WebGL Overlay (native API)

This example demonstrates using the WebGLOverlayView to display a 3D image with animation on a vector map.

Read the documentation.

TypeScript

import {
  AmbientLight,
  DirectionalLight,
  Matrix4,
  PerspectiveCamera,
  Scene,
  WebGLRenderer,
} from "three";

import { GLTFLoader } from "three/examples/jsm/loaders/GLTFLoader";

let map: google.maps.Map;

const mapOptions = {
  tilt: 0,
  heading: 0,
  zoom: 18,
  center: { lat: 35.6594945, lng: 139.6999859 },
  mapId: "15431d2b469f209e",
  // disable interactions due to animation loop and moveCamera
  disableDefaultUI: true,
  gestureHandling: "none",
  keyboardShortcuts: false,
};

function initMap(): void {
  const mapDiv = document.getElementById("map") as HTMLElement;
  map = new google.maps.Map(mapDiv, mapOptions);
  initWebglOverlayView(map);
}

function initWebglOverlayView(map: google.maps.Map): void {
  let scene, renderer, camera, loader;
  const webglOverlayView = new google.maps.WebGLOverlayView();

  webglOverlayView.onAdd = () => {
    // Set up the scene.

    scene = new Scene();

    camera = new PerspectiveCamera();

    const ambientLight = new AmbientLight(0xffffff, 0.75); // Soft white light.
    scene.add(ambientLight);

    const directionalLight = new DirectionalLight(0xffffff, 0.25);
    directionalLight.position.set(0.5, -1, 0.5);
    scene.add(directionalLight);

    // Load the model.
    loader = new GLTFLoader();
    const source =
      "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/googlemaps/js-samples/main/assets/pin.gltf";
    loader.load(source, (gltf) => {
      gltf.scene.scale.set(10, 10, 10);
      gltf.scene.rotation.x = Math.PI; // Rotations are in radians.
      scene.add(gltf.scene);
    });
  };

  webglOverlayView.onContextRestored = ({ gl }) => {
    // Create the js renderer, using the
    // maps's WebGL rendering context.
    renderer = new WebGLRenderer({
      canvas: gl.canvas,
      context: gl,
      ...gl.getContextAttributes(),
    });
    renderer.autoClear = false;

    // Wait to move the camera until the 3D model loads.
    loader.manager.onLoad = () => {
      renderer.setAnimationLoop(() => {
        webglOverlayView.requestRedraw();
        const { tilt, heading, zoom } = mapOptions;
        map.moveCamera({ tilt, heading, zoom });

        // Rotate the map 360 degrees.
        if (mapOptions.tilt < 67.5) {
          mapOptions.tilt += 0.5;
        } else if (mapOptions.heading <= 360) {
          mapOptions.heading += 0.2;
          mapOptions.zoom -= 0.0005;
        } else {
          renderer.setAnimationLoop(null);
        }
      });
    };
  };

  webglOverlayView.onDraw = ({ gl, transformer }): void => {
    const latLngAltitudeLiteral: google.maps.LatLngAltitudeLiteral = {
      lat: mapOptions.center.lat,
      lng: mapOptions.center.lng,
      altitude: 100,
    };

    // Update camera matrix to ensure the model is georeferenced correctly on the map.
    const matrix = transformer.fromLatLngAltitude(latLngAltitudeLiteral);
    camera.projectionMatrix = new Matrix4().fromArray(matrix);

    webglOverlayView.requestRedraw();
    renderer.render(scene, camera);

    // Sometimes it is necessary to reset the GL state.
    renderer.resetState();
  };
  webglOverlayView.setMap(map);
}

declare global {
  interface Window {
    initMap: () => void;
  }
}
window.initMap = initMap;

JavaScript

import {
  AmbientLight,
  DirectionalLight,
  Matrix4,
  PerspectiveCamera,
  Scene,
  WebGLRenderer,
} from "three";
import { GLTFLoader } from "three/examples/jsm/loaders/GLTFLoader";
let map;
const mapOptions = {
  tilt: 0,
  heading: 0,
  zoom: 18,
  center: { lat: 35.6594945, lng: 139.6999859 },
  mapId: "15431d2b469f209e",
  // disable interactions due to animation loop and moveCamera
  disableDefaultUI: true,
  gestureHandling: "none",
  keyboardShortcuts: false,
};

function initMap() {
  const mapDiv = document.getElementById("map");

  map = new google.maps.Map(mapDiv, mapOptions);
  initWebglOverlayView(map);
}

function initWebglOverlayView(map) {
  let scene, renderer, camera, loader;
  const webglOverlayView = new google.maps.WebGLOverlayView();

  webglOverlayView.onAdd = () => {
    // Set up the scene.
    scene = new Scene();
    camera = new PerspectiveCamera();

    const ambientLight = new AmbientLight(0xffffff, 0.75); // Soft white light.

