Quickstarts explain how to set up and run an app that calls a Google Workspace API.
Google Workspace quickstarts use the API client libraries to handle some details of the authentication and authorization flow. We recommend that you use the client libraries for your own apps. This quickstart uses a simplified authentication approach that is appropriate for a testing environment. For a production environment, we recommend learning about authentication and authorization before choosing the access credentials that are appropriate for your app.
Create a Python command-line application that makes requests to the Google Sheets API.
- Set up your environment.
- Install the client library.
- Set up the sample.
- Run the sample.
To run this quickstart, you need the following prerequisites:
- Python 3.10.7 or greater
- The pip package management tool
- A Google Cloud project.
- A Google Account.
Set up your environment
To complete this quickstart, set up your environment.
Enable the APIBefore using Google APIs, you need to turn them on in a Google Cloud project. You can turn on one or more APIs in a single Google Cloud project.
In the Google Cloud console, enable the Google Sheets API.
Authorize credentials for a desktop applicationTo authenticate as an end user and access user data in your app, you need to create one or more OAuth 2.0 Client IDs. A client ID is used to identify a single app to Google's OAuth servers. If your app runs on multiple platforms, you must create a separate client ID for each platform.
- In the Google Cloud console, go to Menu > APIs & Services > Credentials.
- Click Create Credentials > OAuth client ID.
- Click Application type > Desktop app.
- In the Name field, type a name for the credential. This name is only shown in the Google Cloud console.
- Click Create. The OAuth client created screen appears, showing your new Client ID and Client secret.
- Click OK. The newly created credential appears under OAuth 2.0 Client IDs.
- Save the downloaded JSON file as
credentials.json, and move the file to your working directory.
Install the Google client library
Install the Google client library for Python:
pip install --upgrade google-api-python-client google-auth-httplib2 google-auth-oauthlib
Configure the sample
- In your working directory, create a file named
Include the following code in
from __future__ import print_function import os.path from google.auth.transport.requests import Request from google.oauth2.credentials import Credentials from google_auth_oauthlib.flow import InstalledAppFlow from googleapiclient.discovery import build from googleapiclient.errors import HttpError # If modifying these scopes, delete the file token.json. SCOPES = ['https://www.googleapis.com/auth/spreadsheets.readonly'] # The ID and range of a sample spreadsheet. SAMPLE_SPREADSHEET_ID = '1BxiMVs0XRA5nFMdKvBdBZjgmUUqptlbs74OgvE2upms' SAMPLE_RANGE_NAME = 'Class Data!A2:E' def main(): """Shows basic usage of the Sheets API. Prints values from a sample spreadsheet. """ creds = None # The file token.json stores the user's access and refresh tokens, and is # created automatically when the authorization flow completes for the first # time. if os.path.exists('token.json'): creds = Credentials.from_authorized_user_file('token.json', SCOPES) # If there are no (valid) credentials available, let the user log in. if not creds or not creds.valid: if creds and creds.expired and creds.refresh_token: creds.refresh(Request()) else: flow = InstalledAppFlow.from_client_secrets_file( 'credentials.json', SCOPES) creds = flow.run_local_server(port=0) # Save the credentials for the next run with open('token.json', 'w') as token: token.write(creds.to_json()) try: service = build('sheets', 'v4', credentials=creds) # Call the Sheets API sheet = service.spreadsheets() result = sheet.values().get(spreadsheetId=SAMPLE_SPREADSHEET_ID, range=SAMPLE_RANGE_NAME).execute() values = result.get('values', ) if not values: print('No data found.') return print('Name, Major:') for row in values: # Print columns A and E, which correspond to indices 0 and 4. print('%s, %s' % (row, row)) except HttpError as err: print(err) if __name__ == '__main__': main()
Run the sample
In your working directory, build and run the sample:
The first time you run the sample, it prompts you to authorize access:
- If you're not already signed in to your Google Account, you're prompted to sign in. If you're signed in to multiple accounts, select one account to use for authorization.
- Click Accept.
Authorization information is stored in the file system, so the next time you run the sample code, you aren't prompted for authorization.
You have successfully created your first Python application that makes requests to the Google Sheets API.
- Troubleshoot authentication and authorization issues
- Sheets API reference documentation
- Google APIs Client for Python documentation
- Google Sheets API PyDoc documentation