标记

使用集合让一切井井有条 根据您的偏好保存内容并对其进行分类。
选择平台Android iOS JavaScript

简介

标记用于标识地图上的某个位置。默认情况下,标记使用标准图片。标记可以显示自定义图像,在这种情况下,它们通常被称为“图标”。标记和图标是 Marker 类型的对象。您可以在标记的构造函数中设置自定义图标,也可以通过对标记调用 setIcon() 进行设置。详细了解自定义标记图片

从广义上来讲,标记是一种叠加层。如需了解其他类型的叠加层,请参阅在地图上绘图

标记设计为可互动。例如,默认情况下它们会接收 'click' 事件,因此您可以添加事件监听器来打开显示自定义信息的信息窗口。通过将标记的 draggable 属性设置为 true,您可以允许用户在地图上移动标记。如需详细了解可拖动标记,请参阅下文

添加标记

google.maps.Marker 构造函数采用单个 Marker options 对象字面量来指定标记的初始属性。

以下字段尤为重要,通常是在构建标记时设置的:

  • position(必需)指定用于标识标记的初始位置的 LatLng。检索 LatLng 的一种方法是使用地理编码服务
  • map(可选)指定要在其中放置标记的 Map。如果您在构建标记时未指定地图,则系统会创建标记,但不会将其附加到(或显示在)地图上。您稍后可以通过调用标记的 setMap() 方法来添加该标记。

以下示例将一个简单的标记添加到乌鲁鲁(位于澳大利亚市中心)的地图:

TypeScript

function initMap(): void {
  const myLatLng = { lat: -25.363, lng: 131.044 };

  const map = new google.maps.Map(
    document.getElementById("map") as HTMLElement,
    {
      zoom: 4,
      center: myLatLng,
    }
  );

  new google.maps.Marker({
    position: myLatLng,
    map,
    title: "Hello World!",
  });
}

declare global {
  interface Window {
    initMap: () => void;
  }
}
window.initMap = initMap;

JavaScript

function initMap() {
  const myLatLng = { lat: -25.363, lng: 131.044 };
  const map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById("map"), {
    zoom: 4,
    center: myLatLng,
  });

  new google.maps.Marker({
    position: myLatLng,
    map,
    title: "Hello World!",
  });
}

window.initMap = initMap;
查看示例

试用示例

在上面的示例中,在构建标记时使用了 MarkerOptions 中的 map 属性将该标记放置在地图上。或者,您也可以使用标记的 setMap() 方法直接将标记添加到地图中,如以下示例所示:

var myLatlng = new google.maps.LatLng(-25.363882,131.044922);
var mapOptions = {
  zoom: 4,
  center: myLatlng
}
var map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById("map"), mapOptions);

var marker = new google.maps.Marker({
    position: myLatlng,
    title:"Hello World!"
});

// To add the marker to the map, call setMap();
marker.setMap(map);

The marker's title will appear as a tooltip.

If you do not wish to pass any Marker options in the marker's constructor, instead pass an empty object {} in the last argument of the constructor.

View example

Remove a marker

To remove a marker from the map, call the setMap() method passing null as the argument.

marker.setMap(null);

Note that the above method does not delete the marker. It removes the marker from the map. If instead you wish to delete the marker, you should remove it from the map, and then set the marker itself to null.

If you wish to manage a set of markers, you should create an array to hold the markers. Using this array, you can then call setMap() on each marker in the array in turn when you need to remove the markers. You can delete the markers by removing them from the map and then setting the array's length to 0, which removes all references to the markers.

View example

Customize a marker image

You can customize the visual appearance of markers by specifying an image file or vector-based icon to display instead of the default Google Maps pushpin icon. You can add text with a marker label, and use complex icons to define clickable regions, and set the stack order of markers.

Markers with image icons

In the most basic case, an icon can specify an image to use instead of the default Google Maps pushpin icon. To specify such an icon, set the marker's icon property to the URL of an image. The Maps JavaScript API will size the icon automatically.

