Create and populate folders

Folders are files that only contain metadata and can be used to organize files in Google Drive. Specifically,

  • a folder is a file with the MIME type application/vnd.google-apps.folder and with no extension.
  • you can use the alias root to refer to the root folder anywhere a file ID is provided.

This guide explains how to perform some basic folder-related tasks.

Create a folder

To create a folder, use the files.create method with the application/vnd.google-apps.folder MIME type and a title. The following code snippet shows how to create a folder using a client library:

Java

File fileMetadata = new File();
fileMetadata.setName("Invoices");
fileMetadata.setMimeType("application/vnd.google-apps.folder");

File file = driveService.files().create(fileMetadata)
    .setFields("id")
    .execute();
System.out.println("Folder ID: " + file.getId());

Python

file_metadata = {
    'name': 'Invoices',
    'mimeType': 'application/vnd.google-apps.folder'
}
file = drive_service.files().create(body=file_metadata,
                                    fields='id').execute()
print 'Folder ID: %s' % file.get('id')

Node.js

var fileMetadata = {
  'name': 'Invoices',
  'mimeType': 'application/vnd.google-apps.folder'
};
drive.files.create({
  resource: fileMetadata,
  fields: 'id'
}, function (err, file) {
  if (err) {
    // Handle error
    console.error(err);
  } else {
    console.log('Folder Id: ', file.id);
  }
});

.NET

drive/snippets/drive_v3/DriveV3Snippets/CreateFolder.cs
using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2;
using Google.Apis.Drive.v3;
using Google.Apis.Services;

namespace DriveV3Snippets
{
    // Class to demonstrate use of Drive create folder API.
    public class CreateFolder
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// Creates a new folder.
        /// </summary>
        /// <returns>created folder id, null otherwise</returns>
        public static string DriveCreateFolder()
        {
            try
            {
                /* Load pre-authorized user credentials from the environment.
                 TODO(developer) - See https://developers.google.com/identity for 
                 guides on implementing OAuth2 for your application. */
                GoogleCredential credential = GoogleCredential.GetApplicationDefault()
                    .CreateScoped(DriveService.Scope.Drive);

                // Create Drive API service.
                var service = new DriveService(new BaseClientService.Initializer
                {
                    HttpClientInitializer = credential,
                    ApplicationName = "Drive API Snippets"
                });

                // File metadata
                var fileMetadata = new Google.Apis.Drive.v3.Data.File()
                {
                    Name = "Invoices",
                    MimeType = "application/vnd.google-apps.folder"
                };

                // Create a new folder on drive.
                var request = service.Files.Create(fileMetadata);
                request.Fields = "id";
                var file = request.Execute();
                // Prints the created folder id.
                Console.WriteLine("Folder ID: " + file.Id);
                return file.Id;
            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                // TODO(developer) - handle error appropriately
                if (e is AggregateException)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("Credential Not found");
                }
                else
                {
                    throw;
                }
            }
            return null;
        }
    }
}

Create a file in a folder

To create a file in a folder, use the files.create method and specify the folder ID in the parents property of the file. The following code snippet shows how to create a file in a specific folder using a client library:

Java

String folderId = "0BwwA4oUTeiV1TGRPeTVjaWRDY1E";
File fileMetadata = new File();
fileMetadata.setName("photo.jpg");
fileMetadata.setParents(Collections.singletonList(folderId));
java.io.File filePath = new java.io.File("files/photo.jpg");
FileContent mediaContent = new FileContent("image/jpeg", filePath);
File file = driveService.files().create(fileMetadata, mediaContent)
    .setFields("id, parents")
    .execute();
System.out.println("File ID: " + file.getId());

Python

folder_id = '0BwwA4oUTeiV1TGRPeTVjaWRDY1E'
file_metadata = {
    'name': 'photo.jpg',
    'parents': [folder_id]
}
media = MediaFileUpload('files/photo.jpg',
                        mimetype='image/jpeg',
                        resumable=True)
file = drive_service.files().create(body=file_metadata,
                                    media_body=media,
                                    fields='id').execute()
print 'File ID: %s' % file.get('id')

Node.js

var folderId = '0BwwA4oUTeiV1TGRPeTVjaWRDY1E';
var fileMetadata = {
  'name': 'photo.jpg',
  parents: [folderId]
};
var media = {
  mimeType: 'image/jpeg',
  body: fs.createReadStream('files/photo.jpg')
};
drive.files.create({
  resource: fileMetadata,
  media: media,
  fields: 'id'
}, function (err, file) {
  if (err) {
    // Handle error
    console.error(err);
  } else {
    console.log('File Id: ', file.id);
  }
});

.NET

drive/snippets/drive_v3/DriveV3Snippets/UploadToFolder.cs
using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2;
using Google.Apis.Drive.v3;
using Google.Apis.Services;

namespace DriveV3Snippets
{
    // Class to demonstrate use of Drive upload to folder.
    public class UploadToFolder
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// Upload a file to the specified folder.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="filePath">Image path to upload.</param>
        /// <param name="folderId">Id of the folder.</param>
        /// <returns>Inserted file metadata if successful, null otherwise</returns>
        public static Google.Apis.Drive.v3.Data.File DriveUploadToFolder
            (string filePath, string folderId)
        {
            try
            {
                /* Load pre-authorized user credentials from the environment.
                 TODO(developer) - See https://developers.google.com/identity for
                 guides on implementing OAuth2 for your application. */
                GoogleCredential credential = GoogleCredential.GetApplicationDefault()
                    .CreateScoped(DriveService.Scope.Drive);

