# StrictMath

public final class StrictMath extends Object

The class `StrictMath` contains methods for performing basic numeric operations such as the elementary exponential, logarithm, square root, and trigonometric functions.

To help ensure portability of Java programs, the definitions of some of the numeric functions in this package require that they produce the same results as certain published algorithms. These algorithms are available from the well-known network library `netlib` as the package "Freely Distributable Math Library," `fdlibm`. These algorithms, which are written in the C programming language, are then to be understood as executed with all floating-point operations following the rules of Java floating-point arithmetic.

The Java math library is defined with respect to `fdlibm` version 5.3. Where `fdlibm` provides more than one definition for a function (such as `acos`), use the "IEEE 754 core function" version (residing in a file whose name begins with the letter `e`). The methods which require `fdlibm` semantics are `sin`, `cos`, `tan`, `asin`, `acos`, `atan`, `exp`, `log`, `log10`, `cbrt`, `atan2`, `pow`, `sinh`, `cosh`, `tanh`, `hypot`, `expm1`, and `log1p`.

### Constant Summary

 double E The `double` value that is closer than any other to e, the base of the natural logarithms. double PI The `double` value that is closer than any other to pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.

### Public Method Summary

 static double IEEEremainder(double f1, double f2) Computes the remainder operation on two arguments as prescribed by the IEEE 754 standard. static long abs(long a) Returns the absolute value of a `long` value. static int abs(int a) Returns the absolute value of an `int` value.. static float abs(float a) Returns the absolute value of a `float` value. static double abs(double a) Returns the absolute value of a `double` value. static double acos(double a) Returns the arc cosine of a value; the returned angle is in the range 0.0 through pi. static int addExact(int x, int y) Returns the sum of its arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an `int`. static long addExact(long x, long y) Returns the sum of its arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a `long`. static double asin(double a) Returns the arc sine of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2. static double atan(double a) Returns the arc tangent of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2. static double atan2(double y, double x) Returns the angle theta from the conversion of rectangular coordinates (`x`, `y`) to polar coordinates (r, theta). static double cbrt(double a) Returns the cube root of a `double` value. static double ceil(double a) Returns the smallest (closest to negative infinity) `double` value that is greater than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. static float copySign(float magnitude, float sign) Returns the first floating-point argument with the sign of the second floating-point argument. static double copySign(double magnitude, double sign) Returns the first floating-point argument with the sign of the second floating-point argument. static double cos(double a) Returns the trigonometric cosine of an angle. static double cosh(double x) Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a `double` value. static double exp(double a) Returns Euler's number e raised to the power of a `double` value. static double expm1(double x) Returns ex -1. static double floor(double a) Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) `double` value that is less than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. static int floorDiv(int x, int y) Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) `int` value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient. static long floorDiv(long x, long y) Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) `long` value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient. static long floorMod(long x, long y) Returns the floor modulus of the `long` arguments. static int floorMod(int x, int y) Returns the floor modulus of the `int` arguments. static int getExponent(double d) Returns the unbiased exponent used in the representation of a `double`. static int getExponent(float f) Returns the unbiased exponent used in the representation of a `float`. static double hypot(double x, double y) Returns sqrt(x2 +y2) without intermediate overflow or underflow. static double log(double a) Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of a `double` value. static double log10(double a) Returns the base 10 logarithm of a `double` value. static double log1p(double x) Returns the natural logarithm of the sum of the argument and 1. static int max(int a, int b) Returns the greater of two `int` values. static long max(long a, long b) Returns the greater of two `long` values. static float max(float a, float b) Returns the greater of two `float` values. static double max(double a, double b) Returns the greater of two `double` values. static float min(float a, float b) Returns the smaller of two `float` values. static double min(double a, double b) Returns the smaller of two `double` values. static int min(int a, int b) Returns the smaller of two `int` values. static long min(long a, long b) Returns the smaller of two `long` values. static int multiplyExact(int x, int y) Returns the product of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an `int`. static long multiplyExact(long x, long y) Returns the product of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a `long`. static double nextAfter(double start, double direction) Returns the floating-point number adjacent to the first argument in the direction of the second argument. static float nextAfter(float start, double direction) Returns the floating-point number adjacent to the first argument in the direction of the second argument. static double nextDown(double d) Returns the floating-point value adjacent to `d` in the direction of negative infinity. static float nextDown(float f) Returns the floating-point value adjacent to `f` in the direction of negative infinity. static float nextUp(float f) Returns the floating-point value adjacent to `f` in the direction of positive infinity. static double nextUp(double d) Returns the floating-point value adjacent to `d` in the direction of positive infinity. static double pow(double a, double b) Returns the value of the first argument raised to the power of the second argument. static double random() Returns a `double` value with a positive sign, greater than or equal to `0.0` and less than `1.0`. static double rint(double a) Returns the `double` value that is closest in value to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. static long round(double a) Returns the closest `long` to the argument, with ties rounding to positive infinity. static int round(float a) Returns the closest `int` to the argument, with ties rounding to positive infinity. static float scalb(float f, int scaleFactor) Return `f` × 2`scaleFactor` rounded as if performed by a single correctly rounded floating-point multiply to a member of the float value set. static double scalb(double d, int scaleFactor) Return `d` × 2`scaleFactor` rounded as if performed by a single correctly rounded floating-point multiply to a member of the double value set. static double signum(double d) Returns the signum function of the argument; zero if the argument is zero, 1.0 if the argument is greater than zero, -1.0 if the argument is less than zero. static float signum(float f) Returns the signum function of the argument; zero if the argument is zero, 1.0f if the argument is greater than zero, -1.0f if the argument is less than zero. static double sin(double a) Returns the trigonometric sine of an angle. static double sinh(double x) Returns the hyperbolic sine of a `double` value. static double sqrt(double a) Returns the correctly rounded positive square root of a `double` value. static long subtractExact(long x, long y) Returns the difference of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a `long`. static int subtractExact(int x, int y) Returns the difference of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an `int`. static double tan(double a) Returns the trigonometric tangent of an angle. static double tanh(double x) Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a `double` value. static double toDegrees(double angrad) Converts an angle measured in radians to an approximately equivalent angle measured in degrees. static int toIntExact(long value) Returns the value of the `long` argument; throwing an exception if the value overflows an `int`. static double toRadians(double angdeg) Converts an angle measured in degrees to an approximately equivalent angle measured in radians. static double ulp(double d) Returns the size of an ulp of the argument. static float ulp(float f) Returns the size of an ulp of the argument.