TypeScript

// This example adds a marker to indicate the position of Bondi Beach in Sydney,
// Australia.
function initMap(): void {
  const map = new google.maps.Map(
    document.getElementById("map") as HTMLElement,
    {
      zoom: 4,
      center: { lat: -33, lng: 151 },
    }
  );

  const image =
    "https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/javascript/examples/full/images/beachflag.png";
  const beachMarker = new google.maps.Marker({
    position: { lat: -33.89, lng: 151.274 },
    map,
    icon: image,
  });
}

declare global {
  interface Window {
    initMap: () => void;
  }
}
window.initMap = initMap;

JavaScript

// This example adds a marker to indicate the position of Bondi Beach in Sydney,
// Australia.
function initMap() {
  const map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById("map"), {
    zoom: 4,
    center: { lat: -33, lng: 151 },
  });
  const image =
    "https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/javascript/examples/full/images/beachflag.png";
  const beachMarker = new google.maps.Marker({
    position: { lat: -33.89, lng: 151.274 },
    map,
    icon: image,
  });
}

window.initMap = initMap;
查看示例

试用示例

带有矢量图标的标记

您可以使用自定义 SVG 矢量路径来定义标记的视觉外观。为此,请将包含所需路径的 Symbol 对象字面量传递给标记的 icon 属性。您可以使用 SVG 路径表示法定义自定义路径,也可以使用 google.maps.SymbolPath 中的某个预定义路径。若要在缩放级别发生变化时正确渲染标记,必须使用 anchor 属性。详细了解如何使用符号为标记(和多段线)创建基于矢量的图标

TypeScript

// This example uses SVG path notation to add a vector-based symbol
// as the icon for a marker. The resulting icon is a marker-shaped
// symbol with a blue fill and no border.

function initMap(): void {
  const center = new google.maps.LatLng(-33.712451, 150.311823);
  const map = new google.maps.Map(
    document.getElementById("map") as HTMLElement,
    {
      zoom: 9,
      center: center,
    }
  );

  const svgMarker = {
    path: "M10.453 14.016l6.563-6.609-1.406-1.406-5.156 5.203-2.063-2.109-1.406 1.406zM12 2.016q2.906 0 4.945 2.039t2.039 4.945q0 1.453-0.727 3.328t-1.758 3.516-2.039 3.070-1.711 2.273l-0.75 0.797q-0.281-0.328-0.75-0.867t-1.688-2.156-2.133-3.141-1.664-3.445-0.75-3.375q0-2.906 2.039-4.945t4.945-2.039z",
    fillColor: "blue",
    fillOpacity: 0.6,
    strokeWeight: 0,
    rotation: 0,
    scale: 2,
    anchor: new google.maps.Point(15, 30),
  };

  new google.maps.Marker({
    position: map.getCenter(),
    icon: svgMarker,
    map: map,
  });
}

declare global {
  interface Window {
    initMap: () => void;
  }
}
window.initMap = initMap;

JavaScript

// This example uses SVG path notation to add a vector-based symbol
// as the icon for a marker. The resulting icon is a marker-shaped
// symbol with a blue fill and no border.
function initMap() {
  const center = new google.maps.LatLng(-33.712451, 150.311823);
  const map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById("map"), {
    zoom: 9,
    center: center,
  });
  const svgMarker = {
    path: "M10.453 14.016l6.563-6.609-1.406-1.406-5.156 5.203-2.063-2.109-1.406 1.406zM12 2.016q2.906 0 4.945 2.039t2.039 4.945q0 1.453-0.727 3.328t-1.758 3.516-2.039 3.070-1.711 2.273l-0.75 0.797q-0.281-0.328-0.75-0.867t-1.688-2.156-2.133-3.141-1.664-3.445-0.75-3.375q0-2.906 2.039-4.945t4.945-2.039z",
    fillColor: "blue",
    fillOpacity: 0.6,
    strokeWeight: 0,
    rotation: 0,
    scale: 2,
    anchor: new google.maps.Point(15, 30),
  };

  new google.maps.Marker({
    position: map.getCenter(),
    icon: svgMarker,
    map: map,
  });
}

window.initMap = initMap;
查看示例

试用示例

标记标签

标记标签是出现在标记内的字母或数字。该部分中的标记图片会显示一个标记,其中带有字母“&B”。您可以将标记标签指定为字符串或包含字符串和其他标签属性的 MarkerLabel 对象。

