Updating Spreadsheets

Aside from the data contained in its cells, a spreadsheet includes many other types of data, such as:

  • Cell formats
  • Cell borders
  • Named ranges
  • Protected ranges
  • Conditional formatting

These are just some of the many kinds of data that control the appearance and operation of a spreadsheet. The batchUpdate method lets you update any of these spreadsheet details. Changes are grouped together in a batch so that if one request fails, none of the other (potentially dependent) changes is written.

Categories of operation

The particular operations supported by batchUpdate can be grouped into the following broad categories:

Category Description
Add (and Duplicate)Add new objects (sometimes based on old ones, as in the Duplicate requests).
Update (and Set)Update certain properties of an object, usually leaving the old properties alone (whereas Set requests will overwrite the prior data).
DeleteRemove objects.

These categories are used in the next section to describe the behavior of specific operations.

Batch update operations

The batchUpdate method works by taking one or more Request objects, each one specifying a single kind of request to perform. There are many different kinds of requests. Here's a breakdown on the types of requests, grouped into different categories.

Object ADD / DUPLICATE UPDATE / SET DELETE
Spreadsheet Properties UpdateSpreadsheetPropertiesRequest
Sheets AddSheetRequest
DuplicateSheetRequest
UpdateSheetPropertiesRequest DeleteSheetRequest
Dimensions (including their properties) InsertDimensionRequest
AppendDimensionRequest
UpdateDimensionPropertiesRequest
MoveDimensionRequest
AutoResizeDimensionsRequest
DeleteDimensionRequest
Cells (including values, formats, data validation, etc.) RepeatCellRequest
UpdateCellsRequest
AppendCellsRequest
Named Ranges AddNamedRangeRequest UpdateNamedRangeRequest DeleteNamedRangeRequest
Borders UpdateBordersRequest
Filters (filter views & the basic filter) AddFilterViewRequest
DuplicateFilterViewRequest
UpdateFilterViewRequest
SetBasicFilterRequest
ClearBasicFilterRequest
Data Validation SetDataValidationRequest
Conditional Format Rules AddConditionalFormatRuleRequest UpdateConditionalFormatRuleRequest DeleteConditionalFormatRuleRequest
Protected Ranges AddProtectedRangeRequest UpdateProtectedRangeRequest DeleteProtectedRangeRequest
Embedded Objects (including charts) AddChartRequest UpdateChartSpecRequest
UpdateEmbeddedObjectPositionRequest
DeleteEmbeddedObjectRequest
Merges MergeCellsRequest UnmergeCellsRequest

There are also some additional requests that mimic user actions for manipulating data:

Field masks

Many of the "Update" requests require field masks. These are a comma-delimited list of fields that you want to update. The mask is required to make sure only fields you want to edit are updated. You can use a "*" as short-hand for updating every field (which means a field may revert to its default state if you don't specify a value for it in the request).

For example, to update just the Title of a spreadsheet, this would be the request:

Request:

POST .../v4/spreadsheets/spreadsheetId:batchUpdate

Request body:

{
  "requests": [{
      "updateSpreadsheetProperties": {
          "properties": {"title": "My New Title"},
          "fields": "title"
      }
  }]
}

Responses

When updating a spreadsheet, some kinds of requests may return responses. These are returned in an array, with each response occupying the same index as the corresponding request. Some requests do not have responses. For those requests, the response will be empty.

Typically the "Add" requests will have responses, so that you know information (such as the ID) of the newly added object. See Response for the list of supported responses.

Example

The example below performs the following actions:

  1. Updates the spreadsheet's title using the title variable.
  2. Finds and replaces cell values in the spreadsheet using the find and replacement variables.