## Constants

#### public static final double E

The `double` value that is closer than any other to e, the base of the natural logarithms.

Constant Value: 2.718281828459045

#### public static final double PI

The `double` value that is closer than any other to pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.

Constant Value: 3.141592653589793

## Public Methods

#### public static double IEEEremainder(double f1, double f2)

Computes the remainder operation on two arguments as prescribed by the IEEE 754 standard. The remainder value is mathematically equal to `f1 - f2` × n, where n is the mathematical integer closest to the exact mathematical value of the quotient `f1/f2`, and if two mathematical integers are equally close to `f1/f2`, then n is the integer that is even. If the remainder is zero, its sign is the same as the sign of the first argument. Special cases:

• If either argument is NaN, or the first argument is infinite, or the second argument is positive zero or negative zero, then the result is NaN.
• If the first argument is finite and the second argument is infinite, then the result is the same as the first argument.

##### Parameters
f1 the dividend. the divisor.
##### Returns
• the remainder when `f1` is divided by `f2`.

#### public static long abs(long a)

Returns the absolute value of a `long` value. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned.

Note that if the argument is equal to the value of `MIN_VALUE`, the most negative representable `long` value, the result is that same value, which is negative.

##### Parameters
a the argument whose absolute value is to be determined.
##### Returns
• the absolute value of the argument.

#### public static int abs(int a)

Returns the absolute value of an `int` value.. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned.

Note that if the argument is equal to the value of `MIN_VALUE`, the most negative representable `int` value, the result is that same value, which is negative.

##### Parameters
a the argument whose absolute value is to be determined.
##### Returns
• the absolute value of the argument.

#### public static float abs(float a)

Returns the absolute value of a `float` value. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned. Special cases:

• If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, the result is positive zero.
• If the argument is infinite, the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
In other words, the result is the same as the value of the expression:

`Float.intBitsToFloat(0x7fffffff & Float.floatToIntBits(a))`

##### Parameters
a the argument whose absolute value is to be determined
##### Returns
• the absolute value of the argument.

#### public static double abs(double a)

Returns the absolute value of a `double` value. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned. Special cases:

• If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, the result is positive zero.
• If the argument is infinite, the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
In other words, the result is the same as the value of the expression:

`Double.longBitsToDouble((Double.doubleToLongBits(a)<<1)>>>1)`

##### Parameters
a the argument whose absolute value is to be determined
##### Returns
• the absolute value of the argument.

#### public static double acos(double a)

Returns the arc cosine of a value; the returned angle is in the range 0.0 through pi. Special case:

• If the argument is NaN or its absolute value is greater than 1, then the result is NaN.

##### Parameters
a the value whose arc cosine is to be returned.
##### Returns
• the arc cosine of the argument.

#### public static int addExact(int x, int y)

Returns the sum of its arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an `int`.

