Google Maps JavaScript API v2(サポート終了)

Google Maps JavaScript API V2 Basics

Version 2 of the JavaScript API has been turned down

Warning: Version 2 of the Google Maps JavaScript API is no longer available. Please follow the guide to migrate your code to version 3 of the Google Maps JavaScript API. As of November 19, 2013, all applications requesting v2 are served a special, wrapped version of the v3 API instead. We expect this wrapped version of the API to work for most simple maps, but we strongly encourage you to migrate to the v3 API immediately.

Introduction

The fundamental element in any Google Maps API application is the "map" itself. This document discusses usage of the fundamental GMap2 object and the basics of map operations.

API Keys (Not Available for New Applications)

Note: The information in this section pertains to the Google Maps JavaScript API Version 2, which is no longer available for new applications. Please consult the Google Maps JavaScript API v3 documentation for information on generating a key for new applications.

All Maps API applications should load the Maps API using an API key. Using an API key enables you to monitor your application's Maps API usage, and ensures that Google can contact you about your application if necessary. If your application's Maps API usage exceeds the Usage Limits, you must load the Maps API using an API key in order to purchase additional quota.

To find your existing API key, visit the APIs Console at https://code.google.com/apis/console and log in with your Google Account.

If you have previously activated the service, your API key is available from the API Access page, in the Simple API Access section. Maps API applications use the Key for browser apps.

By default a key can be used on any site. We strongly recommend that you restrict use of your key only to domains you administer, to prevent use on unauthorized sites. You can specify which domains are allowed to use your API key by clicking the Edit allowed referrers... link for your key.

Your application's Maps API usage will only be reflected in the APIs console if you are using API version 2.377 or above.

The "Hello, World" of Google Maps

The easiest way to start learning about the Google Maps API is to see a simple example. The following web page displays a 500x300 map centered on Palo Alto, California:

<!DOCTYPE html "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"/>
    <title>Google Maps JavaScript API Example</title>
    <script src="http://maps.google.com/maps?file=api&amp;v=2&amp;key=API_KEY&sensor=true_or_false"
            type="text/javascript"></script>
    <script type="text/javascript">

    function initialize() {
      if (GBrowserIsCompatible()) {
        var map = new GMap2(document.getElementById("map_canvas"));
        map.setCenter(new GLatLng(37.4419, -122.1419), 13);
        map.setUIToDefault();
      }
    }

    </script>
  </head>
  <body onload="initialize()" onunload="GUnload()">
    <div id="map_canvas" style="width: 500px; height: 300px"></div>
  </body>
</html>

Even in this simple example, there are five things to note:

  1. We include the Maps API JavaScript using a script tag.
  2. We create a div element named "map_canvas" to hold the Map.
  3. We write a JavaScript function to create a "map" object.
  4. We center the map on a given geographic point and set the UI to a default configuration.
  5. We initialize the map object from the body tag's onLoad event.

These steps are explained below.

Loading the Google Maps API

<script src="http://maps.google.com/maps?file=api&v=2&key=API_KEY&sensor=true_or_false"
        type="text/javascript">
</script>

The http://maps.google.com/maps?file=api&v=2&key=API_KEY URL points to the location of the JavaScript file that includes all of the symbols and definitions you need for using the Google Maps API. Your page must contain a script tag pointing to this URL, using the key you received when you signed up for the API. In this example the key is shown as "API_KEY."

Note that we also pass a sensor parameter to indicate whether this application uses a sensor to determine the user's location. We've left this example as a variable true_or_false to emphasize that you must set this value to either true or false explicitly.

Map DOM Elements

<div id="map_canvas" style="width: 500px; height: 300px"></div>

For the map to display on a web page, we must reserve a spot for it. Commonly, we do this by creating a named div element and obtaining a reference to this element in the browser's document object model (DOM).

In the example above, we define a div named "map_canvas" and set its size using style attributes. Unless you specify a size explicitly for the map using GMapOptions in the constructor, the map implicitly uses the size of the container to size itself.

GMap2 - the Elementary Object

var map = new GMap2(document.getElementById("map_canvas"));

The JavaScript class that represents a map is the GMap2 class. Objects of this class define a single map on a page. (You may create more than one instance of this class - each object will define a separate map on the page.) We create a new instance of this class using the JavaScript new operator.

