E-posta Gönderme

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Gmail API'yi kullanarak e-posta göndermenin iki yolu vardır:

  • Doğrudan messages.send yöntemini kullanarak gönderebilirsiniz.
  • drafts.send yöntemini kullanarak bir taslaktan gönderebilirsiniz.

E-postalar bir mesaj kaynağının raw özelliği içinde base64url olarak kodlanmış dizeler olarak gönderilir. E-posta göndermek için üst düzey iş akışı:

  1. E-posta içeriğini uygun bir şekilde oluşturun ve bunu bir base64url dizesi olarak kodlayın.
  2. Yeni bir mesaj kaynağı oluşturun ve mesajın raw özelliğini, az önce oluşturduğunuz Base64url dizesine ayarlayın.
  3. messages.send numaralı telefonu arayın veya taslak gönderiyorsanız mesajı göndermek için drafts.send uygulamasını kullanın.

Bu iş akışının ayrıntıları, istemci kitaplığı ve programlama dili seçiminize bağlı olarak değişebilir.

Mesaj oluşturma

Gmail API'si, RFC 2822 ile uyumlu MIME e-posta iletilerinin kullanılmasını ve base64url dizelerinin kodlanmasını gerektirir. Birçok programlama dilinde MIME iletileri oluşturma ve kodlama sürecini basitleştiren kitaplıklar veya yardımcı programlar vardır. Aşağıdaki kod örnekleri, çeşitli diller için Google API'leri istemci kitaplıklarını kullanarak nasıl MIME mesajı oluşturulacağını gösterir.

Java

javax.mail.internet paketindeki MimeMessage sınıfıyla e-posta iletisi oluşturma işlemi büyük ölçüde kolaylaştırılabilir. Aşağıdaki örnekte, üstbilgiler de dahil olmak üzere e-posta iletisinin nasıl oluşturulacağı gösterilmektedir:

gmail/snippets/src/ana/java/CreateEmail.java
import java.util.Properties;
import javax.mail.MessagingException;
import javax.mail.Session;
import javax.mail.internet.InternetAddress;
import javax.mail.internet.MimeMessage;

/* Class to demonstrate the use of Gmail Create Email API  */
public class CreateEmail {

  /**
   * Create a MimeMessage using the parameters provided.
   *
   * @param toEmailAddress   email address of the receiver
   * @param fromEmailAddress email address of the sender, the mailbox account
   * @param subject          subject of the email
   * @param bodyText         body text of the email
   * @return the MimeMessage to be used to send email
   * @throws MessagingException - if a wrongly formatted address is encountered.
   */
  public static MimeMessage createEmail(String toEmailAddress,
                                        String fromEmailAddress,
                                        String subject,
                                        String bodyText)
      throws MessagingException {
    Properties props = new Properties();
    Session session = Session.getDefaultInstance(props, null);

    MimeMessage email = new MimeMessage(session);

    email.setFrom(new InternetAddress(fromEmailAddress));
    email.addRecipient(javax.mail.Message.RecipientType.TO,
        new InternetAddress(toEmailAddress));
    email.setSubject(subject);
    email.setText(bodyText);
    return email;
  }
}

Sonraki adım, MimeMessage kodlamasını yapmak, bir Message nesnesini örneklere eklemek ve Base64url kodlu mesaj dizesini raw özelliğinin değeri olarak ayarlamaktır.

gmail/snippets/src/ana/java/CreateMessage.java
import com.google.api.services.gmail.model.Message;
import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import javax.mail.MessagingException;
import javax.mail.internet.MimeMessage;
import org.apache.commons.codec.binary.Base64;

/* Class to demonstrate the use of Gmail Create Message API */
public class CreateMessage {