##### Parameters
x the first value the second value
• the result
##### Throws
ArithmeticException if the result overflows an int
• `addExact(int, int)`

#### public static long addExact(long x, long y)

Returns the sum of its arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a `long`.

##### Parameters
x the first value the second value
• the result
##### Throws
ArithmeticException if the result overflows a long
• `addExact(long, long)`

#### public static double asin(double a)

Returns the arc sine of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2. Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN or its absolute value is greater than 1, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.

##### Parameters
a the value whose arc sine is to be returned.
##### Returns
• the arc sine of the argument.

#### public static double atan(double a)

Returns the arc tangent of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2. Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.

##### Parameters
a the value whose arc tangent is to be returned.
##### Returns
• the arc tangent of the argument.

#### public static double atan2(double y, double x)

Returns the angle theta from the conversion of rectangular coordinates (`x``y`) to polar coordinates (r, theta). This method computes the phase theta by computing an arc tangent of `y/x` in the range of -pi to pi. Special cases:

• If either argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
• If the first argument is positive zero and the second argument is positive, or the first argument is positive and finite and the second argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive zero.
• If the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is positive, or the first argument is negative and finite and the second argument is positive infinity, then the result is negative zero.
• If the first argument is positive zero and the second argument is negative, or the first argument is positive and finite and the second argument is negative infinity, then the result is the `double` value closest to pi.
• If the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is negative, or the first argument is negative and finite and the second argument is negative infinity, then the result is the `double` value closest to -pi.
• If the first argument is positive and the second argument is positive zero or negative zero, or the first argument is positive infinity and the second argument is finite, then the result is the `double` value closest to pi/2.
• If the first argument is negative and the second argument is positive zero or negative zero, or the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is finite, then the result is the `double` value closest to -pi/2.
• If both arguments are positive infinity, then the result is the `double` value closest to pi/4.
• If the first argument is positive infinity and the second argument is negative infinity, then the result is the `double` value closest to 3*pi/4.
• If the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is positive infinity, then the result is the `double` value closest to -pi/4.
• If both arguments are negative infinity, then the result is the `double` value closest to -3*pi/4.

##### Parameters
y the ordinate coordinate the abscissa coordinate
##### Returns
• the theta component of the point (rtheta) in polar coordinates that corresponds to the point (xy) in Cartesian coordinates.

#### public static double cbrt(double a)

Returns the cube root of a `double` value. For positive finite `x`, ```cbrt(-x) == -cbrt(x)```; that is, the cube root of a negative value is the negative of the cube root of that value's magnitude. Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is infinite, then the result is an infinity with the same sign as the argument.
• If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.

##### Parameters
a a value.
##### Returns
• the cube root of `a`.

#### public static double ceil(double a)

Returns the smallest (closest to negative infinity) `double` value that is greater than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. Special cases:

• If the argument value is already equal to a mathematical integer, then the result is the same as the argument.
• If the argument is NaN or an infinity or positive zero or negative zero, then the result is the same as the argument.
• If the argument value is less than zero but greater than -1.0, then the result is negative zero.
Note that the value of `StrictMath.ceil(x)` is exactly the value of `-StrictMath.floor(-x)`.

##### Parameters
a a value.
##### Returns
• the smallest (closest to negative infinity) floating-point value that is greater than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.

#### public static float copySign(float magnitude, float sign)

Returns the first floating-point argument with the sign of the second floating-point argument. For this method, a NaN `sign` argument is always treated as if it were positive.

##### Parameters
magnitude the parameter providing the magnitude of the result the parameter providing the sign of the result
##### Returns
• a value with the magnitude of `magnitude` and the sign of `sign`.

#### public static double copySign(double magnitude, double sign)

Returns the first floating-point argument with the sign of the second floating-point argument. For this method, a NaN `sign` argument is always treated as if it were positive.

##### Parameters
magnitude the parameter providing the magnitude of the result the parameter providing the sign of the result
##### Returns
• a value with the magnitude of `magnitude` and the sign of `sign`.

#### public static double cos(double a)

Returns the trigonometric cosine of an angle. Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN or an infinity, then the result is NaN.

##### Returns
• the cosine of the argument.

#### public static double cosh(double x)

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a `double` value. The hyperbolic cosine of x is defined to be (ex + e-x)/2 where e is {@linkplain Math#E Euler's number}.

Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is infinite, then the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is zero, then the result is `1.0`.

##### Parameters
x The number whose hyperbolic cosine is to be returned.
##### Returns
• The hyperbolic cosine of `x`.

#### public static double exp(double a)

Returns Euler's number e raised to the power of a `double` value. Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
• If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is negative infinity, then the result is positive zero.