When you create a new map instance, you specify a DOM node in the page (usually a div element) as a container for the map. HTML nodes are children of the JavaScript document object, and we obtain a reference to this element via the document.getElementById() method.

This code defines a variable (named map) and assigns that variable to a new GMap2 object. The function GMap2() is known as a constructor and its definition (condensed for clarity from the Google Maps API Reference) is shown below:

Constructor Description
GMap2(container, opts?) Creates a new map inside the given HTML container, which is typically a DIV element. You may also pass optional parameters of type GMap2Options in the opts parameter.

Note that because JavaScript is a loosely typed language, we do not need to pass any optional parameters in the constructor, and we don't do so here.

Initializing the Map

  map.setCenter(new GLatLng(37.4419, -122.1419), 13);
  map.setUIToDefault();

Once we've created a map via the GMap2 constructor, we need to initialize it. This initialization is accomplished with use of the map's setCenter() method. The setCenter() method requires a GLatLng coordinate and a zoom level and this method must be sent before any other operations are performed on the map, including setting any other attributes of the map itself.

Additionally, we also call setUIToDefault() on the map. This method sets up the map's user interface (input handling and set of controls) to a default configuration, including pan and zoom controls, selection of map types, etc. See Using the Default Maps UI in the Controls chapter for more information.

Loading the Map

  <body onload="initialize()" onunload="GUnload()">

While an HTML page renders, the document object model (DOM) is built out, and any external images and scripts are received and incorporated into the document object. To ensure that our map is only placed on the page after the page has fully loaded, we only execute the function which constructs the GMap2 object once the <body> element of the HTML page receives an onload event. Doing so avoids unpredictable behavior and gives us more control on how and when the map draws.

The onload attribute is an example of an event handler. The Google Maps API also provides a number of events that you can "listen" for to determine state changes. See Maps Events and Event Listeners for more information.

The GUnload() function is a utility function designed to prevent memory leaks.

Latitudes and Longitudes

Now that we have a map, we need a way to refer to locations on the map. The GLatLng object provides such a mechanism within the Google Maps API. You construct a GLatLng object, passing its parameters in the order { latitude, longitude } as is customary in cartography:

  var myGeographicCoordinates = new GLatLng(myLatitude, myLongitude)

Note: the process of turning an address into a geographic point is known as geocoding and is discussed in detail in the Google Maps API Services section.

Just as it is useful to easily refer to a geographic point, it is also useful to define the geographic bounds of an object. For example, a map displays a current "window" of the entire world within what is known as a viewport. This viewport can be defined by the rectangular points at its corners. The GLatLngBounds object provides this functionality, defining a rectangular region using two GLatLng objects representing the southwest and northeast corners of the bounding box, respectively.

GLatLng objects have many uses within the Google Maps API. The GMarker object takes a GLatLng in its constructor, for example, and places a marker overlay on the map at the given geographic location.

The following example uses getBounds() to return the current viewport, and then randomly places 10 markers on the map within those bounds:

function initialize() {
  var map = new GMap2(document.getElementById("map_canvas"));
  map.setCenter(new GLatLng(37.4419, -122.1419), 13);
 
  // Add 10 markers to the map at random locations
  var bounds = map.getBounds();
  var southWest = bounds.getSouthWest();
  var northEast = bounds.getNorthEast();
  var lngSpan = northEast.lng() - southWest.lng();
  var latSpan = northEast.lat() - southWest.lat();
  for (var i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
    var point = new GLatLng(southWest.lat() + latSpan * Math.random(),
        southWest.lng() + lngSpan * Math.random());
    map.addOverlay(new GMarker(point));
  }
}

Note: more information on GMarker objects is within the Overlays section.

Map Attributes

Each map contains a number of attributes that may be inspected or set. For example, to find the dimensions of the current viewport, use the GMap2 object's getBounds() method to return a GLatLngBounds value.

Each map also contains a zoom level, which defines the resolution of the current view. Zoom levels between 0 (the lowest zoom level, in which the entire world can be seen on one map) to 19 (the highest zoom level, down to individual buildings) are possible within the normal maps view. Zoom levels vary depending on where in the world you're looking, as data in some parts of the globe is more defined than in others. Zoom levels up to 20 are possible within satellite view.

You can retrieve the current zoom level in use by the map by using the GMap2 object's getZoom() method.

Additionally, the "type" of map defines the imagery of the map. More information on map types is available in the Map Types section below.