创建标记时,您可以在 MarkerOptions 对象中指定 label 属性。或者,您可以对 Marker 对象调用 setLabel(),以在现有标记上设置标签。

当用户点击地图时,以下示例会显示已加标签的标记:

TypeScript

// In the following example, markers appear when the user clicks on the map.
// Each marker is labeled with a single alphabetical character.
const labels = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";
let labelIndex = 0;

function initMap(): void {
  const bangalore = { lat: 12.97, lng: 77.59 };
  const map = new google.maps.Map(
    document.getElementById("map") as HTMLElement,
    {
      zoom: 12,
      center: bangalore,
    }
  );

  // This event listener calls addMarker() when the map is clicked.
  google.maps.event.addListener(map, "click", (event) => {
    addMarker(event.latLng, map);
  });

  // Add a marker at the center of the map.
  addMarker(bangalore, map);
}

// Adds a marker to the map.
function addMarker(location: google.maps.LatLngLiteral, map: google.maps.Map) {
  // Add the marker at the clicked location, and add the next-available label
  // from the array of alphabetical characters.
  new google.maps.Marker({
    position: location,
    label: labels[labelIndex++ % labels.length],
    map: map,
  });
}

declare global {
  interface Window {
    initMap: () => void;
  }
}
window.initMap = initMap;

JavaScript

// In the following example, markers appear when the user clicks on the map.
// Each marker is labeled with a single alphabetical character.
const labels = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";
let labelIndex = 0;

function initMap() {
  const bangalore = { lat: 12.97, lng: 77.59 };
  const map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById("map"), {
    zoom: 12,
    center: bangalore,
  });

  // This event listener calls addMarker() when the map is clicked.
  google.maps.event.addListener(map, "click", (event) => {
    addMarker(event.latLng, map);
  });
  // Add a marker at the center of the map.
  addMarker(bangalore, map);
}

// Adds a marker to the map.
function addMarker(location, map) {
  // Add the marker at the clicked location, and add the next-available label
  // from the array of alphabetical characters.
  new google.maps.Marker({
    position: location,
    label: labels[labelIndex++ % labels.length],
    map: map,
  });
}

window.initMap = initMap;
查看示例

试用示例

复杂的图标

您可以指定复杂的形状来指示可点击的区域,并指定图标相对于其他叠加层的显示方式(其“堆叠顺序”)。以这种方式指定的图标应将其 icon 属性设置为 Icon 类型的对象。

Icon 对象用于定义图片。此外,它们还定义了图标的 size、图标的 origin(例如,您想要的图片属于较大的拼合图片的一部分)以及图标热点应位于的 anchor(具体取决于原点)。

如果您将标签与自定义标记搭配使用,可以在 Icon 对象中使用 labelOrigin 属性定位标签。

TypeScript

// The following example creates complex markers to indicate beaches near
// Sydney, NSW, Australia. Note that the anchor is set to (0,32) to correspond
// to the base of the flagpole.

function initMap(): void {
  const map = new google.maps.Map(
    document.getElementById("map") as HTMLElement,
    {
      zoom: 10,
      center: { lat: -33.9, lng: 151.2 },
    }
  );

  setMarkers(map);
}

// Data for the markers consisting of a name, a LatLng and a zIndex for the
// order in which these markers should display on top of each other.
const beaches: [string, number, number, number][] = [
  ["Bondi Beach", -33.890542, 151.274856, 4],
  ["Coogee Beach", -33.923036, 151.259052, 5],
  ["Cronulla Beach", -34.028249, 151.157507, 3],
  ["Manly Beach", -33.80010128657071, 151.28747820854187, 2],
  ["Maroubra Beach", -33.950198, 151.259302, 1],
];

function setMarkers(map: google.maps.Map) {
  // Adds markers to the map.

  // Marker sizes are expressed as a Size of X,Y where the origin of the image
  // (0,0) is located in the top left of the image.