##### Parameters
a the exponent to raise e to.
##### Returns
• the value e`a`, where e is the base of the natural logarithms.

#### public static double expm1(double x)

Returns ex -1. Note that for values of x near 0, the exact sum of `expm1(x)` + 1 is much closer to the true result of ex than `exp(x)`.

Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
• If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is negative infinity, then the result is -1.0.
• If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.

##### Parameters
x the exponent to raise e to in the computation of e`x` -1.
##### Returns
• the value e`x` - 1.

#### public static double floor(double a)

Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) `double` value that is less than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. Special cases:

• If the argument value is already equal to a mathematical integer, then the result is the same as the argument.
• If the argument is NaN or an infinity or positive zero or negative zero, then the result is the same as the argument.

##### Parameters
a a value.
##### Returns
• the largest (closest to positive infinity) floating-point value that less than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.

#### public static int floorDiv(int x, int y)

Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) `int` value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient. There is one special case, if the dividend is the {@linkplain Integer#MIN_VALUE Integer.MIN_VALUE} and the divisor is `-1`, then integer overflow occurs and the result is equal to the `Integer.MIN_VALUE`.

See `Math.floorDiv` for examples and a comparison to the integer division `/` operator.

##### Parameters
x the dividend the divisor
##### Returns
• the largest (closest to positive infinity) `int` value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient.
##### Throws
ArithmeticException if the divisor `y` is zero
• `floorDiv(int, int)`
• `floor(double)`

#### public static long floorDiv(long x, long y)

Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) `long` value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient. There is one special case, if the dividend is the {@linkplain Long#MIN_VALUE Long.MIN_VALUE} and the divisor is `-1`, then integer overflow occurs and the result is equal to the `Long.MIN_VALUE`.

See `Math.floorDiv` for examples and a comparison to the integer division `/` operator.

##### Parameters
x the dividend the divisor
##### Returns
• the largest (closest to positive infinity) `long` value that is less than or equal to the algebraic quotient.
##### Throws
ArithmeticException if the divisor `y` is zero
• `floorDiv(long, long)`
• `floor(double)`

#### public static long floorMod(long x, long y)

Returns the floor modulus of the `long` arguments.

The floor modulus is `x - (floorDiv(x, y) * y)`, has the same sign as the divisor `y`, and is in the range of `-abs(y) < r < +abs(y)`.

The relationship between `floorDiv` and `floorMod` is such that:

• `floorDiv(x, y) * y + floorMod(x, y) == x`

See `Math.floorMod` for examples and a comparison to the `%` operator.

##### Parameters
x the dividend the divisor
##### Returns
• the floor modulus `x - (floorDiv(x, y) * y)`
##### Throws
ArithmeticException if the divisor `y` is zero
• `floorMod(long, long)`
• `floorDiv(long, long)`

#### public static int floorMod(int x, int y)

Returns the floor modulus of the `int` arguments.

The floor modulus is `x - (floorDiv(x, y) * y)`, has the same sign as the divisor `y`, and is in the range of `-abs(y) < r < +abs(y)`.

The relationship between `floorDiv` and `floorMod` is such that:

• `floorDiv(x, y) * y + floorMod(x, y) == x`

See `Math.floorMod` for examples and a comparison to the `%` operator.

##### Parameters
x the dividend the divisor
##### Returns
• the floor modulus `x - (floorDiv(x, y) * y)`
##### Throws
ArithmeticException if the divisor `y` is zero
• `floorMod(int, int)`
• `floorDiv(int, int)`

#### public static int getExponent(double d)

Returns the unbiased exponent used in the representation of a `double`. Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN or infinite, then the result is `MAX_EXPONENT` + 1.
• If the argument is zero or subnormal, then the result is `MIN_EXPONENT` -1.

##### Parameters
d a `double` value

#### public static int getExponent(float f)

Returns the unbiased exponent used in the representation of a `float`. Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN or infinite, then the result is `MAX_EXPONENT` + 1.
• If the argument is zero or subnormal, then the result is `MIN_EXPONENT` -1.

##### Parameters
f a `float` value

#### public static double hypot(double x, double y)

Returns sqrt(x2 +y2) without intermediate overflow or underflow.

Special cases:

• If either argument is infinite, then the result is positive infinity.
• If either argument is NaN and neither argument is infinite, then the result is NaN.

##### Parameters
x a value a value
##### Returns
• sqrt(x2 +y2) without intermediate overflow or underflow

#### public static double log(double a)

Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of a `double` value. Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN or less than zero, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, then the result is negative infinity.

