Serializable
Known Direct Subclasses

Abstract base class for tasks that run within a ForkJoinPool. A ForkJoinTask is a thread-like entity that is much lighter weight than a normal thread. Huge numbers of tasks and subtasks may be hosted by a small number of actual threads in a ForkJoinPool, at the price of some usage limitations.

A "main" ForkJoinTask begins execution when it is explicitly submitted to a ForkJoinPool, or, if not already engaged in a ForkJoin computation, commenced in the commonPool() via fork(), invoke(), or related methods. Once started, it will usually in turn start other subtasks. As indicated by the name of this class, many programs using ForkJoinTask employ only methods fork() and join(), or derivatives such as invokeAll. However, this class also provides a number of other methods that can come into play in advanced usages, as well as extension mechanics that allow support of new forms of fork/join processing.

A ForkJoinTask is a lightweight form of Future. The efficiency of ForkJoinTasks stems from a set of restrictions (that are only partially statically enforceable) reflecting their main use as computational tasks calculating pure functions or operating on purely isolated objects. The primary coordination mechanisms are fork(), that arranges asynchronous execution, and join(), that doesn't proceed until the task's result has been computed. Computations should ideally avoid synchronized methods or blocks, and should minimize other blocking synchronization apart from joining other tasks or using synchronizers such as Phasers that are advertised to cooperate with fork/join scheduling. Subdividable tasks should also not perform blocking I/O, and should ideally access variables that are completely independent of those accessed by other running tasks. These guidelines are loosely enforced by not permitting checked exceptions such as IOExceptions to be thrown. However, computations may still encounter unchecked exceptions, that are rethrown to callers attempting to join them. These exceptions may additionally include RejectedExecutionException stemming from internal resource exhaustion, such as failure to allocate internal task queues. Rethrown exceptions behave in the same way as regular exceptions, but, when possible, contain stack traces (as displayed for example using ex.printStackTrace()) of both the thread that initiated the computation as well as the thread actually encountering the exception; minimally only the latter.

It is possible to define and use ForkJoinTasks that may block, but doing do requires three further considerations: (1) Completion of few if any other tasks should be dependent on a task that blocks on external synchronization or I/O. Event-style async tasks that are never joined (for example, those subclassing CountedCompleter) often fall into this category. (2) To minimize resource impact, tasks should be small; ideally performing only the (possibly) blocking action. (3) Unless the