Breadcrumb displayed on a web page

A breadcrumb trail on a page indicates the page's position in the site hierarchy. A user can navigate all the way up in the site hierarchy, one level at a time, by starting from the last breadcrumb in the breadcrumb trail.


Google Search uses breadcrumb markup in the body of a web page to categorize the information from the page in search results. Often, as illustrated in following use cases, users can arrive at a page from very different types of search queries. While each search may return the same web page, the breadcrumb categorizes the content within the context of the Google Search query. The page ancillaryjustice.html might display the following breadcrumb trails depending upon the search context:

A search query for the book title "Ancillary Justice" may generate the following breadcrumb:

BooksAuthorsAnn Leckie › Ancillary Justice

Here's an example in JSON-LD to support that breadcrumb:

A search query for a year and genre-based award, "2014 Nebula Award best novel", may generate the following breadcrumb:

BooksScience FictionAward Winners


Here's an example in RDFa to support that breadcrumb:


Here's an example in Microdata to support that breadcrumb:

Here's an example of a multiple breadcrumb trail:

BooksScience FictionAward Winners
LiteratureSpeculative Fiction


Here's the example RDFa to support that breadcrumb:


Here's the example Microdata to support that breadcrumb:

HTML Example

Here's an example of an HTML breadcrumb block within the page as part of the visual design.

    <a href="">Books</a>
    <a href="">Science Fiction</a>
    Award Winners


You must follow these guidelines to be eligible to appear with breadcrumbs in Google Search.

Structured data type definitions

To specify breadcrumbs, define an BreadcrumbList that contains at least two ListItems. You must include the required properties for your content to be eligible for display with breadcrumbs.

BreadcrumbList is the container item that holds all elements in the list. The full definition of BreadcrumbList is available at

Required properties


An array of breadcrumbs listed in a specific order. Specify each breadcrumb with a ListItem For example:

"@context": "",
"@type": "BreadcrumbList",
  "itemListElement": [{
    "@type": "ListItem",
    "position": 1,
    "name": "Books",
    "item": ""
    "@type": "ListItem",
    "position": 2,
    "name": "Authors",
    "item": ""
    "@type": "ListItem",
    "position": 3,
    "name": "Ann Leckie",
    "item": ""


ListItem contains details about an individual item in the list. The full definition of ListItem is available at

Required properties

URL or a subtype of Thing

The URL to the webpage that represents the breadcrumb. There are two ways to specify item:

  • URL: Specify the URL of the page. For example:
    "item": ""
  • Thing: Use an id to specify the URL based on the markup format you're using:
    • JSON-LD: Use @id to specify the URL.
    • Microdata: You can use href or itemid to specify the URL.
    • RDFa: You can use about, href, or resource to specify the URL.

If the breadcrumb is the last item in the breadcrumb trail, item is not required. If item isn't included for the last item, Google uses the URL of the containing page.



The title of the breadcrumb displayed for the user. If you're using a Thing with a name instead of a URL to specify item, then name is not required.



The position of the breadcrumb in the breadcrumb trail. Position 1 signifies the beginning of the trail.