##### Parameters
a a value
##### Returns
• the value ln `a`, the natural logarithm of `a`.

#### public static double log10(double a)

Returns the base 10 logarithm of a `double` value. Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN or less than zero, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, then the result is negative infinity.
• If the argument is equal to 10n for integer n, then the result is n.

##### Parameters
a a value
##### Returns
• the base 10 logarithm of `a`.

#### public static double log1p(double x)

Returns the natural logarithm of the sum of the argument and 1. Note that for small values `x`, the result of `log1p(x)` is much closer to the true result of ln(1 + `x`) than the floating-point evaluation of `log(1.0+x)`.

Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN or less than -1, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is negative one, then the result is negative infinity.
• If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.

##### Parameters
x a value
##### Returns
• the value ln(`x` + 1), the natural log of `x` + 1

#### public static int max(int a, int b)

Returns the greater of two `int` values. That is, the result is the argument closer to the value of `MAX_VALUE`. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.

##### Parameters
a an argument. another argument.
##### Returns
• the larger of `a` and `b`.

#### public static long max(long a, long b)

Returns the greater of two `long` values. That is, the result is the argument closer to the value of `MAX_VALUE`. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.

##### Parameters
a an argument. another argument.
##### Returns
• the larger of `a` and `b`.

#### public static float max(float a, float b)

Returns the greater of two `float` values. That is, the result is the argument closer to positive infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other negative zero, the result is positive zero.

##### Parameters
a an argument. another argument.
##### Returns
• the larger of `a` and `b`.

#### public static double max(double a, double b)

Returns the greater of two `double` values. That is, the result is the argument closer to positive infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other negative zero, the result is positive zero.

##### Parameters
a an argument. another argument.
##### Returns
• the larger of `a` and `b`.

#### public static float min(float a, float b)

Returns the smaller of two `float` values. That is, the result is the value closer to negative infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other is negative zero, the result is negative zero.

##### Parameters
a an argument. another argument.
##### Returns
• the smaller of `a` and `b.`

#### public static double min(double a, double b)

Returns the smaller of two `double` values. That is, the result is the value closer to negative infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other is negative zero, the result is negative zero.

##### Parameters
a an argument. another argument.
##### Returns
• the smaller of `a` and `b`.

#### public static int min(int a, int b)

Returns the smaller of two `int` values. That is, the result the argument closer to the value of `MIN_VALUE`. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.

##### Parameters
a an argument. another argument.
##### Returns
• the smaller of `a` and `b`.

#### public static long min(long a, long b)

Returns the smaller of two `long` values. That is, the result is the argument closer to the value of `MIN_VALUE`. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.

##### Parameters
a an argument. another argument.
##### Returns
• the smaller of `a` and `b`.

#### public static int multiplyExact(int x, int y)

Returns the product of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an `int`.

##### Parameters
x the first value the second value
• the result
##### Throws
ArithmeticException if the result overflows an int
• `multiplyExact(int, int)`

#### public static long multiplyExact(long x, long y)

Returns the product of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a `long`.

##### Parameters
x the first value the second value
• the result
##### Throws
ArithmeticException if the result overflows a long
• `multiplyExact(long, long)`

#### public static double nextAfter(double start, double direction)

Returns the floating-point number adjacent to the first argument in the direction of the second argument. If both arguments compare as equal the second argument is returned.

Special cases:

• If either argument is a NaN, then NaN is returned.
• If both arguments are signed zeros, `direction` is returned unchanged (as implied by the requirement of returning the second argument if the arguments compare as equal).
• If `start` is ±`MIN_VALUE` and `direction` has a value such that the result should have a smaller magnitude, then a zero with the same sign as `start` is returned.
• If `start` is infinite and `direction` has a value such that the result should have a smaller magnitude, `MAX_VALUE` with the same sign as `start` is returned.
• If `start` is equal to ± `MAX_VALUE` and `direction` has a value such that the result should have a larger magnitude, an infinity with same sign as `start` is returned.

##### Parameters
start starting floating-point value value indicating which of `start`'s neighbors or `start` should be returned
##### Returns
• The floating-point number adjacent to `start` in the direction of `direction`.

#### public static float nextAfter(float start, double direction)

Returns the floating-point number adjacent to the first argument in the direction of the second argument. If both arguments compare as equal a value equivalent to the second argument is returned.

Special cases:

• If either argument is a NaN, then NaN is returned.
• If both arguments are signed zeros, a value equivalent to `direction` is returned.
• If `start` is ±`MIN_VALUE` and `direction` has a value such that the result should have a smaller magnitude, then a zero with the same sign as `start` is returned.
• If `start` is infinite and `direction` has a value such that the result should have a smaller magnitude, `MAX_VALUE` with the same sign as `start` is returned.
• If `start` is equal to ± `MAX_VALUE` and `direction` has a value such that the result should have a larger magnitude, an infinity with same sign as `start` is returned.