    scene.add(ambientLight);

    const directionalLight = new DirectionalLight(0xffffff, 0.25);

    directionalLight.position.set(0.5, -1, 0.5);
    scene.add(directionalLight);
    // Load the model.
    loader = new GLTFLoader();

    const source =
      "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/googlemaps/js-samples/main/assets/pin.gltf";

    loader.load(source, (gltf) => {
      gltf.scene.scale.set(10, 10, 10);
      gltf.scene.rotation.x = Math.PI; // Rotations are in radians.
      scene.add(gltf.scene);
    });
  };

  webglOverlayView.onContextRestored = ({ gl }) => {
    // Create the js renderer, using the
    // maps's WebGL rendering context.
    renderer = new WebGLRenderer({
      canvas: gl.canvas,
      context: gl,
      ...gl.getContextAttributes(),
    });
    renderer.autoClear = false;
    // Wait to move the camera until the 3D model loads.
    loader.manager.onLoad = () => {
      renderer.setAnimationLoop(() => {
        webglOverlayView.requestRedraw();

        const { tilt, heading, zoom } = mapOptions;

        map.moveCamera({ tilt, heading, zoom });
        // Rotate the map 360 degrees.
        if (mapOptions.tilt < 67.5) {
          mapOptions.tilt += 0.5;
        } else if (mapOptions.heading <= 360) {
          mapOptions.heading += 0.2;
          mapOptions.zoom -= 0.0005;
        } else {
          renderer.setAnimationLoop(null);
        }
      });
    };
  };

  webglOverlayView.onDraw = ({ gl, transformer }) => {
    const latLngAltitudeLiteral = {
      lat: mapOptions.center.lat,
      lng: mapOptions.center.lng,
      altitude: 100,
    };
    // Update camera matrix to ensure the model is georeferenced correctly on the map.
    const matrix = transformer.fromLatLngAltitude(latLngAltitudeLiteral);

    camera.projectionMatrix = new Matrix4().fromArray(matrix);
    webglOverlayView.requestRedraw();
    renderer.render(scene, camera);
    // Sometimes it is necessary to reset the GL state.
    renderer.resetState();
  };

  webglOverlayView.setMap(map);
}

window.initMap = initMap;

CSS

/* 
 * Always set the map height explicitly to define the size of the div element
 * that contains the map. 
 */
#map {
  height: 100%;
}

/* 
 * Optional: Makes the sample page fill the window. 
 */
html,
body {
  height: 100%;
  margin: 0;
  padding: 0;
}

#map {
  pointer-events: none;
}

HTML

<html>
  <head>
    <title>Simple WebGL Overlay</title>
    <script src="https://polyfill.io/v3/polyfill.min.js?features=default"></script>
    <script src="https://unpkg.com/three@0.129.0/build/three.min.js"></script>

    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="./style.css" />
    <script type="module" src="./index.js"></script>
  </head>
  <body>
    <div id="map" class="map"></div>

    <!-- 
     The `defer` attribute causes the callback to execute after the full HTML
     document has been parsed. For non-blocking uses, avoiding race conditions,
     and consistent behavior across browsers, consider loading using Promises
     with https://www.npmjs.com/package/@googlemaps/js-api-loader.
    -->
    <script
      src="https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/js?key=AIzaSyB41DRUbKWJHPxaFjMAwdrzWzbVKartNGg&callback=initMap&v=beta"
      defer
    ></script>
  </body>
</html>

Try Sample

Clone Sample

Git and Node.js are required to run this sample locally. Follow these instructions to install Node.js and NPM. The following commands clone, install dependencies and start the sample application.

  git clone -b sample-webgl-overlay-simple https://github.com/googlemaps/js-samples.git
  cd js-samples
  npm i
  npm start

Other samples can be tried by switching to any branch beginning with sample-SAMPLE_NAME.

  git checkout sample-SAMPLE_NAME
  npm i
  npm start