Google Apps Script

Class Paragraph

An element representing a paragraph. A Paragraph may contain Equation, Footnote, HorizontalRule, InlineDrawing, InlineImage, PageBreak, and Text elements. For more information on document structure, see the guide to extending Google Docs.

Paragraphs may not contain new-line characters. New-line characters ("\n") are converted to line-break characters ("\r").

 
var body = DocumentApp.getActiveDocument().getBody();

 // Append a document header paragraph.
 var header = body.appendParagraph("A Document");
 header.setHeading(DocumentApp.ParagraphHeading.HEADING1);

 // Append a section header paragraph.
 var section = body.appendParagraph("Section 1");
 section.setHeading(DocumentApp.ParagraphHeading.HEADING2);

 // Append a regular paragraph.
 body.appendParagraph("This is a typical paragraph.");
 

Methods

MethodReturn typeBrief description
appendHorizontalRule()HorizontalRuleCreates and appends a new HorizontalRule.
appendInlineImage(image)InlineImageCreates and appends a new InlineImage from the specified image blob.
appendInlineImage(image)InlineImageAppends the given InlineImage.
appendPageBreak()PageBreakCreates and appends a new PageBreak.
appendPageBreak(pageBreak)PageBreakAppends the given PageBreak.
appendText(text)TextCreates and appends a new Text element with the specified contents.
appendText(text)TextAppends the given Text element.
clear()ParagraphClears the contents of the element.
copy()ParagraphReturns a detached, deep copy of the current element.
editAsText()TextObtains a Text version of the current element, for editing.
findElement(elementType)RangeElementSearches the contents of the element for a descendant of the specified type.
findElement(elementType, from)RangeElementSearches the contents of the element for a descendant of the specified type, starting from the specified RangeElement.
findText(searchPattern)RangeElementSearches the contents of the element for the specified text pattern using regular expressions.
findText(searchPattern, from)RangeElementSearches the contents of the element for the specified text pattern, starting from a given search result.
getAlignment()HorizontalAlignmentRetrieves the HorizontalAlignment.
getAttributes()ObjectRetrieves the element's attributes.
getChild(childIndex)ElementRetrieves the child element at the specified child index.
getChildIndex(child)IntegerRetrieves the child index for the specified child element.
getHeading()ParagraphHeadingRetrieves the ParagraphHeading.
getIndentEnd()NumberRetrieves the end indentation, in points.
getIndentFirstLine()NumberRetrieves the first line indentation, in points.
getIndentStart()NumberRetrieves the start indentation.
getLineSpacing()NumberRetrieves the line spacing, in points.
getLinkUrl()StringRetrieves the link url.
getNextSibling()ElementRetrieves the element's next sibling element.
getNumChildren()IntegerRetrieves the number of children.
getParent()ContainerElementRetrieves the element's parent element.
getPreviousSibling()ElementRetrieves the element's previous sibling element.
getSpacingAfter()NumberRetrieves the spacing after the element, in points.
getSpacingBefore()NumberRetrieves the spacing before the element, in points.
getText()StringRetrieves the contents of the element as a text string.
getType()ElementTypeRetrieves the element's ElementType.
insertHorizontalRule(childIndex)HorizontalRuleCreates and inserts a HorizontalRule at the specified index.
insertInlineImage(childIndex, image)InlineImageCreates and inserts a new InlineImage from the specified image blob, at the specified index.
insertInlineImage(childIndex, image)InlineImageInserts the given InlineImage at the specified index.
insertPageBreak(childIndex)PageBreakCreates and inserts a new PageBreak at the specified index.
insertPageBreak(childIndex, pageBreak)PageBreakInserts the given PageBreak at the specified index.
insertText(childIndex, text)TextCreates and inserts a new text element at the specified index.
insertText(childIndex, text)TextInserts the given Text element at the specified index, with the specified text contents.
isAtDocumentEnd()BooleanDetermines whether the element is at the end of the Document.
isLeftToRight()BooleanRetrieves the left-to-right setting.
merge()ParagraphMerges the element with the preceding sibling of the same type.
removeChild(child)ParagraphRemoves the specified child element.
removeFromParent()ParagraphRemoves the element from its parent.
replaceText(searchPattern, replacement)ElementReplaces all occurrences of a given text pattern with a given replacement string, using regular expressions.
setAlignment(alignment)ParagraphSets the HorizontalAlignment.
setAttributes(attributes)ParagraphSets the element's attributes.
setHeading(heading)ParagraphSets the ParagraphHeading.
setIndentEnd(indentEnd)ParagraphSets the end indentation, in points.
setIndentFirstLine(indentFirstLine)ParagraphSets the first line indentation, in points.
setIndentStart(indentStart)ParagraphSets the start indentation, in points.
setLeftToRight(leftToRight)ParagraphSets the left-to-right setting.
setLineSpacing(multiplier)ParagraphSets the line spacing, as a quantity indicating the number of lines to use for spacing.
setLinkUrl(url)ParagraphSets the link url.
setSpacingAfter(spacingAfter)ParagraphSets the spacing after the element, in points.
setSpacingBefore(spacingBefore)ParagraphSets the spacing before the element, in points.
setText(text)voidSets the contents of the paragraph as text.