  /**
   * Create a message from an email.
   *
   * @param emailContent Email to be set to raw of message
   * @return a message containing a base64url encoded email
   * @throws IOException        - if service account credentials file not found.
   * @throws MessagingException - if a wrongly formatted address is encountered.
   */
  public static Message createMessageWithEmail(MimeMessage emailContent)
      throws MessagingException, IOException {
    ByteArrayOutputStream buffer = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
    emailContent.writeTo(buffer);
    byte[] bytes = buffer.toByteArray();
    String encodedEmail = Base64.encodeBase64URLSafeString(bytes);
    Message message = new Message();
    message.setRaw(encodedEmail);
    return message;
  }
}

Python

Aşağıdaki kod örneği, bir MIME iletisi oluşturmayı, Base64url dizesine kodlamayı ve Message kaynağının raw alanına atamayı göstermektedir:

gmail/snippet/send mail/create_draft.py
from __future__ import print_function

import base64
from email.message import EmailMessage

import google.auth
from googleapiclient.discovery import build
from googleapiclient.errors import HttpError


def gmail_create_draft():
    """Create and insert a draft email.
       Print the returned draft's message and id.
       Returns: Draft object, including draft id and message meta data.

      Load pre-authorized user credentials from the environment.
      TODO(developer) - See https://developers.google.com/identity
      for guides on implementing OAuth2 for the application.
    """
    creds, _ = google.auth.default()

    try:
        # create gmail api client
        service = build('gmail', 'v1', credentials=creds)

        message = EmailMessage()

        message.set_content('This is automated draft mail')

        message['To'] = 'gduser1@workspacesamples.dev'
        message['From'] = 'gduser2@workspacesamples.dev'
        message['Subject'] = 'Automated draft'

        # encoded message
        encoded_message = base64.urlsafe_b64encode(message.as_bytes()).decode()

        create_message = {
            'message': {
                'raw': encoded_message
            }
        }
        # pylint: disable=E1101
        draft = service.users().drafts().create(userId="me",
                                                body=create_message).execute()

        print(F'Draft id: {draft["id"]}\nDraft message: {draft["message"]}')

    except HttpError as error:
        print(F'An error occurred: {error}')
        draft = None

    return draft


if __name__ == '__main__':
    gmail_create_draft()

Ekli iletiler oluşturma

Ek içeren bir ileti oluşturmak, başka bir ileti oluşturmaya benzer, ancak dosyayı çok parçalı bir MIME iletisi olarak yükleme işlemi programlama diline bağlıdır. Aşağıdaki kod örnekleri, eki olan çok parçalı bir MIME iletisi oluşturmanın olası yollarını göstermektedir.

Java

Aşağıdaki örnekte çok parçalı bir MIME iletisinin nasıl oluşturulacağı gösterilmektedir. Yukarıdaki kodlama ve atama adımları aynıdır.

gmail/snippets/src/main/java/CreateCreateWithWith.java
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.json.GoogleJsonError;
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.json.GoogleJsonResponseException;
import com.google.api.client.http.HttpRequestInitializer;
import com.google.api.client.http.javanet.NetHttpTransport;
import com.google.api.client.json.gson.GsonFactory;
import com.google.api.services.gmail.Gmail;
import com.google.api.services.gmail.GmailScopes;
import com.google.api.services.gmail.model.Draft;
import com.google.api.services.gmail.model.Message;
import com.google.auth.http.HttpCredentialsAdapter;
import com.google.auth.oauth2.GoogleCredentials;
import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Properties;
import javax.activation.DataHandler;
import javax.activation.DataSource;
import javax.activation.FileDataSource;
import javax.mail.MessagingException;
import javax.mail.Multipart;
import javax.mail.Session;
import javax.mail.internet.InternetAddress;
import javax.mail.internet.MimeBodyPart;
import javax.mail.internet.MimeMessage;
import javax.mail.internet.MimeMultipart;
import org.apache.commons.codec.binary.Base64;

