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管理监护人

使用集合让一切井井有条 根据您的偏好保存内容并对其进行分类。

监护人资源代表用户(例如家长),可接收有关学生课程和作业的信息。监护人(通常不是学生的 Google 课堂网域的成员)必须使用其电子邮件地址受邀成为监护人。

此邀请会创建状态为 PENDINGGuardianInvitation 资源。然后,用户会收到一封提示其接受邀请的电子邮件。如果电子邮件地址未与 Google 帐号关联,系统会提示用户先创建一个,然后再接受邀请。

虽然邀请的状态为 PENDING,但用户可以接受邀请,这会创建 Guardian 资源并将 GuardianInvitation 标记为 COMPLETED。如果邀请过期或者授权用户取消了邀请(例如,使用 PatchGuardianInvitation 方法),该邀请也可能会变为 COMPLETED。监护人、Google 课堂教师或管理员使用 Google 课堂界面或 DeleteGuardian 方法也可能会破坏与监护人的关系。

谁可以管理监护人

下表介绍了当前可对用户进行身份验证时可针对监护人执行的操作:

与监护人相关的 ACL(按用户类型划分)表

权限范围

您可以通过以下三种范围管理监护人:

常用操作

本部分介绍了您可能想要使用 Google 课堂 API 执行的一些常见监护人操作。

创建监护人邀请

以下示例展示了如何使用 userProfiles.guardianInvitations.create() 方法创建监护人邀请:

Java

classroom/snippets/src/main/java/CreateGuardianInvitation.java
GuardianInvitation guardianInvitation = null;

/* Create a GuardianInvitation object with state set to PENDING. See
https://developers.google.com/classroom/reference/rest/v1/userProfiles.guardianInvitations#guardianinvitationstate
for other possible states of guardian invitations. */
GuardianInvitation content =
    new GuardianInvitation()
        .setStudentId(studentId)
        .setInvitedEmailAddress(guardianEmail)
        .setState("PENDING");
try {
  guardianInvitation =
      service.userProfiles().guardianInvitations().create(studentId, content).execute();

  System.out.printf("Invitation created: %s\n", guardianInvitation.getInvitationId());
} catch (GoogleJsonResponseException e) {
  // TODO (developer) - handle error appropriately
  GoogleJsonError error = e.getDetails();
  if (error.getCode() == 404) {
    System.out.printf("There is no record of studentId: %s", studentId);
  } else {
    throw e;
  }
} catch (Exception e) {
  throw e;
}
return guardianInvitation;

Python

guardianInvitation = {
  'invitedEmailAddress': 'guardian@gmail.com',
}
guardianInvitation = service.userProfiles().guardianInvitations().create(
                      studentId='student@mydomain.edu',
                          body=guardianInvitation).execute()
print("Invitation created with id: {0}".format(guardianInvitation.get('invitationId')))

结果包含一个由服务器分配的标识符,可用于引用 GuardianInvitation。

取消监护人邀请

以下示例展示了如何使用 userProfiles.guardianInvitations.patch() 方法取消邀请:

Java

classroom/snippets/src/main/java/CancelGuardianInvitation.java
GuardianInvitation guardianInvitation = null;

try {
  /* Change the state of the GuardianInvitation from PENDING to COMPLETE. See
  https://developers.google.com/classroom/reference/rest/v1/userProfiles.guardianInvitations#guardianinvitationstate
  for other possible states of guardian invitations. */
  GuardianInvitation content =
      service.userProfiles().guardianInvitations().get(studentId, invitationId).execute();
  content.setState("COMPLETE");

  guardianInvitation =
      service
          .userProfiles()
          .guardianInvitations()
          .patch(studentId, invitationId, content)
          .set("updateMask", "state")
          .execute();

  System.out.printf(
      "Invitation (%s) state set to %s\n.",
      guardianInvitation.getInvitationId(), guardianInvitation.getState());
} catch (GoogleJsonResponseException e) {
  // TODO (developer) - handle error appropriately
  GoogleJsonError error = e.getDetails();
  if (error.getCode() == 404) {
    System.out.printf(
        "There is no record of studentId (%s) or invitationId (%s).", studentId, invitationId);
  } else {
    throw e;
  }
} catch (Exception e) {
  throw e;
}
return guardianInvitation;

Python

guardian_invite = {
     'state': 'COMPLETE'
}
guardianInvitation = service.userProfiles().guardianInvitations().patch(
  studentId='student@mydomain.edu',
  invitationId=1234, # Replace with the invitation ID of the invitation you want to cancel
  updateMask='state',
  body=guardianInvitation).execute()

列出特定学生的邀请

您可以使用 userProfiles.guardianInvitations.list() 方法获取针对特定学生发送的所有邀请的列表:

