How-to

Use HowTo structured data to explicitly tell Google that your content is a how-to. A how-to walks users through a set of steps to successfully complete a task, and can feature video, images, and text. For example, “How to tie a tie” or “How to tile a kitchen backsplash”. If each step in your how-to must be read in sequence, it's a good sign that HowTo structured data could benefit your content. HowTo structured data is appropriate when the how-to is the main focus of the page.

Properly marked up how-to pages may be eligible to have a rich result on Search and How-to Action for the Google Assistant, which can help your site reach the right users.

Feature availability

How-to rich results are currently available in English in all countries where Google Search is available. The feature is only available on mobile devices, not desktop.

Examples

Here are some examples of how your content may appear in How-to rich results. A more visual variant may be displayed if your how-to contains an image of the completed how-to and an image per step. Make sure to add as many required and recommended properties as possible so your how-to can be most effectively represented in Google Search.

Standard How-to rich result

Image of a Standard How-To Rich Result
JSON-LD

Here's an example of a text based how-to page using JSON-LD. The example only has one image that represents the final state of the how-to. In this result, users may see a preview of the content for some steps.

Microdata

Here's an example of a text based how-to page using Microdata. The example only has one image that represents the final state of the how-to. In this result, users may see a preview of the content for some steps.

How-to rich result with images for each step

Image of a Visual How-to Rich Result
JSON-LD

Here's an example of a how-to page with images for each step using JSON-LD. When there's an image for each step, users may see a preview with a carousel of images.

Microdata

Here's an example of a how-to page with images for each step using Microdata. When there's an image for each step, users may see a preview with a carousel of images.

How-to rich result with video

JSON-LD

Here's an example of a how-to page that contains a mix of text, images, and video clips using JSON-LD.

Microdata

Here's an example of a how-to page that contains a mix of text, images, and video clips using Microdata.

Guidelines

For your page to be eligible for How-to rich results and a How-to Action for the Google Assistant, you must follow these guidelines:

Content guidelines

  • Advertising: Don't use HowTo structured data for advertising purposes.
  • Ineligible Content: How-to rich results may not be displayed if the content is obscene, profane, sexually explicit, or graphically violent; or if it promotes dangerous or illegal activities or has hateful or harassing language.
  • Source: All HowTo content must be visible to the user on the source page. The how-to should be the main focus of the source page. Don't include more than one HowTo for a certain page.
  • Materials and Tools: Add structured data to all materials and tools necessary to complete the task.
  • Steps: Each HowToStep must include the entire contents of the source step. Don't mark up non-step data such as a summary or introduction section as a step.
  • Step images: If the steps are best represented visually, ensure the images in these steps are marked up for each HowToStep. Only mark up the instructional step images that are specific for each step and don't use the same image in multiple steps for the same how-to. Use the same images that correspond to the content on your page. Don't use images that don't reflect the how-to content, or use different images to optimize the rich-result.
  • Final image: If the end result can be accurately described by an image, ensure this image is present on the page, and your HowTo markup includes it using the image property. This image may be the same as the one marked up for the last step.
  • Content: Don't use HowTo markup for recipes. Recipes should use the Recipe structured data instead. Articles and general advice content that is not a specific set of instructions are not appropriate for HowTo markup.

Structured data type definitions

You must include the required properties for your content to be eligible for display as a rich result. You can also include the recommended properties to add more information to your structured data, which could provide a better user experience.

To validate and preview your structured data, use Google’s Rich Result Test .

HowTo

The full definition of HowTo is available at schema.org/HowTo.

The HowTo type indicates that the page contains a how-to. There must be one HowTo type definition per page.

Required properties
name

Text

The title of the how-to. For example, "How to tie a tie".

step HowToStep or HowToSection

An array of HowToStep elements which comprise the full instructions of the how-to. Each step element should correspond to an individual step in the instructions. Don't mark up non-step data such as a summary or introduction section, using this property. For example:

  • You can specify the complete text for each step by setting the text of each HowToStep. An image, step-title given as name, and url are optional, but recommended, since optional properties may contribute to a rich presentation of the search result.
  • For complex steps, you can provide a step name and list individual substeps using HowToDirection or HowToTip.

An array of HowToSection elements which comprise the full instructions of this HowTo. For example:

Recommended properties
description

Text

A description of the how-to.

estimatedCost MonetaryAmount or Text

The estimated cost of the supplies consumed when performing instructions.

image ImageObject or URL

Image of the completed how-to. Additional image guidelines:

  • Image URLs must be crawlable and indexable.
  • Images must represent the marked up content.
  • Images must be in .jpg, .png, or. gif format.
supply HowToSupply or Text

A supply consumed when performing instructions or a direction.

tool HowToTool or Text

An object used (but not consumed) when performing instructions or a direction.

totalTime Duration

The total time required to perform all instructions or directions (including time to prepare the supplies), in ISO 8601 duration format.

video VideoObject

A video of the how-to. Follow the list of required and recommended Video properties. Mark steps of the video with hasPart.

HowToSection

The full definition of HowToSection is available at schema.org/HowToSection.

The HowToSection type defines a section of a single how-to and contains one or multiple steps. Don't use HowToSection to define different solutions to complete a task; instead, use HowToSection as part of a single solution. For listing multiple ways to complete a task, use multiple HowTo objects. For example, multiple ways to change a flat tire are listed as multiple HowTo objects, not HowToSection objects.

Required properties
itemListElement HowToStep

A list of detailed steps for the section.

name Text

The name of the section.

HowToStep

The full definition of HowToStep is available at schema.org/HowToStep.

The HowToStep type defines the simple textual step in a how-to, and may include an image.

Required properties
itemListElement HowToDirection or HowToTip

A list of detailed substeps, including directions or tips.

Optional if text is used.

text Text

The full instruction text of this step.

Optional if itemListElement is used. Additional guidelines:

  • Include only instructional text and don't include other text such as “Directions”, “Watch the video”, “Step 1”. Specify those phrases outside of the marked up property.
Recommended properties
image ImageObject or URL

An image for the step. Additional image guidelines:

  • Image URLs must be crawlable and indexable.
  • Images must represent the marked up content.
  • Images must be in .jpg, .png, or. gif format.
name Text

The word or short phrase summarizing the step (for example, "Attach wires to post" or "Dig"). Don't use non-descriptive text (for example, “Step 1: [text]”) or other form of step number (for example, "1. [text]").

url URL

A URL that directly links to the step (if one is available). For example, an anchor link fragment.

video VideoObject or Clip

A video for this step or a clip of the video.

For VideoObject, follow the list of required and recommended Video properties.

Mark steps of the how-to with hasPart. Here's an example:

{
  "@type": "HowToStep",
  "video": {
    "@id": "Clip1"
  }
}

HowToSupply, HowToTool

The full definitions of HowToSupply and HowToTool are available at schema.org/HowToSupply and schema.org/HowToTool.

HowToSupply and HowToTool are used to complete the HowTo. They have the same required and recommended properties.

Required properties
name Text

The name of the supply or tool.

Recommended properties
image ImageObject or URL

An image of the supply or tool. Additional image guidelines:

  • Image URLs must be crawlable and indexable.
  • Images must represent the marked up content.
  • Images must be in .jpg, .png, or. gif format.

HowToDirection, HowToTip

The full definitions of HowToDirection and HowToTip are available at schema.org/HowToDirection and schema.org/HowToTip.

Use HowToDirection and HowToTip to describe directions or tips. They have the same required and recommended properties.

Required properties
text Text

The text of the direction or tip.

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