More about zoom levels, map tiles, and creating your own custom map types is available in the Tile Overlays section.

Map Types

There are many types of maps available within the Google Maps API. By default, maps show up within the Google Maps API using standard "painted" road map tiles. However, the Google Maps API also supports other maps types.

Common Map Types

The following map types are commonly used in the Google Maps API:

  • G_NORMAL_MAP displays the default road map view.
  • G_SATELLITE_MAP displays Google Earth satellite images. *
  • G_HYBRID_MAP displays a mixture of normal and satellite views.*
  • G_DEFAULT_MAP_TYPES contains an array of the above three types, useful for iterative processing.
  • G_PHYSICAL_MAP displays a physical map based on terrain information.

Note: at high zoom levels, both satellite and hybrid map types may also display aerial imagery which is built into those map types. For more information, see Aerial Map Types below.)

You can set the map type using the GMap2 object's setMapType() method. For example, the following code sets the map to use the satellite view from Google Earth:

  var map = new GMap2(document.getElementById("map_canvas"));
  map.setMapType(G_SATELLITE_MAP);

Aerial Perspective Imagery

The Google Maps API now supports special aerial imagery for certain locations. This high-resolution imagery provides perspective views towards each of the cardinal direction (North, South, East, West). These images are available at higher zoom levels for supported map types.

The following image shows an aerial perspective view of HP Pavillion (home of the San Jose Sharks) near downtown San Jose, CA:

The existing G_SATELLITE_MAP and G_HYBRID_MAP map types support aerial perspective imagery at high zoom levels (where available) provided that you explicitly enable this functionality. If you zoom into a location for which such imagery exists, these map types will automatically alter their views in the following manner:

  • Any existing GLargeZoomControl3D control on a map will alter to add a compass control around the existing navigation controls. This compass allows you to change the heading of any aerial imagery, snapping the direction to the nearest supported direction which contains imagery.
  • The satellite or hybrid imagery will be replaced with aerial perspective imagery centered on the current location. By default, such views will orient towards North. If you zoom out, you will return to viewing the default satellite or hybrid imagery.
  • The existing map type will be replaced to utilize an associated aerial map type.

    • G_SATELLITE_MAP maps will convert to G_AERIAL_MAP maps.
    • G_HYBRID_MAP maps will convert to G_AERIAL_HYBRID_MAP maps.

Zooming out from an aerial map type will revert each of these changes, re-establishing the original map types.

Enabling Aerial Perspective Imagery

To enable aerial perspective imagery for supported map types, call enableRotation() on the GMap2 object. You can disable aerials by calling disableRotation().

The following example displays an aerial view of St. James Park in downtown San Jose, CA:

var map = new GMap2(document.getElementById("map_canvas"));
map.setCenter(new GLatLng(37.339085, -121.8914807), 18);

// Select a map type which supports aerial imagery
map.setMapType(G_HYBRID_MAP);
map.setUIToDefault();

// Enable the additional map types within
// the map type collection
map.enableRotation();

Rotating Aerial Perspective Imagery

The aerial map types actually consist of a collection of map types for each Cardinal direction (North, South, East, West). Once your map is displaying aerial imagery, you can orient the imagery towards one of its cardinal directions by calling changeHeading() on the Map object, passing a value expressed as degrees from North. The map type will select the proper image from the attached collection.

The following example shows an aerial map and auto-rotates the map every 3 seconds when the button is clicked:

function initialize() {
  var map = new GMap2(document.getElementById("map_canvas"));
  map.setCenter(new GLatLng(37.339085, -121.8914807), 18);

  // Select a map type which supports obliques
  map.setMapType(G_AERIAL_MAP);
  map.setUIToDefault();

  // Enable the additional map types within
  //the map type collection
  map.enableRotation();
}
    
function autoRotate() {
  // Determine if we're showing aerial imagery
  if (map.isRotatable) {
    // start auto-rotating at 3 second intervals
    setTimeout('map.changeHeading(90)', 3000);
    setTimeout('map.changeHeading(180)',6000);
    setTimeout('map.changeHeading(270)',9000);
    setTimeout('map.changeHeading(0)',12000);
  }
} 

Google Map Maker Types

The Google Maps API also supports tiles created using Google Map Maker. Google Map Maker tiles are maps created through user contributions from around the world, and cover areas that are not yet covered by Google Maps. Google Map Maker currently has map tiles for these countries.