Java

classroom/snippets/src/main/java/ListGuardianInvitationsByStudent.java
List<GuardianInvitation> guardianInvitations = new ArrayList<>();
String pageToken = null;

try {
  do {
    ListGuardianInvitationsResponse response =
        service
            .userProfiles()
            .guardianInvitations()
            .list(studentId)
            .setPageToken(pageToken)
            .execute();

    /* Ensure that the response is not null before retrieving data from it to avoid errors. */
    if (response.getGuardianInvitations() != null) {
      guardianInvitations.addAll(response.getGuardianInvitations());
      pageToken = response.getNextPageToken();
    }
  } while (pageToken != null);

  if (guardianInvitations.isEmpty()) {
    System.out.println("No guardian invitations found.");
  } else {
    for (GuardianInvitation invitation : guardianInvitations) {
      System.out.printf("Guardian invitation id: %s\n", invitation.getInvitationId());
    }
  }
} catch (GoogleJsonResponseException e) {
  GoogleJsonError error = e.getDetails();
  if (error.getCode() == 404) {
    System.out.printf("There is no record of studentId (%s).", studentId);
  } else {
    throw e;
  }
} catch (Exception e) {
  throw e;
}
return guardianInvitations;

Python

guardian_invites = []
page_token = None

while True:
    response = service.userProfiles().guardianInvitations().list(
                                      studentId='student@mydomain.edu').execute()
    guardian_invites.extend(response.get('guardian_invites', []))
    page_token = response.get('nextPageToken', None)
    if not page_token:
        break

if not courses:
    print('No guardians invited for this {0}.'.format(response.get('studentId')))
else:
    print('Guardian Invite:')
    for guardian in guardian_invites:
        print('An invite was sent to '.format(guardian.get('id'),
                                              guardian.get('guardianId')))

默认情况下,系统仅会返回 PENDING 邀请。作为网域管理员,您也可以通过提供 state 参数来检索处于 COMPLETED 状态的邀请。

列出活跃的监护人

如果您想确定哪些用户是特定学生的活跃监护人,您可以使用 userProfiles.guardians.list() 方法。活跃的监护人是指已接受电子邮件邀请的监护人。

Java

classroom/snippets/src/main/java/ListGuardians.java
List<Guardian> guardians = new ArrayList<>();
String pageToken = null;

try {
  do {
    ListGuardiansResponse response =
        service.userProfiles().guardians().list(studentId).setPageToken(pageToken).execute();

    /* Ensure that the response is not null before retrieving data from it to avoid errors. */
    if (response.getGuardians() != null) {
      guardians.addAll(response.getGuardians());
      pageToken = response.getNextPageToken();
    }
  } while (pageToken != null);

  if (guardians.isEmpty()) {
    System.out.println("No guardians found.");
  } else {
    for (Guardian guardian : guardians) {
      System.out.printf(
          "Guardian name: %s, guardian id: %s, guardian email: %s\n",
          guardian.getGuardianProfile().getName().getFullName(),
          guardian.getGuardianId(),
          guardian.getInvitedEmailAddress());
    }
  }

} catch (GoogleJsonResponseException e) {
  GoogleJsonError error = e.getDetails();
  if (error.getCode() == 404) {
    System.out.printf("There is no record of studentId (%s).", studentId);
  } else {
    throw e;
  }
} catch (Exception e) {
  throw e;
}
return guardians;

Python

guardian_invites = []
page_token = None

while True:
    response = service.userProfiles().guardians().list(studentId='student@mydomain.edu').execute()
    guardian_invites.extend(response.get('guardian_invites', []))
    page_token = response.get('nextPageToken', None)
    if not page_token:
        break

if not courses:
    print('No guardians invited for this {0}.'.format(response.get('studentId')))
else:
    print('Guardian Invite:')
    for guardian in guardian_invites:
        print('An invite was sent to '.format(guardian.get('id'),
                                              guardian.get('guardianId')))

移除监护人

您还可以使用 userProfiles.guardians.delete() 方法从学生中移除监护人:

Java

classroom/snippets/src/main/java/DeleteGuardian.java
try {
  service.userProfiles().guardians().delete(studentId, guardianId).execute();
  System.out.printf("The guardian with id %s was deleted.\n", guardianId);
} catch (GoogleJsonResponseException e) {
  GoogleJsonError error = e.getDetails();
  if (error.getCode() == 404) {
    System.out.printf("There is no record of guardianId (%s).", guardianId);
  }
}

Python

service.userProfiles().guardians().delete(studentId='student@mydomain.edu',
                                        guardianId='guardian@gmail.com').execute()