  // Origins, anchor positions and coordinates of the marker increase in the X
  // direction to the right and in the Y direction down.
  const image = {
    url: "https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/javascript/examples/full/images/beachflag.png",
    // This marker is 20 pixels wide by 32 pixels high.
    size: new google.maps.Size(20, 32),
    // The origin for this image is (0, 0).
    origin: new google.maps.Point(0, 0),
    // The anchor for this image is the base of the flagpole at (0, 32).
    anchor: new google.maps.Point(0, 32),
  };
  // Shapes define the clickable region of the icon. The type defines an HTML
  // <area> element 'poly' which traces out a polygon as a series of X,Y points.
  // The final coordinate closes the poly by connecting to the first coordinate.
  const shape = {
    coords: [1, 1, 1, 20, 18, 20, 18, 1],
    type: "poly",
  };

  for (let i = 0; i < beaches.length; i++) {
    const beach = beaches[i];

    new google.maps.Marker({
      position: { lat: beach[1], lng: beach[2] },
      map,
      icon: image,
      shape: shape,
      title: beach[0],
      zIndex: beach[3],
    });
  }
}

declare global {
  interface Window {
    initMap: () => void;
  }
}
window.initMap = initMap;

JavaScript

// The following example creates complex markers to indicate beaches near
// Sydney, NSW, Australia. Note that the anchor is set to (0,32) to correspond
// to the base of the flagpole.
function initMap() {
  const map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById("map"), {
    zoom: 10,
    center: { lat: -33.9, lng: 151.2 },
  });

  setMarkers(map);
}

// Data for the markers consisting of a name, a LatLng and a zIndex for the
// order in which these markers should display on top of each other.
const beaches = [
  ["Bondi Beach", -33.890542, 151.274856, 4],
  ["Coogee Beach", -33.923036, 151.259052, 5],
  ["Cronulla Beach", -34.028249, 151.157507, 3],
  ["Manly Beach", -33.80010128657071, 151.28747820854187, 2],
  ["Maroubra Beach", -33.950198, 151.259302, 1],
];

function setMarkers(map) {
  // Adds markers to the map.
  // Marker sizes are expressed as a Size of X,Y where the origin of the image
  // (0,0) is located in the top left of the image.
  // Origins, anchor positions and coordinates of the marker increase in the X
  // direction to the right and in the Y direction down.
  const image = {
    url: "https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/javascript/examples/full/images/beachflag.png",
    // This marker is 20 pixels wide by 32 pixels high.
    size: new google.maps.Size(20, 32),
    // The origin for this image is (0, 0).
    origin: new google.maps.Point(0, 0),
    // The anchor for this image is the base of the flagpole at (0, 32).
    anchor: new google.maps.Point(0, 32),
  };
  // Shapes define the clickable region of the icon. The type defines an HTML
  // <area> element 'poly' which traces out a polygon as a series of X,Y points.
  // The final coordinate closes the poly by connecting to the first coordinate.
  const shape = {
    coords: [1, 1, 1, 20, 18, 20, 18, 1],
    type: "poly",
  };

  for (let i = 0; i < beaches.length; i++) {
    const beach = beaches[i];

    new google.maps.Marker({
      position: { lat: beach[1], lng: beach[2] },
      map,
      icon: image,
      shape: shape,
      title: beach[0],
      zIndex: beach[3],
    });
  }
}

window.initMap = initMap;
查看示例

试用示例

MarkerImage 对象转换为 Icon 类型

在 Maps JavaScript API 3.10 版之前,复杂的图标都被定义为 MarkerImage 对象。Icon 对象字面量是在版本 3.10 中添加的,并且从版本 3.11 开始取代了 MarkerImageIcon 对象字面量支持的参数与 MarkerImage 相同,因此您可以轻松移除 MarkerImage 的构造函数,将以前的参数封装在 {} 中,并添加每个参数的名称,从而轻松将 MarkerImage 转换为 Icon。例如:

var image = new google.maps.MarkerImage(
    place.icon,
    new google.maps.Size(71, 71),
    new google.maps.Point(0, 0),
    new google.maps.Point(17, 34),
    new google.maps.Size(25, 25));

becomes

var image = {
  url: place.icon,
  size: new google.maps.Size(71, 71),
  origin: new google.maps.Point(0, 0),
  anchor: new google.maps.Point(17, 34),
  scaledSize: new google.maps.Size(25, 25)
};