Note: when using Map Maker tiles, you will only be able to inspect maps where Google Map Maker has launched. Zooming into areas not supported will result in notification that there are no map tiles for that region.

The following Google Map Maker map types are available:

  • G_MAPMAKER_NORMAL_MAP displays the standard road map view
  • G_MAPMAKER_HYBRID_MAP displays a mixture of normal and satellite imagery.

For more information about Google Map Maker, see its user documentation

Celestial Map Types

Google Maps provides several additional map types for celestial bodies other than Earth:

  • G_MOON_ELEVATION_MAP displays a shaded terrain map of the surface of the Moon, color-coded by altitude.
  • G_MOON_VISIBLE_MAP displays photographic imagery taken from orbit around the moon.
  • G_MARS_ELEVATION_MAP displays a shaded terrain map of the surface of Mars, color-coded by altitude.
  • G_MARS_VISIBLE_MAP displays photographs taken from orbit around Mars.
  • G_MARS_INFRARED_MAP displays a shaded infrared map of the surface of Mars, where warmer areas appear brighter and colder areas appear darker.
  • G_SKY_VISIBLE_MAP displays a mosaic of the sky, as seen from Earth, covering the full celestial sphere.

Google Earth Plugin Map Type

A special map type, the G_SATELLITE_3D_MAP displays a 3D map within the Google Earth plugin. For users that have already installed the plugin, selecting this map type will create an Earth instance for the map and initialize the map. You may use GMap2.getEarthInstance() to retrieve this Earth instance and manipulate it using the Google Earth API. Users without the plugin will be prompted to install it.

For more information on the Google Earth API, consult the API documentation.

Map Interactions

Now that you have a GMap2 object, you can interact with it. The basic map object looks and behaves a lot like the map you interact with on the Google Maps website and comes with a lot of built-in behavior. The GMap2 object also provides a number of configuration methods to alter the behavior of the map object itself.

By default, map objects tend to react to user activity as they do on http://maps.google.com. You can alter this behavior with a number of utility methods, however. For example, the GMap2.disableDragging() method disables the ability to click and drag the map to a new location.

You can also interact with the map programmatically. The GMap2 object supports a number of methods that alter the map state directly. For example, the setCenter(), panTo, and zoomIn() methods operate on the map programmatically, rather than through user interaction.

The following example displays a map and provides a button to initiate a panTo method, which centers the map at a given point. If the specified point is in the visible part of the map, then the map pans smoothly to the point; if not, the map jumps to the point.

  var map;

  function initialize() {
    if (GBrowserIsCompatible()) {
      map = new GMap2(document.getElementById("map_canvas"));
      map.setCenter(new GLatLng(37.4419, -122.1419), 13);
    }
  }
    
  function animate() {    
    map.panTo(new GLatLng(37.4569, -122.1569));
  }

More complex interactions are accomplished through use of Maps API Events.

Info Windows

Each map within the Google Maps API may show a single "info window" of type GInfoWindow, which displays HTML content in a floating window above the map. The info window looks a little like a comic-book word balloon; it has a content area and a tapered stem, where the tip of the stem is at a specified point on the map. You can see the info window in action by clicking a marker in Google Maps.

The GInfoWindow object has no constructor. An info window is automatically created and attached to the map when you create the map. You can't show more than one info window at a time for a given map, but you can move the info window and change its contents as needed.

The GMap2 object provides an openInfoWindow() method, which takes a point and an HTML DOM element as arguments. The HTML DOM element is appended to the info window container, and the info window window tip is anchored to the given point.

The GMap2's openInfoWindowHtml() method is similar, but it takes an HTML string as its second argument rather than a DOM element.

Note: because openInfoWindow() and openInfoWindowHtml() accept HTML, you should be careful to safely escape any content created by users or other applications. If you don't need HTML formatting you can safely pass a DOM text node using createTextNode() instead, which will not be interpreted as HTML.

To create an info window, call the openInfoWindow method, passing it a location and a DOM element to display. The following example code displays an info window anchored to the center of the map with a simple "Hello, world" message.

var map = new GMap2(document.getElementById("map_canvas"));
map.setCenter(new GLatLng(37.4419, -122.1419), 13);
map.openInfoWindow(map.getCenter(),
                   document.createTextNode("Hello, world"));

For full documentation on info windows, consult the Google Maps API Reference

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