Detailed documentation

appendHorizontalRule()

Creates and appends a new HorizontalRule.

Return

HorizontalRule — the new horizontal rule


appendInlineImage(image)

Creates and appends a new InlineImage from the specified image blob.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
imageBlobSourcethe image data

Return

InlineImage — the appended image


appendInlineImage(image)

Appends the given InlineImage.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
imageInlineImagethe image data

Return

InlineImage — the appended image


appendPageBreak()

Creates and appends a new PageBreak.

Note: PageBreaks may not be contained within TableCells. If the current element is contained in a table cell, an exception will be thrown.

Return

PageBreak — the new page break element


appendPageBreak(pageBreak)

Appends the given PageBreak.

Note: PageBreaks may not be contained within TableCells. If the current element is contained in a table cell, an exception will be thrown.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
pageBreakPageBreakthe page break to append

Return

PageBreak — the appended page break element


appendText(text)

Creates and appends a new Text element with the specified contents.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
textStringthe text contents

Return

Text — the new text element


appendText(text)

Appends the given Text element.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
textTextthe text element to append

Return

Text — the appended text element


clear()

Clears the contents of the element.

Return

Paragraph — the current element


copy()

Returns a detached, deep copy of the current element.

Any child elements present in the element are also copied. The new element will not have a parent.

Return

Paragraph — the new copy


editAsText()

Obtains a Text version of the current element, for editing.

Use editAsText for manipulating the elements contents as rich text. The editAsText mode ignores non-text elements (such as InlineImage and HorizontalRule).

Child elements fully contained within a deleted text range are removed from the element.

 
var body = DocumentApp.getActiveDocument().getBody();

 // Insert two paragraphs separated by a paragraph containing an
 // horizontal rule.
 body.insertParagraph(0, "An editAsText sample.");
 body.insertHorizontalRule(0);
 body.insertParagraph(0, "An example.");

 // Delete " sample.\n\n An" removing the horizontal rule in the process.
 body.editAsText().deleteText(14, 25);
 

Return

Text — a text version of the current element


findElement(elementType)

Searches the contents of the element for a descendant of the specified type.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
elementTypeElementTypethe type of element to search for

Return

RangeElement — a search result indicating the position of the search element


findElement(elementType, from)

Searches the contents of the element for a descendant of the specified type, starting from the specified RangeElement.

 
// Get the body section of the active document.
 var body = DocumentApp.getActiveDocument().getBody();

 // Define the search parameters.
 var searchType = DocumentApp.ElementType.PARAGRAPH;
 var searchHeading = DocumentApp.ParagraphHeading.HEADING1;
 var searchResult = null;

 // Search until the paragraph is found.
 while (searchResult = body.findElement(searchType, searchResult)) {
   var par = searchResult.getElement().asParagraph();
   if (par.getHeading() == searchHeading) {
     // Found one, update and stop.
     par.setText('This is the first header.');
     return;
   }
 }
 

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
elementTypeElementTypethe type of element to search for
fromRangeElementthe search result to search from

Return

RangeElement — a search result indicating the next position of the search element


findText(searchPattern)

Searches the contents of the element for the specified text pattern using regular expressions.

A subset of the JavaScript regular expression features are not fully supported, such as capture groups and mode modifiers.

The provided regular expression pattern is independently matched against each text block contained in the current element.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
searchPatternStringthe pattern to search for

Return

RangeElement — a search result indicating the position of the search text, or null if there is no match


findText(searchPattern, from)

Searches the contents of the element for the specified text pattern, starting from a given search result.

A subset of the JavaScript regular expression features are not fully supported, such as capture groups and mode modifiers.

The provided regular expression pattern is independently matched against each text block contained in the current element.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
searchPatternStringthe pattern to search for
fromRangeElementthe search result to search from

Return

RangeElement — a search result indicating the next position of the search text, or null if there is no match


getAlignment()

Retrieves the HorizontalAlignment.

Return

HorizontalAlignment — the alignment


getAttributes()

Retrieves the element's attributes.