Apps Script

sheets/api/spreadsheet_snippets.gs
/**
 * Updates the specified sheet using advanced sheet services
 * @param {string} spreadsheetId id of the spreadsheet to be updated
 * @param {string} title name of the sheet in the spreadsheet to be updated
 * @param {string} find string to be replaced
 * @param {string} replacement the string to replace the old data
 * @returns {*} the updated spreadsheet
 */
Snippets.prototype.batchUpdate = (spreadsheetId, title,
  find, replacement) => {
  // This code uses the Sheets Advanced Service, but for most use cases
  // the built-in method SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSpreadsheet()
  //     .getRange(range).setValues(values) is more appropriate.

  try {
    // Change the spreadsheet's title.
    let updateSpreadsheetPropertiesRequest =
      Sheets.newUpdateSpreadsheetPropertiesRequest();
    updateSpreadsheetPropertiesRequest.properties =
      Sheets.newSpreadsheetProperties();
    updateSpreadsheetPropertiesRequest.properties.title = title;
    updateSpreadsheetPropertiesRequest.fields = 'title';

    // Find and replace text.
    let findReplaceRequest = Sheets.newFindReplaceRequest();
    findReplaceRequest.find = find;
    findReplaceRequest.replacement = replacement;
    findReplaceRequest.allSheets = true;

    let requests = [Sheets.newRequest(), Sheets.newRequest()];
    requests[0].updateSpreadsheetProperties =
      updateSpreadsheetPropertiesRequest;
    requests[1].findReplace = findReplaceRequest;

    let batchUpdateRequest = Sheets.newBatchUpdateSpreadsheetRequest();
    batchUpdateRequest.requests = requests;

    // Add additional requests (operations)
    const result =
      Sheets.Spreadsheets.batchUpdate(batchUpdateRequest, spreadsheetId);
    return result;
  } catch (err) {
    // TODO (developer) - Handle exception
    Logger.log('Failed with error %s', err.message);
  }
};

Java

sheets/snippets/src/main/java/BatchUpdate.java
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.json.GoogleJsonError;
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.json.GoogleJsonResponseException;
import com.google.api.client.http.HttpRequestInitializer;
import com.google.api.client.http.javanet.NetHttpTransport;
import com.google.api.client.json.gson.GsonFactory;
import com.google.api.services.sheets.v4.Sheets;
import com.google.api.services.sheets.v4.SheetsScopes;
import com.google.api.services.sheets.v4.model.BatchUpdateSpreadsheetRequest;
import com.google.api.services.sheets.v4.model.BatchUpdateSpreadsheetResponse;
import com.google.api.services.sheets.v4.model.FindReplaceRequest;
import com.google.api.services.sheets.v4.model.FindReplaceResponse;
import com.google.api.services.sheets.v4.model.Request;
import com.google.api.services.sheets.v4.model.SpreadsheetProperties;
import com.google.api.services.sheets.v4.model.UpdateSpreadsheetPropertiesRequest;
import com.google.auth.http.HttpCredentialsAdapter;
import com.google.auth.oauth2.GoogleCredentials;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.List;

/* Class to demonstrate the use of Spreadsheet Batch Update API */
public class BatchUpdate {
  /**
   * Updates spreadsheet's title and cell values.
   *
   * @param spreadsheetId - Id of the spreadsheet.
   * @param title         - New title of the spreadsheet.
   * @param find          - Find cell values
   * @param replacement   - Replaced cell values
   * @return response metadata
   * @throws IOException - if credentials file not found.
   */
  public static BatchUpdateSpreadsheetResponse batchUpdate(String spreadsheetId,
                                                           String title,
                                                           String find,
                                                           String replacement)
      throws IOException {
        /* Load pre-authorized user credentials from the environment.
           TODO(developer) - See https://developers.google.com/identity for
            guides on implementing OAuth2 for your application. */
    GoogleCredentials credentials = GoogleCredentials.getApplicationDefault()
        .createScoped(Collections.singleton(SheetsScopes.SPREADSHEETS));
    HttpRequestInitializer requestInitializer = new HttpCredentialsAdapter(
        credentials);

    // Create the sheets API client
    Sheets service = new Sheets.Builder(new NetHttpTransport(),
        GsonFactory.getDefaultInstance(),
        requestInitializer)
        .setApplicationName("Sheets samples")
        .build();