##### Parameters
start starting floating-point value value indicating which of `start`'s neighbors or `start` should be returned
##### Returns
• The floating-point number adjacent to `start` in the direction of `direction`.

#### public static double nextDown(double d)

Returns the floating-point value adjacent to `d` in the direction of negative infinity. This method is semantically equivalent to ```nextAfter(d, Double.NEGATIVE_INFINITY)```; however, a `nextDown` implementation may run faster than its equivalent `nextAfter` call.

Special Cases:

• If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
• If the argument is negative infinity, the result is negative infinity.
• If the argument is zero, the result is `-Double.MIN_VALUE`

##### Parameters
d starting floating-point value
##### Returns
• The adjacent floating-point value closer to negative infinity.

#### public static float nextDown(float f)

Returns the floating-point value adjacent to `f` in the direction of negative infinity. This method is semantically equivalent to ```nextAfter(f, Float.NEGATIVE_INFINITY)```; however, a `nextDown` implementation may run faster than its equivalent `nextAfter` call.

Special Cases:

• If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
• If the argument is negative infinity, the result is negative infinity.
• If the argument is zero, the result is `-Float.MIN_VALUE`

##### Parameters
f starting floating-point value
##### Returns
• The adjacent floating-point value closer to negative infinity.

#### public static float nextUp(float f)

Returns the floating-point value adjacent to `f` in the direction of positive infinity. This method is semantically equivalent to ```nextAfter(f, Float.POSITIVE_INFINITY)```; however, a `nextUp` implementation may run faster than its equivalent `nextAfter` call.

Special Cases:

• If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
• If the argument is positive infinity, the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is zero, the result is `MIN_VALUE`

##### Parameters
f starting floating-point value
##### Returns
• The adjacent floating-point value closer to positive infinity.

#### public static double nextUp(double d)

Returns the floating-point value adjacent to `d` in the direction of positive infinity. This method is semantically equivalent to ```nextAfter(d, Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY)```; however, a `nextUp` implementation may run faster than its equivalent `nextAfter` call.

Special Cases:

• If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
• If the argument is positive infinity, the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is zero, the result is `MIN_VALUE`

##### Parameters
d starting floating-point value
##### Returns
• The adjacent floating-point value closer to positive infinity.

#### public static double pow(double a, double b)

Returns the value of the first argument raised to the power of the second argument. Special cases:

• If the second argument is positive or negative zero, then the result is 1.0.
• If the second argument is 1.0, then the result is the same as the first argument.
• If the second argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
• If the first argument is NaN and the second argument is nonzero, then the result is NaN.
• If
• the absolute value of the first argument is greater than 1 and the second argument is positive infinity, or
• the absolute value of the first argument is less than 1 and the second argument is negative infinity,
then the result is positive infinity.
• If
• the absolute value of the first argument is greater than 1 and the second argument is negative infinity, or
• the absolute value of the first argument is less than 1 and the second argument is positive infinity,
then the result is positive zero.
• If the absolute value of the first argument equals 1 and the second argument is infinite, then the result is NaN.
• If
• the first argument is positive zero and the second argument is greater than zero, or
• the first argument is positive infinity and the second argument is less than zero,
then the result is positive zero.
• If
• the first argument is positive zero and the second argument is less than zero, or
• the first argument is positive infinity and the second argument is greater than zero,
then the result is positive infinity.
• If
• the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is greater than zero but not a finite odd integer, or
• the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is less than zero but not a finite odd integer,
then the result is positive zero.
• If
• the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is a positive finite odd integer, or
• the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is a negative finite odd integer,
then the result is negative zero.
• If
• the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is less than zero but not a finite odd integer, or
• the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is greater than zero but not a finite odd integer,
then the result is positive infinity.
• If
• the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is a negative finite odd integer, or
• the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is a positive finite odd integer,
then the result is negative infinity.
• If the first argument is finite and less than zero
• if the second argument is a finite even integer, the result is equal to the result of raising the absolute value of the first argument to the power of the second argument
• if the second argument is a finite odd integer, the result is equal to the negative of the result of raising the absolute value of the first argument to the power of the second argument
• if the second argument is finite and not an integer, then the result is NaN.
• If both arguments are integers, then the result is exactly equal to the mathematical result of raising the first argument to the power of the second argument if that result can in fact be represented exactly as a `double` value.