The result is an object containing a property for each valid element attribute where each property name corresponds to an item in the DocumentApp.Attribute enumeration.

 
var body = DocumentApp.getActiveDocument().getBody();

 // Append a styled paragraph.
 var par = body.appendParagraph('A bold, italicized paragraph.');
 par.setBold(true);
 par.setItalic(true);

 // Retrieve the paragraph's attributes.
 var atts = par.getAttributes();

 // Log the paragraph attributes.
 for (var att in atts) {
   Logger.log(att + ":" + atts[att]);
 }
 

Return

Object — the element's attributes


getChild(childIndex)

Retrieves the child element at the specified child index.

 
// Get the body section of the active document.
 var body = DocumentApp.getActiveDocument().getBody();

 // Obtain the first element in the document.
 var firstChild = body.getChild(0);

 // If it's a paragraph, set its contents.
 if (firstChild.getType() == DocumentApp.ElementType.PARAGRAPH) {
   firstChild.asParagraph().setText("This is the first paragraph.");
 }
 

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
childIndexIntegerthe index of the child element to retrieve

Return

Element — the child element at the specified index


getChildIndex(child)

Retrieves the child index for the specified child element.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
childElementthe child element for which to retrieve the index

Return

Integer — the child index


getHeading()

Retrieves the ParagraphHeading.

Return

ParagraphHeading — the heading


getIndentEnd()

Retrieves the end indentation, in points.

Return

Number — the end indentation, in points


getIndentFirstLine()

Retrieves the first line indentation, in points.

Return

Number — the first line indentation, in points


getIndentStart()

Retrieves the start indentation.

Return

Number — the start indentation


getLineSpacing()

Retrieves the line spacing, in points.

Return

Number — the line spacing, in points


getLinkUrl()

Retrieves the link url.

Return

String — the link url, or null if the element contains multiple values for this attribute


getNextSibling()

Retrieves the element's next sibling element.

The next sibling has the same parent and follows the current element.

Return

Element — the next sibling element


getNumChildren()

Retrieves the number of children.

 
// Get the body section of the active document.
 var body = DocumentApp.getActiveDocument().getBody();

 // Log the number of elements in the document.
 Logger.log("There are " + body.getNumChildren() +
     " elements in the document body.");
 

Return

Integer — the number of children


getParent()

Retrieves the element's parent element.

The parent element contains the current element.

Return

ContainerElement — the parent element


getPreviousSibling()

Retrieves the element's previous sibling element.

The previous sibling has the same parent and precedes the current element.

Return

Element — the previous sibling element


getSpacingAfter()

Retrieves the spacing after the element, in points.

Return

Number — the spacing after the element, in points


getSpacingBefore()

Retrieves the spacing before the element, in points.

Return

Number — the spacing before the element, in points


getText()

Retrieves the contents of the element as a text string.

Return

String — the contents of the element as text string


getType()

Retrieves the element's ElementType.

Use getType() to determine the exact type of a given element.

 
var body = DocumentApp.getActiveDocument().getBody();

 // Obtain the first element in the document body.

 var firstChild = body.getChild(0);

 // Use getType() to determine the element's type.
 if (firstChild.getType() == DocumentApp.ElementType.PARAGRAPH) {
   Logger.log('The first element is a paragraph.');
 } else {
   Logger.log('The first element is not a paragraph.');
 }
 

Return

ElementType — the element type


insertHorizontalRule(childIndex)

Creates and inserts a HorizontalRule at the specified index.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
childIndexIntegerthe index at which to insert the element

Return

HorizontalRule — the new horizontal rule element


insertInlineImage(childIndex, image)

Creates and inserts a new InlineImage from the specified image blob, at the specified index.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
childIndexIntegerthe index at which to insert the element
imageBlobSourcethe image data

Return

InlineImage — the inserted inline image element


insertInlineImage(childIndex, image)

Inserts the given InlineImage at the specified index.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
childIndexIntegerthe index at which to insert the element
imageInlineImagethe image data

Return

InlineImage — the inserted inline image element


insertPageBreak(childIndex)

Creates and inserts a new PageBreak at the specified index.

Note: PageBreaks may not be contained within TableCells. If the current element is contained in a table cell, an exception will be thrown.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
childIndexIntegerthe index at which to insert the element

Return

PageBreak — the new page break element


insertPageBreak(childIndex, pageBreak)

Inserts the given PageBreak at the specified index.

Note: PageBreaks may not be contained within TableCells. If the current element is contained in a table cell, an exception will be thrown.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
childIndexIntegerthe index at which to insert the element
pageBreakPageBreakthe p[age break to insert

Return

PageBreak — the inserted page break element


insertText(childIndex, text)

Creates and inserts a new text element at the specified index.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
childIndexIntegerthe index at which to insert the element
textStringthe text contents

Return

Text — the new text element


insertText(childIndex, text)

Inserts the given Text element at the specified index, with the specified text contents.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
childIndexIntegerthe index at which to insert the element
textTextthe text element to insert

Return

Text — the inserted text element


isAtDocumentEnd()

Determines whether the element is at the end of the Document.