                // Create Drive API service.
                var service = new DriveService(new BaseClientService.Initializer
                {
                    HttpClientInitializer = credential,
                    ApplicationName = "Drive API Snippets"
                });

                // Upload file photo.jpg in specified folder on drive.
                var fileMetadata = new Google.Apis.Drive.v3.Data.File()
                {
                    Name = "photo.jpg",
                    Parents = new List<string>
                    {
                        folderId
                    }
                };
                FilesResource.CreateMediaUpload request;
                // Create a new file on drive.
                using (var stream = new FileStream(filePath,
                           FileMode.Open))
                {
                    // Create a new file, with metadata and stream.
                    request = service.Files.Create(
                        fileMetadata, stream, "image/jpeg");
                    request.Fields = "id";
                    request.Upload();
                }
                var file = request.ResponseBody;
                // Prints the uploaded file id.
                Console.WriteLine("File ID: " + file.Id);
                return file;
            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                // TODO(developer) - handle error appropriately
                if (e is AggregateException)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("Credential Not found");
                }
                else if (e is FileNotFoundException)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("File not found");
                }
                else if (e is DirectoryNotFoundException)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("Directory Not found");
                }
                else
                {
                    throw;
                }
            }
            return null;
        }
    }
}

The parents property can be used when creating files in a top-level folder or any other folder.

Move files between folders

To add or remove parents for an existing file, use files.update method with the addParents and removeParents query parameters. The following code snippet moves a file between folders using a client library::

Java

String fileId = "1sTWaJ_j7PkjzaBWtNc3IzovK5hQf21FbOw9yLeeLPNQ";
String folderId = "0BwwA4oUTeiV1TGRPeTVjaWRDY1E";
// Retrieve the existing parents to remove
File file = driveService.files().get(fileId)
    .setFields("parents")
    .execute();
StringBuilder previousParents = new StringBuilder();
for (String parent : file.getParents()) {
  previousParents.append(parent);
  previousParents.append(',');
}
// Move the file to the new folder
file = driveService.files().update(fileId, null)
    .setAddParents(folderId)
    .setRemoveParents(previousParents.toString())
    .setFields("id, parents")
    .execute();

Python

file_id = '1sTWaJ_j7PkjzaBWtNc3IzovK5hQf21FbOw9yLeeLPNQ'
folder_id = '0BwwA4oUTeiV1TGRPeTVjaWRDY1E'
# Retrieve the existing parents to remove
file = drive_service.files().get(fileId=file_id,
                                 fields='parents').execute()
previous_parents = ",".join(file.get('parents'))
# Move the file to the new folder
file = drive_service.files().update(fileId=file_id,
                                    addParents=folder_id,
                                    removeParents=previous_parents,
                                    fields='id, parents').execute()

Node.js

fileId = '1sTWaJ_j7PkjzaBWtNc3IzovK5hQf21FbOw9yLeeLPNQ'
folderId = '0BwwA4oUTeiV1TGRPeTVjaWRDY1E'
// Retrieve the existing parents to remove
drive.files.get({
  fileId: fileId,
  fields: 'parents'
}, function (err, file) {
  if (err) {
    // Handle error
    console.error(err);
  } else {
    // Move the file to the new folder
    var previousParents = file.parents.join(',');
    drive.files.update({
      fileId: fileId,
      addParents: folderId,
      removeParents: previousParents,
      fields: 'id, parents'
    }, function (err, file) {
      if (err) {
        // Handle error
      } else {
        // File moved.
      }
    });
  }
});

.NET

drive/snippets/drive_v3/DriveV3Snippets/MoveFileToFolder.cs
using Google;
using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2;
using Google.Apis.Drive.v3;
using Google.Apis.Services;

namespace DriveV3Snippets
{
    // Class to demonstrate use-case of Drive move file to folder.
    public class MoveFileToFolder
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// Move specified file to the specified folder.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="fileId">Id of file to be moved.</param>
        /// <param name="folderId">Id of folder where the fill will be moved.</param>
        /// <returns>list of parent ids for the file, null otherwise.</returns>
        public static IList<string> DriveMoveFileToFolder(string fileId,
            string folderId)
        {
            try
            {
                /* Load pre-authorized user credentials from the environment.
                 TODO(developer) - See https://developers.google.com/identity for 
                 guides on implementing OAuth2 for your application. */
                GoogleCredential credential = GoogleCredential.GetApplicationDefault()
                    .CreateScoped(DriveService.Scope.Drive);

                // Create Drive API service.
                var service = new DriveService(new BaseClientService.Initializer
                {
                    HttpClientInitializer = credential,
                    ApplicationName = "Drive API Snippets"
                });

                // Retrieve the existing parents to remove
                var getRequest = service.Files.Get(fileId);
                getRequest.Fields = "parents";
                var file = getRequest.Execute();
                var previousParents = String.Join(",", file.Parents);
                // Move the file to the new folder
                var updateRequest =
                    service.Files.Update(new Google.Apis.Drive.v3.Data.File(),
                        fileId);
                updateRequest.Fields = "id, parents";
                updateRequest.AddParents = folderId;
                updateRequest.RemoveParents = previousParents;
                file = updateRequest.Execute();

                return file.Parents;
            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                // TODO(developer) - handle error appropriately
                if (e is AggregateException)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("Credential Not found");
                }
                else if (e is GoogleApiException)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("File or Folder not found");
                }
                else
                {
                    throw;
                }
            }
            return null;
        }
    }
}