/* Class to demonstrate the use of Gmail Create Draft with attachment API */
public class CreateDraftWithAttachment {
  /**
   * Create a draft email with attachment.
   *
   * @param fromEmailAddress - Email address to appear in the from: header.
   * @param toEmailAddress   - Email address of the recipient.
   * @param file             - Path to the file to be attached.
   * @return the created draft, {@code null} otherwise.
   * @throws MessagingException - if a wrongly formatted address is encountered.
   * @throws IOException        - if service account credentials file not found.
   */
  public static Draft createDraftMessageWithAttachment(String fromEmailAddress,
                                                       String toEmailAddress,
                                                       File file)
      throws MessagingException, IOException {
        /* Load pre-authorized user credentials from the environment.
         TODO(developer) - See https://developers.google.com/identity for
          guides on implementing OAuth2 for your application.*/
    GoogleCredentials credentials = GoogleCredentials.getApplicationDefault()
        .createScoped(GmailScopes.GMAIL_COMPOSE);
    HttpRequestInitializer requestInitializer = new HttpCredentialsAdapter(credentials);

    // Create the gmail API client
    Gmail service = new Gmail.Builder(new NetHttpTransport(),
        GsonFactory.getDefaultInstance(),
        requestInitializer)
        .setApplicationName("Gmail samples")
        .build();

    // Create the email content
    String messageSubject = "Test message";
    String bodyText = "lorem ipsum.";

    // Encode as MIME message
    Properties props = new Properties();
    Session session = Session.getDefaultInstance(props, null);
    MimeMessage email = new MimeMessage(session);
    email.setFrom(new InternetAddress(fromEmailAddress));
    email.addRecipient(javax.mail.Message.RecipientType.TO,
        new InternetAddress(toEmailAddress));
    email.setSubject(messageSubject);

    MimeBodyPart mimeBodyPart = new MimeBodyPart();
    mimeBodyPart.setContent(bodyText, "text/plain");
    Multipart multipart = new MimeMultipart();
    multipart.addBodyPart(mimeBodyPart);
    mimeBodyPart = new MimeBodyPart();
    DataSource source = new FileDataSource(file);
    mimeBodyPart.setDataHandler(new DataHandler(source));
    mimeBodyPart.setFileName(file.getName());
    multipart.addBodyPart(mimeBodyPart);
    email.setContent(multipart);

    // Encode and wrap the MIME message into a gmail message
    ByteArrayOutputStream buffer = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
    email.writeTo(buffer);
    byte[] rawMessageBytes = buffer.toByteArray();
    String encodedEmail = Base64.encodeBase64URLSafeString(rawMessageBytes);
    Message message = new Message();
    message.setRaw(encodedEmail);

    try {
      // Create the draft message
      Draft draft = new Draft();
      draft.setMessage(message);
      draft = service.users().drafts().create("me", draft).execute();
      System.out.println("Draft id: " + draft.getId());
      System.out.println(draft.toPrettyString());
      return draft;
    } catch (GoogleJsonResponseException e) {
      // TODO(developer) - handle error appropriately
      GoogleJsonError error = e.getDetails();
      if (error.getCode() == 403) {
        System.err.println("Unable to create draft: " + e.getDetails());
      } else {
        throw e;
      }
    }
    return null;
  }
}

Python

Önceki örnekte olduğu gibi bu örnek, mesajı Base64url olarak kodlamayı ve Message kaynağının raw alanına atamayı da kapsar.

gmail/snippet/send mail/create_draft_with_attachment.py
from __future__ import print_function

import base64
import mimetypes
import os
from email.message import EmailMessage
from email.mime.audio import MIMEAudio
from email.mime.base import MIMEBase
from email.mime.image import MIMEImage
from email.mime.text import MIMEText

import google.auth
from googleapiclient.discovery import build
from googleapiclient.errors import HttpError


def gmail_create_draft_with_attachment():
    """Create and insert a draft email with attachment.
       Print the returned draft's message and id.
      Returns: Draft object, including draft id and message meta data.