Optimize markers

Optimization enhances performance by rendering many markers as a single static element. This is useful in cases where a large number of markers is required. By default, the Maps JavaScript API will decide whether a marker will be optimized. When there is a large number of markers, the Maps JavaScript API will attempt to render markers with optimization. Not all Markers can be optimized; in some situations, the Maps JavaScript API may need to render Markers without optimization. Disable optimized rendering for animated GIFs or PNGs, or when each marker must be rendered as a separate DOM element. The following example shows creating an optimized marker:

var marker = new google.maps.Marker({
    position: myLatlng,
    title:"Hello World!",
    optimized: true 
});

使标记可供访问

如需添加标记,请添加点击监听器事件,并将 optimized 设置为 false。点击监听器会使标记具有按钮语义,您可以使用键盘导航、屏幕阅读器等访问语义。使用 title 选项显示可供标记访问的文本。

在以下示例中,第一个标记在按下 Tab 键时获得焦点;然后,您可以使用箭头键在标记之间移动。再按一次 Tab 键即可在地图控件的其余部分之间继续移动。如果某个标记有信息窗口,您可以通过点击该标记将其打开,或者在选中标记时按 Enter 键或空格键将其打开。关闭信息窗口后,焦点将返回到关联的标记。

TypeScript

// The following example creates five accessible and
// focusable markers.

function initMap(): void {
  const map = new google.maps.Map(
    document.getElementById("map") as HTMLElement,
    {
      zoom: 12,
      center: { lat: 34.84555, lng: -111.8035 },
    }
  );

  // Set LatLng and title text for the markers. The first marker (Boynton Pass)
  // receives the initial focus when tab is pressed. Use arrow keys to
  // move between markers; press tab again to cycle through the map controls.
  const tourStops: [google.maps.LatLngLiteral, string][] = [
    [{ lat: 34.8791806, lng: -111.8265049 }, "Boynton Pass"],
    [{ lat: 34.8559195, lng: -111.7988186 }, "Airport Mesa"],
    [{ lat: 34.832149, lng: -111.7695277 }, "Chapel of the Holy Cross"],
    [{ lat: 34.823736, lng: -111.8001857 }, "Red Rock Crossing"],
    [{ lat: 34.800326, lng: -111.7665047 }, "Bell Rock"],
  ];

  // Create an info window to share between markers.
  const infoWindow = new google.maps.InfoWindow();

  // Create the markers.
  tourStops.forEach(([position, title], i) => {
    const marker = new google.maps.Marker({
      position,
      map,
      title: `${i + 1}. ${title}`,
      label: `${i + 1}`,
      optimized: false,
    });

    // Add a click listener for each marker, and set up the info window.
    marker.addListener("click", () => {
      infoWindow.close();
      infoWindow.setContent(marker.getTitle());
      infoWindow.open(marker.getMap(), marker);
    });
  });
}

declare global {
  interface Window {
    initMap: () => void;
  }
}
window.initMap = initMap;

JavaScript

// The following example creates five accessible and
// focusable markers.
function initMap() {
  const map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById("map"), {
    zoom: 12,
    center: { lat: 34.84555, lng: -111.8035 },
  });
  // Set LatLng and title text for the markers. The first marker (Boynton Pass)
  // receives the initial focus when tab is pressed. Use arrow keys to
  // move between markers; press tab again to cycle through the map controls.
  const tourStops = [
    [{ lat: 34.8791806, lng: -111.8265049 }, "Boynton Pass"],
    [{ lat: 34.8559195, lng: -111.7988186 }, "Airport Mesa"],
    [{ lat: 34.832149, lng: -111.7695277 }, "Chapel of the Holy Cross"],
    [{ lat: 34.823736, lng: -111.8001857 }, "Red Rock Crossing"],
    [{ lat: 34.800326, lng: -111.7665047 }, "Bell Rock"],
  ];
  // Create an info window to share between markers.
  const infoWindow = new google.maps.InfoWindow();