    List<Request> requests = new ArrayList<>();
    BatchUpdateSpreadsheetResponse response = null;
    try {
      // Change the spreadsheet's title.
      requests.add(new Request()
          .setUpdateSpreadsheetProperties(new UpdateSpreadsheetPropertiesRequest()
              .setProperties(new SpreadsheetProperties()
                  .setTitle(title))
              .setFields("title")));
      // Find and replace text.
      requests.add(new Request()
          .setFindReplace(new FindReplaceRequest()
              .setFind(find)
              .setReplacement(replacement)
              .setAllSheets(true)));

      BatchUpdateSpreadsheetRequest body =
          new BatchUpdateSpreadsheetRequest().setRequests(requests);
      response = service.spreadsheets().batchUpdate(spreadsheetId, body).execute();
      FindReplaceResponse findReplaceResponse = response.getReplies().get(1).getFindReplace();

      System.out.printf("%d replacements made.", findReplaceResponse.getOccurrencesChanged());
    } catch (GoogleJsonResponseException e) {
      // TODO(developer) - handle error appropriately
      GoogleJsonError error = e.getDetails();
      if (error.getCode() == 404) {
        System.out.printf("Spreadsheet not found with id '%s'.\n", spreadsheetId);
      } else {
        throw e;
      }
    }
    return response;
  }
}

JavaScript

sheets/snippets/sheets_batch_update.js
function batchUpdate(spreadsheetId, title, find, replacement, callback) {
  const requests = [];
  // Change the spreadsheet's title.
  requests.push({
    updateSpreadsheetProperties: {
      properties: {
        title: title,
      },
      fields: 'title',
    },
  });
  // Find and replace text.
  requests.push({
    findReplace: {
      find: find,
      replacement: replacement,
      allSheets: true,
    },
  });
  try {
    // Add additional requests (operations) ...
    const batchUpdateRequest = {requests: requests};
    gapi.client.sheets.spreadsheets.batchUpdate({
      spreadsheetId: spreadsheetId,
      resource: batchUpdateRequest,
    }).then((response) => {
      const findReplaceResponse = response.result.replies[1].findReplace;
      console.log(`${findReplaceResponse.occurrencesChanged} replacements made.`);
      if (callback) callback(response);
    });
  } catch (err) {
    document.getElementById('content').innerText = err.message;
    return;
  }
}

Node.js

sheets/snippets/sheets_batch_update.js
/**
 * Updates the Spreadsheet title. Finds and replaces a string in the sheets.
 * @param {string} spreadsheetId The Spreadsheet to update
 * @param {string} title The new Spreadsheet title
 * @param {string} find The text to find
 * @param {string} replacement The text to replace
 * @return {obj} holding the information regarding the replacement of strings
 */
async function batchUpdate(spreadsheetId, title, find, replacement) {
  const {GoogleAuth} = require('google-auth-library');
  const {google} = require('googleapis');

  const auth = new GoogleAuth(
      {scopes: 'https://www.googleapis.com/auth/spreadsheet'});

  const service = google.sheets({version: 'v4', auth});
  const requests = [];
  // Change the spreadsheet's title.
  requests.push({
    updateSpreadsheetProperties: {
      properties: {
        title,
      },
      fields: 'title',
    },
  });
  // Find and replace text.
  requests.push({
    findReplace: {
      find,
      replacement,
      allSheets: true,
    },
  });
  // Add additional requests (operations) ...
  const batchUpdateRequest = {requests};
  try {
    const response = await service.spreadsheets.batchUpdate({
      spreadsheetId,
      resource: batchUpdateRequest,
    });
    const findReplaceResponse = response.data.replies[1].findReplace;
    console.log(`${findReplaceResponse.occurrencesChanged} replacements made.`);
    return response;
  } catch (err) {
    // TODO (developer) - Handle exception
    throw err;
  }
}