      Load pre-authorized user credentials from the environment.
      TODO(developer) - See https://developers.google.com/identity
      for guides on implementing OAuth2 for the application.
    """
    creds, _ = google.auth.default()

    try:
        # create gmail api client
        service = build('gmail', 'v1', credentials=creds)
        mime_message = EmailMessage()

        # headers
        mime_message['To'] = 'gduser1@workspacesamples.dev'
        mime_message['From'] = 'gduser2@workspacesamples.dev'
        mime_message['Subject'] = 'sample with attachment'

        # text
        mime_message.set_content(
            'Hi, this is automated mail with attachment.'
            'Please do not reply.'
        )

        # attachment
        attachment_filename = 'photo.jpg'
        # guessing the MIME type
        type_subtype, _ = mimetypes.guess_type(attachment_filename)
        maintype, subtype = type_subtype.split('/')

        with open(attachment_filename, 'rb') as fp:
            attachment_data = fp.read()
        mime_message.add_attachment(attachment_data, maintype, subtype)

        encoded_message = base64.urlsafe_b64encode(mime_message.as_bytes()).decode()

        create_draft_request_body = {
            'message': {
                'raw': encoded_message
            }
        }
        # pylint: disable=E1101
        draft = service.users().drafts().create(userId="me",
                                                body=create_draft_request_body)\
            .execute()
        print(F'Draft id: {draft["id"]}\nDraft message: {draft["message"]}')
    except HttpError as error:
        print(F'An error occurred: {error}')
        draft = None
    return draft


def build_file_part(file):
    """Creates a MIME part for a file.

    Args:
      file: The path to the file to be attached.

    Returns:
      A MIME part that can be attached to a message.
    """
    content_type, encoding = mimetypes.guess_type(file)

    if content_type is None or encoding is not None:
        content_type = 'application/octet-stream'
    main_type, sub_type = content_type.split('/', 1)
    if main_type == 'text':
        with open(file, 'rb'):
            msg = MIMEText('r', _subtype=sub_type)
    elif main_type == 'image':
        with open(file, 'rb'):
            msg = MIMEImage('r', _subtype=sub_type)
    elif main_type == 'audio':
        with open(file, 'rb'):
            msg = MIMEAudio('r', _subtype=sub_type)
    else:
        with open(file, 'rb'):
            msg = MIMEBase(main_type, sub_type)
            msg.set_payload(file.read())
    filename = os.path.basename(file)
    msg.add_header('Content-Disposition', 'attachment', filename=filename)
    return msg


if __name__ == '__main__':
    gmail_create_draft_with_attachment()

Mesaj gönderme

Bir mesaj oluşturduktan sonra mesajı, aşağıdaki örneklerde gösterildiği gibi messages.send çağrısının istek gövdesinde sağlayarak gönderebilirsiniz.

Java

gmail/snippets/src/ana/java/SendMessage.java
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.json.GoogleJsonError;
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.json.GoogleJsonResponseException;
import com.google.api.client.http.HttpRequestInitializer;
import com.google.api.client.http.javanet.NetHttpTransport;
import com.google.api.client.json.gson.GsonFactory;
import com.google.api.services.gmail.Gmail;
import com.google.api.services.gmail.GmailScopes;
import com.google.api.services.gmail.model.Message;
import com.google.auth.http.HttpCredentialsAdapter;
import com.google.auth.oauth2.GoogleCredentials;
import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Properties;
import javax.mail.MessagingException;
import javax.mail.Session;
import javax.mail.internet.InternetAddress;
import javax.mail.internet.MimeMessage;
import org.apache.commons.codec.binary.Base64;