Return

Boolean — whether the element is at the end of the document


isLeftToRight()

Retrieves the left-to-right setting.

Return

Boolean — the left-to-right setting


merge()

Merges the element with the preceding sibling of the same type.

Only elements of the same ElementType may be merged. Any child elements contained in the current element are moved to the preceding sibling element.

The current element is removed from the document.

 
var body = DocumentApp.getActiveDocument().getBody();

 // Append two paragraphs to the document.
 var par1 = body.appendParagraph('Paragraph 1.');
 var par2 = body.appendParagraph('Paragraph 2.');

 // Merge the newly added paragraphs into a single paragraph.
 par2.merge();
 

Return

Paragraph — the merged element


removeChild(child)

Removes the specified child element.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
childElementthe child element to remove

Return

Paragraph — the current element


removeFromParent()

Removes the element from its parent.

 
var body = DocumentApp.getActiveDocument().getBody();

 // Remove all images in the document body.
 var imgs = body.getImages();
 for (var i = 0; i < imgs.length; i++) {
   imgs[i].removeFromParent();
 }
 

Return

Paragraph — the removed element


replaceText(searchPattern, replacement)

Replaces all occurrences of a given text pattern with a given replacement string, using regular expressions.

A subset of the JavaScript regular expression features are not fully supported, such as capture groups and mode modifiers.

The provided regular expression pattern is independently matched against each text block contained in the current element.

 
var body = DocumentApp.getActiveDocument().getBody();

 // Clear the text surrounding "Apps Script", with or without text.
 body.replaceText("^.*Apps ?Script.*$", "Apps Script");
 

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
searchPatternStringthe regex pattern to search for
replacementStringthe text to use as replacement

Return

Element — the current element


setAlignment(alignment)

Sets the HorizontalAlignment.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
alignmentHorizontalAlignmentthe horizontal alignment

Return

Paragraph — the current element


setAttributes(attributes)

Sets the element's attributes.

The specified attributes parameter must be an object where each property name is an item in the DocumentApp.Attribute enumeration and each property value is the new value to be applied.

 
var body = DocumentApp.getActiveDocument().getBody();

 // Define a custom paragraph style.
 var style = {};
 style[DocumentApp.Attribute.HORIZONTAL_ALIGNMENT] =
     DocumentApp.HorizontalAlignment.RIGHT;
 style[DocumentApp.Attribute.FONT_FAMILY] =
     DocumentApp.FontFamily.CALIBRI;
 style[DocumentApp.Attribute.FONT_SIZE] = 18;
 style[DocumentApp.Attribute.BOLD] = true;

 // Append a plain paragraph.
 var par = body.appendParagraph('A paragraph with custom style.');

 // Apply the custom style.
 par.setAttributes(style);
 

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
attributesObjectthe element's attributes

Return

Paragraph — the current element


setHeading(heading)

Sets the ParagraphHeading.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
headingParagraphHeadingthe heading

Return

Paragraph — the current element


setIndentEnd(indentEnd)

Sets the end indentation, in points.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
indentEndNumberthe end indentation, in points

Return

Paragraph — the current element


setIndentFirstLine(indentFirstLine)

Sets the first line indentation, in points.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
indentFirstLineNumberthe first line indentation, in points

Return

Paragraph — the current element


setIndentStart(indentStart)

Sets the start indentation, in points.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
indentStartNumberthe start indentation, in points

Return

Paragraph — the current element


setLeftToRight(leftToRight)

Sets the left-to-right setting.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
leftToRightBooleanthe left-to-right setting

Return

Paragraph — the current element


setLineSpacing(multiplier)

Sets the line spacing, as a quantity indicating the number of lines to use for spacing.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
multiplierNumberthe number of lines

Return

Paragraph — the current element


setLinkUrl(url)

Sets the link url.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
urlStringthe link url

Return

Paragraph — the current element


setSpacingAfter(spacingAfter)

Sets the spacing after the element, in points.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
spacingAfterNumberthe spacing after the element, in points

Return

Paragraph — the current element


setSpacingBefore(spacingBefore)

Sets the spacing before the element, in points.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
spacingBeforeNumberthe spacing before the element, in points

Return

Paragraph — the current element


setText(text)

Sets the contents of the paragraph as text.

Note: existing contents are cleared.

Parameters

NameTypeDescription
textStringthe new text contents

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