PHP

sheets/snippets/src/SpreadsheetBatchUpdate.php
use Google\Client;
use Google\Service\Drive;
use Google\Service\Sheets\BatchUpdateSpreadsheetRequest;

/**
 * to batch update a spreadsheet
 */
function batchUpdate($spreadsheetId, $title, $find, $replacement)
    {   
        /* Load pre-authorized user credentials from the environment.
           TODO(developer) - See https://developers.google.com/identity for
            guides on implementing OAuth2 for your application. */
        $client = new Google\Client();
        $client->useApplicationDefaultCredentials();
        $client->addScope(Google\Service\Drive::DRIVE);
        $service = new Google_Service_Sheets($client);
        try{
            //execute the request
            $requests = [
                new Google_Service_Sheets_Request([
              'updateSpreadsheetProperties' => [
                  'properties' => [
                      'title' => $title
                    ],
                    'fields' => 'title'
              ]
          ]),
          new Google_Service_Sheets_Request([
              'findReplace' => [
                  'find' => $find,
                  'replacement' => $replacement,
                  'allSheets' => true
                  ]
                  ])
                ];
                $batchUpdateRequest = new Google_Service_Sheets_BatchUpdateSpreadsheetRequest([
                    'requests' => $requests
                ]);
        $response = $service->spreadsheets->batchUpdate($spreadsheetId, $batchUpdateRequest);
        $findReplaceResponse = $response->getReplies()[1]->getFindReplace();
        printf("%s replacements made.\n",
        $findReplaceResponse->getOccurrencesChanged());
        return $response;
    }
    catch(Exception $e) {
        // TODO(developer) - handle error appropriately
        echo 'Message: ' .$e->getMessage();
      }
    }

Python

sheets/snippets/sheets_batch_update.py
from __future__ import print_function

import google.auth
from googleapiclient.discovery import build
from googleapiclient.errors import HttpError


def sheets_batch_update(spreadsheet_id, title, find, replacement):

    """
    Update the sheet details in batch, the user has access to.
    Load pre-authorized user credentials from the environment.
    TODO(developer) - See https://developers.google.com/identity
    for guides on implementing OAuth2 for the application.
    """

    creds, _ = google.auth.default()
    # pylint: disable=maybe-no-member

    try:
        service = build('sheets', 'v4', credentials=creds)

        requests = []
        # Change the spreadsheet's title.
        requests.append({
            'updateSpreadsheetProperties': {
                'properties': {
                    'title': title
                },
                'fields': 'title'
            }
        })
        # Find and replace text
        requests.append({
            'findReplace': {
                'find': find,
                'replacement': replacement,
                'allSheets': True
            }
        })
        # Add additional requests (operations) ...

        body = {
            'requests': requests
        }
        response = service.spreadsheets().batchUpdate(
            spreadsheetId=spreadsheet_id,
            body=body).execute()
        find_replace_response = response.get('replies')[1].get('findReplace')
        print('{0} replacements made.'.format(
            find_replace_response.get('occurrencesChanged')))
        return response

    except HttpError as error:
        print(f"An error occurred: {error}")
        return error


if __name__ == '__main__':
    sheets_batch_update('spreadsheet_id', 'title', 'find', 'replacement')

Ruby

sheets/snippets/lib/spreadsheet_snippets.rb
requests = []
# Change the name of sheet ID '0' (the default first sheet on every
# spreadsheet)
requests.push({
                update_sheet_properties: {
                  properties: { sheet_id: 0, title: 'New Sheet Name' },
                  fields:     'title'
                }
              })
# Find and replace text
requests.push({
                find_replace: {
                  find:        find,
                  replacement: replacement,
                  all_sheets:  true
                }
              })
# Add additional requests (operations) ...

body = { requests: requests }
result = service.batch_update_spreadsheet(spreadsheet_id, body, {})
find_replace_response = result.replies[1].find_replace
puts "#{find_replace_response.occurrences_changed} replacements made."