/* Class to demonstrate the use of Gmail Send Message API */
public class SendMessage {
  /**
   * Send an email from the user's mailbox to its recipient.
   *
   * @param fromEmailAddress - Email address to appear in the from: header
   * @param toEmailAddress   - Email address of the recipient
   * @return the sent message, {@code null} otherwise.
   * @throws MessagingException - if a wrongly formatted address is encountered.
   * @throws IOException        - if service account credentials file not found.
   */
  public static Message sendEmail(String fromEmailAddress,
                                  String toEmailAddress)
      throws MessagingException, IOException {
        /* Load pre-authorized user credentials from the environment.
           TODO(developer) - See https://developers.google.com/identity for
            guides on implementing OAuth2 for your application.*/
    GoogleCredentials credentials = GoogleCredentials.getApplicationDefault()
        .createScoped(GmailScopes.GMAIL_SEND);
    HttpRequestInitializer requestInitializer = new HttpCredentialsAdapter(credentials);

    // Create the gmail API client
    Gmail service = new Gmail.Builder(new NetHttpTransport(),
        GsonFactory.getDefaultInstance(),
        requestInitializer)
        .setApplicationName("Gmail samples")
        .build();

    // Create the email content
    String messageSubject = "Test message";
    String bodyText = "lorem ipsum.";

    // Encode as MIME message
    Properties props = new Properties();
    Session session = Session.getDefaultInstance(props, null);
    MimeMessage email = new MimeMessage(session);
    email.setFrom(new InternetAddress(fromEmailAddress));
    email.addRecipient(javax.mail.Message.RecipientType.TO,
        new InternetAddress(toEmailAddress));
    email.setSubject(messageSubject);
    email.setText(bodyText);

    // Encode and wrap the MIME message into a gmail message
    ByteArrayOutputStream buffer = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
    email.writeTo(buffer);
    byte[] rawMessageBytes = buffer.toByteArray();
    String encodedEmail = Base64.encodeBase64URLSafeString(rawMessageBytes);
    Message message = new Message();
    message.setRaw(encodedEmail);

    try {
      // Create send message
      message = service.users().messages().send("me", message).execute();
      System.out.println("Message id: " + message.getId());
      System.out.println(message.toPrettyString());
      return message;
    } catch (GoogleJsonResponseException e) {
      // TODO(developer) - handle error appropriately
      GoogleJsonError error = e.getDetails();
      if (error.getCode() == 403) {
        System.err.println("Unable to send message: " + e.getDetails());
      } else {
        throw e;
      }
    }
    return null;
  }
}

Python

gmail/snippet/send/message_message.py
from __future__ import print_function

import base64
from email.message import EmailMessage

import google.auth
from googleapiclient.discovery import build
from googleapiclient.errors import HttpError


def gmail_send_message():
    """Create and send an email message
    Print the returned  message id
    Returns: Message object, including message id

    Load pre-authorized user credentials from the environment.
    TODO(developer) - See https://developers.google.com/identity
    for guides on implementing OAuth2 for the application.
    """
    creds, _ = google.auth.default()

    try:
        service = build('gmail', 'v1', credentials=creds)
        message = EmailMessage()

        message.set_content('This is automated draft mail')

        message['To'] = 'gduser1@workspacesamples.dev'
        message['From'] = 'gduser2@workspacesamples.dev'
        message['Subject'] = 'Automated draft'

        # encoded message
        encoded_message = base64.urlsafe_b64encode(message.as_bytes()) \
            .decode()

        create_message = {
            'raw': encoded_message
        }
        # pylint: disable=E1101
        send_message = (service.users().messages().send
                        (userId="me", body=create_message).execute())
        print(F'Message Id: {send_message["id"]}')
    except HttpError as error:
        print(F'An error occurred: {error}')
        send_message = None
    return send_message


if __name__ == '__main__':
    gmail_send_message()

Yanıt göndermeye çalışıyorsanız ve e-postanın ileti dizisi haline getirilmesini istiyorsanız aşağıdakilerden emin olun:

  1. Subject üstbilgileri eşleşiyor
  2. References ve In-Reply-To başlıkları RFC 2822 standardını uygular.

Taslaktan ileti gönderme hakkında bilgi edinmek için Taslak Oluşturma sayfasına göz atın.