(In the foregoing descriptions, a floating-point value is considered to be an integer if and only if it is finite and a fixed point of the method `ceil` or, equivalently, a fixed point of the method `floor`. A value is a fixed point of a one-argument method if and only if the result of applying the method to the value is equal to the value.)

##### Parameters
a base. the exponent.
##### Returns
• the value `a``b`.

#### public static double random()

Returns a `double` value with a positive sign, greater than or equal to `0.0` and less than `1.0`. Returned values are chosen pseudorandomly with (approximately) uniform distribution from that range.

When this method is first called, it creates a single new pseudorandom-number generator, exactly as if by the expression

`new java.util.Random()`
This new pseudorandom-number generator is used thereafter for all calls to this method and is used nowhere else.

This method is properly synchronized to allow correct use by more than one thread. However, if many threads need to generate pseudorandom numbers at a great rate, it may reduce contention for each thread to have its own pseudorandom number generator.

##### Returns
• a pseudorandom `double` greater than or equal to `0.0` and less than `1.0`.
• `nextDouble()`

#### public static double rint(double a)

Returns the `double` value that is closest in value to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. If two `double` values that are mathematical integers are equally close to the value of the argument, the result is the integer value that is even. Special cases:

• If the argument value is already equal to a mathematical integer, then the result is the same as the argument.
• If the argument is NaN or an infinity or positive zero or negative zero, then the result is the same as the argument.

##### Parameters
a a value.
##### Returns
• the closest floating-point value to `a` that is equal to a mathematical integer.

#### public static long round(double a)

Returns the closest `long` to the argument, with ties rounding to positive infinity.

Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN, the result is 0.
• If the argument is negative infinity or any value less than or equal to the value of `Long.MIN_VALUE`, the result is equal to the value of `Long.MIN_VALUE`.
• If the argument is positive infinity or any value greater than or equal to the value of `Long.MAX_VALUE`, the result is equal to the value of `Long.MAX_VALUE`.

##### Parameters
a a floating-point value to be rounded to a `long`.
##### Returns
• the value of the argument rounded to the nearest `long` value.
• `MAX_VALUE`
• `MIN_VALUE`

#### public static int round(float a)

Returns the closest `int` to the argument, with ties rounding to positive infinity.

Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN, the result is 0.
• If the argument is negative infinity or any value less than or equal to the value of `Integer.MIN_VALUE`, the result is equal to the value of `Integer.MIN_VALUE`.
• If the argument is positive infinity or any value greater than or equal to the value of `Integer.MAX_VALUE`, the result is equal to the value of `Integer.MAX_VALUE`.

##### Parameters
a a floating-point value to be rounded to an integer.
##### Returns
• the value of the argument rounded to the nearest `int` value.
• `MAX_VALUE`
• `MIN_VALUE`

#### public static float scalb(float f, int scaleFactor)

Return `f` × 2`scaleFactor` rounded as if performed by a single correctly rounded floating-point multiply to a member of the float value set. See the Java Language Specification for a discussion of floating-point value sets. If the exponent of the result is between `MIN_EXPONENT` and `MAX_EXPONENT`, the answer is calculated exactly. If the exponent of the result would be larger than `Float.MAX_EXPONENT`, an infinity is returned. Note that if the result is subnormal, precision may be lost; that is, when `scalb(x, n)` is subnormal, `scalb(scalb(x, n), -n)` may not equal x. When the result is non-NaN, the result has the same sign as `f`.

Special cases:

• If the first argument is NaN, NaN is returned.
• If the first argument is infinite, then an infinity of the same sign is returned.
• If the first argument is zero, then a zero of the same sign is returned.

##### Parameters
f number to be scaled by a power of two. power of 2 used to scale `f`
##### Returns
• `f` × 2`scaleFactor`

#### public static double scalb(double d, int scaleFactor)

Return `d` × 2`scaleFactor` rounded as if performed by a single correctly rounded floating-point multiply to a member of the double value set. See the Java Language Specification for a discussion of floating-point value sets. If the exponent of the result is between `MIN_EXPONENT` and `MAX_EXPONENT`, the answer is calculated exactly. If the exponent of the result would be larger than `Double.MAX_EXPONENT`, an infinity is returned. Note that if the result is subnormal, precision may be lost; that is, when `scalb(x, n)` is subnormal, `scalb(scalb(x, n), -n)` may not equal x. When the result is non-NaN, the result has the same sign as `d`.

Special cases:

• If the first argument is NaN, NaN is returned.
• If the first argument is infinite, then an infinity of the same sign is returned.
• If the first argument is zero, then a zero of the same sign is returned.

##### Parameters
d number to be scaled by a power of two. power of 2 used to scale `d`
##### Returns
• `d` × 2`scaleFactor`

#### public static double signum(double d)

Returns the signum function of the argument; zero if the argument is zero, 1.0 if the argument is greater than zero, -1.0 if the argument is less than zero.