  // Create the markers.
  tourStops.forEach(([position, title], i) => {
    const marker = new google.maps.Marker({
      position,
      map,
      title: `${i + 1}. ${title}`,
      label: `${i + 1}`,
      optimized: false,
    });

    // Add a click listener for each marker, and set up the info window.
    marker.addListener("click", () => {
      infoWindow.close();
      infoWindow.setContent(marker.getTitle());
      infoWindow.open(marker.getMap(), marker);
    });
  });
}

window.initMap = initMap;
查看示例

试用示例

以动画方式呈现标记

您可以为标记添加动画效果,以便它们在各种不同的情况下表现出动态移动。如需指定标记动画的方式,请使用标记的 animation 属性(类型为 google.maps.Animation)。支持以下 Animation 值:

  • DROP,表示标记在首次放置于地图上时,应当从地图顶端落到目标位置。动画将会随着标记的停止而停止,animation 将还原为 null。通常,此类动画会在创建 Marker 的过程中指定。
  • BOUNCE,用于表示标记应在相应的位置上弹跳。在您将弹跳标记的 animation 属性设置为 null 之前,该标记会不断弹跳。

您可以对 Marker 对象调用 setAnimation(),以对现有标记添加动画效果。

TypeScript

// The following example creates a marker in Stockholm, Sweden using a DROP
// animation. Clicking on the marker will toggle the animation between a BOUNCE
// animation and no animation.

let marker: google.maps.Marker;

function initMap(): void {
  const map = new google.maps.Map(
    document.getElementById("map") as HTMLElement,
    {
      zoom: 13,
      center: { lat: 59.325, lng: 18.07 },
    }
  );

  marker = new google.maps.Marker({
    map,
    draggable: true,
    animation: google.maps.Animation.DROP,
    position: { lat: 59.327, lng: 18.067 },
  });
  marker.addListener("click", toggleBounce);
}

function toggleBounce() {
  if (marker.getAnimation() !== null) {
    marker.setAnimation(null);
  } else {
    marker.setAnimation(google.maps.Animation.BOUNCE);
  }
}

declare global {
  interface Window {
    initMap: () => void;
  }
}
window.initMap = initMap;

JavaScript

// The following example creates a marker in Stockholm, Sweden using a DROP
// animation. Clicking on the marker will toggle the animation between a BOUNCE
// animation and no animation.
let marker;

function initMap() {
  const map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById("map"), {
    zoom: 13,
    center: { lat: 59.325, lng: 18.07 },
  });

  marker = new google.maps.Marker({
    map,
    draggable: true,
    animation: google.maps.Animation.DROP,
    position: { lat: 59.327, lng: 18.067 },
  });
  marker.addListener("click", toggleBounce);
}

function toggleBounce() {
  if (marker.getAnimation() !== null) {
    marker.setAnimation(null);
  } else {
    marker.setAnimation(google.maps.Animation.BOUNCE);
  }
}

window.initMap = initMap;
查看示例

试用示例

如果您有很多标记,建议您不要一次性将它们全部放在地图上。您可以利用 setTimeout() 使用如下所示的模式间隔标记和动画:

function drop() {
  for (var i =0; i < markerArray.length; i++) {
    setTimeout(function() {
      addMarkerMethod();
    }, i * 200);
  }
}

查看示例

使标记可拖动

若要允许用户将标记拖动到地图上的其他位置,请在标记选项中将 draggable 设为 true

var myLatlng = new google.maps.LatLng(-25.363882,131.044922);
var mapOptions = {
  zoom: 4,
  center: myLatlng
}
var map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById("map"), mapOptions);

// Place a draggable marker on the map
var marker = new google.maps.Marker({
    position: myLatlng,
    map: map,
    draggable:true,
    title:"Drag me!"
});

进一步自定义标记

如需了解完全自定义的标记,请参阅自定义弹出式示例

如需进一步扩展 Marker 类、标记聚类和管理、叠加叠加层,请参阅开源库