Special Cases:

• If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, then the result is the same as the argument.

##### Parameters
d the floating-point value whose signum is to be returned
##### Returns
• the signum function of the argument

#### public static float signum(float f)

Returns the signum function of the argument; zero if the argument is zero, 1.0f if the argument is greater than zero, -1.0f if the argument is less than zero.

Special Cases:

• If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, then the result is the same as the argument.

##### Parameters
f the floating-point value whose signum is to be returned
##### Returns
• the signum function of the argument

#### public static double sin(double a)

Returns the trigonometric sine of an angle. Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN or an infinity, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.

##### Returns
• the sine of the argument.

#### public static double sinh(double x)

Returns the hyperbolic sine of a `double` value. The hyperbolic sine of x is defined to be (ex - e-x)/2 where e is {@linkplain Math#E Euler's number}.

Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is infinite, then the result is an infinity with the same sign as the argument.
• If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.

##### Parameters
x The number whose hyperbolic sine is to be returned.
##### Returns
• The hyperbolic sine of `x`.

#### public static double sqrt(double a)

Returns the correctly rounded positive square root of a `double` value. Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN or less than zero, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, then the result is the same as the argument.
Otherwise, the result is the `double` value closest to the true mathematical square root of the argument value.

##### Parameters
a a value.
##### Returns
• the positive square root of `a`.

#### public static long subtractExact(long x, long y)

Returns the difference of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows a `long`.

##### Parameters
x the first value the second value to subtract from the first
• the result
##### Throws
ArithmeticException if the result overflows a long
• `subtractExact(long, long)`

#### public static int subtractExact(int x, int y)

Returns the difference of the arguments, throwing an exception if the result overflows an `int`.

##### Parameters
x the first value the second value to subtract from the first
• the result
##### Throws
ArithmeticException if the result overflows an int
• `subtractExact(int, int)`

#### public static double tan(double a)

Returns the trigonometric tangent of an angle. Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN or an infinity, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.

##### Returns
• the tangent of the argument.

#### public static double tanh(double x)

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a `double` value. The hyperbolic tangent of x is defined to be (ex - e-x)/(ex + e-x), in other words, {@linkplain Math#sinh sinh(x)}/{@linkplain Math#cosh cosh(x)}. Note that the absolute value of the exact tanh is always less than 1.

Special cases:

• If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.
• If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is `+1.0`.
• If the argument is negative infinity, then the result is `-1.0`.

##### Parameters
x The number whose hyperbolic tangent is to be returned.
##### Returns
• The hyperbolic tangent of `x`.

#### public static double toDegrees(double angrad)

Converts an angle measured in radians to an approximately equivalent angle measured in degrees. The conversion from radians to degrees is generally inexact; users should not expect `cos(toRadians(90.0))` to exactly equal `0.0`.

##### Returns
• the measurement of the angle `angrad` in degrees.

#### public static int toIntExact(long value)

Returns the value of the `long` argument; throwing an exception if the value overflows an `int`.

##### Parameters
value the long value
##### Returns
• the argument as an int
##### Throws
ArithmeticException if the `argument` overflows an int
• `toIntExact(long)`

#### public static double toRadians(double angdeg)

Converts an angle measured in degrees to an approximately equivalent angle measured in radians. The conversion from degrees to radians is generally inexact.

##### Parameters
angdeg an angle, in degrees
##### Returns
• the measurement of the angle `angdeg` in radians.

#### public static double ulp(double d)

Returns the size of an ulp of the argument. An ulp of a `double` value is the positive distance between this floating-point value and the `double` value next larger in magnitude. Note that for non-NaN x, `ulp(-x) == ulp(x)`.

Special Cases:

• If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is positive or negative infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is positive or negative zero, then the result is `Double.MIN_VALUE`.
• If the argument is ±`Double.MAX_VALUE`, then the result is equal to 2971.

##### Parameters
d the floating-point value whose ulp is to be returned
##### Returns
• the size of an ulp of the argument

#### public static float ulp(float f)

Returns the size of an ulp of the argument. An ulp of a `float` value is the positive distance between this floating-point value and the `float` value next larger in magnitude. Note that for non-NaN x, `ulp(-x) == ulp(x)`.

Special Cases:

• If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is positive or negative infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is positive or negative zero, then the result is `Float.MIN_VALUE`.
• If the argument is ±`Float.MAX_VALUE`, then the result is equal to 2104.

##### Parameters
f the floating-point value whose ulp is to be returned
##### Returns
• the size of an ulp of the argument