Landsat Collections in Earth Engine

Landsat, a joint program of the USGS and NASA, has been observing the Earth continuously from 1972 through the present day. Today the Landsat satellites image the entire Earth's surface at a 30-meter resolution about once every two weeks, including multispectral and thermal data. Earth Engine makes this data available in its raw form, as Surface Reflectance, TOA-corrected reflectance, and in various ready-to-use computed products such as NDVI and EVI vegetation indices. The USGS produces data in 3 categories for each satellite (Tier 1, Tier 2 and RT). Read more about the different tiers.

Landsat 8

Availability: 2013-04-11 – Present

Surface Reflectance

This dataset is the atmospherically corrected surface reflectance from the Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS sensors. These images contain 5 visible and near-infrared (VNIR) bands and 2 short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands processed to orthorectified surface reflectance, and two thermal infrared (TIR) bands processed to orthorectified brightness temperature. These data have been atmospherically corrected using LaSRC and includes a cloud, shadow, water and snow mask produced using CFMASK, as well as a per-pixel saturation mask.

photo_library Tier 1 Collection photo_library Tier 2 Collection

Top of Atmosphere

Landsat 8 Collection 1 Tier 1 calibrated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. Calibration coefficients are extracted from the image metadata. Landsat scenes with the highest available data quality are placed into Tier 1 and are considered suitable for time-series processing analysis. Tier 1 includes Level-1 Precision Terrain (L1TP) processed data that have well-characterized radiometry and are inter-calibrated across the different Landsat sensors.

photo_library Tier 1 Collection photo_library T1 + Real-Time photo_library Tier 2 Collection

Raw Images

Landsat 8 Collection 1 Tier 1 DN values, representing scaled, calibrated at-sensor radiance.

photo_library Tier 1 Collection photo_library T1 + Real-Time photo_library Tier 2 Collection

Derived Datasets

These composites are created from all the scenes in each 8-day/32-day/1 year period beginning from the first day of the year and continuing to the 360th day of the year. The last composite of the year, beginning on day 361, will overlap the first composite of the following year by 3 days. All the images from each 8-day period are included in the composite, with the most recent pixel as the composite value.

Burn Area Index (BAI)

The Burn Area Index (BAI) is generated from the Red and Near-IR bands, and measures the spectral distance of each pixel from a reference spectral point (the measured reflectance of charcoal). This index is intended to emphasize the charcoal signal in post-fire images.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI)

The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) is generated from the Near-IR, Red and Blue bands of each scene, and ranges in value from -1.0 to 1.0. See Huete et al. (2002) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index is generated from the Near-IR and Red bands of each scene as (NIR - Red) / (NIR + Red), and ranges in value from -1.0 to 1.0.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Burn Ratio Thermal (NBRT)

The Normalized Burn Ratio Thermal (NBRT) index is generated from the Near-IR, Mid-IR (2215 nm), and Thermal bands, and has a range from -1.0 to 1.0. See Holden et al. (2005) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI)

The Normalized Difference Snow Index is used to identify snow, based on its characteristically higher reflectance in the visible portion of the spectrum compared to the mid-IR. NDSI is computed using the Green and Mid-IR bands, and has a range of -1.0 to 1.0. See Riggs et al. (1994) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI)

The Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) is sensitive to changes in liquid water content of vegetation canopies. It is derived from the Near-IR band and a second IR band, ≈1.24μm when available and the nearest available IR band otherwise. It ranges in value from -1.0 to 1.0. See Gao (1996) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Landsat 7

Availability: 1999-01-01 – Present

Surface Reflectance

This dataset is the atmospherically corrected surface reflectance from the Landsat 7 ETM+ sensor. These images contain 4 visible and near-infrared (VNIR) bands and 2 short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands processed to orthorectified surface reflectance, and one thermal infrared (TIR) band processed to orthorectified brightness temperature. The VNIR and SWIR bands have a resolution of 30m / pixel. The TIR band, while originally collected with a resolution of 120m / pixel (60m / pixel for Landsat 7) has been resampled using cubic convolution to 30m.

photo_library Tier 1 Collection photo_library Tier 2 Collection

Top of Atmosphere

Landsat 7 Collection 1 calibrated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance.

photo_library Tier 1 Collection photo_library T1 + Real-Time photo_library Tier 2 Collection

Raw Images

Landsat 7 Collection 1 images, representing scaled, calibrated at-sensor radiance.

photo_library Tier 1 Collection photo_library T1 + Real-Time photo_library Tier 2 Collection

Derived Datasets

These composites are created from all the scenes in each 8-day/32-day/1 year period beginning from the first day of the year and continuing to the 360th day of the year. The last composite of the year, beginning on day 361, will overlap the first composite of the following year by 3 days. All the images from each 8-day period are included in the composite, with the most recent pixel as the composite value.

Burn Area Index (BAI)

The Burn Area Index (BAI) is generated from the Red and Near-IR bands, and measures the spectral distance of each pixel from a reference spectral point (the measured reflectance of charcoal). This index is intended to emphasize the charcoal signal in post-fire images.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI)

The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) is generated from the Near-IR, Red and Blue bands of each scene, and ranges in value from -1.0 to 1.0. See Huete et al. (2002) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index is generated from the Near-IR and Red bands of each scene as (NIR - Red) / (NIR + Red), and ranges in value from -1.0 to 1.0.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Burn Ratio Thermal (NBRT)

The Normalized Burn Ratio Thermal (NBRT) index is generated from the Near-IR, Mid-IR (2215 nm), and Thermal bands, and has a range from -1.0 to 1.0. See Holden et al. (2005) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI)

The Normalized Difference Snow Index is used to identify snow, based on its characteristically higher reflectance in the visible portion of the spectrum compared to the mid-IR. NDSI is computed using the Green and Mid-IR bands, and has a range of -1.0 to 1.0. See Riggs et al. (1994) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI)

The Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) is sensitive to changes in liquid water content of vegetation canopies. It is derived from the Near-IR band and a second IR band, ≈1.24μm when available and the nearest available IR band otherwise. It ranges in value from -1.0 to 1.0. See Gao (1996) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Landsat 5

Availability: 1984-01-01 – 2012-05-05

Surface Reflectance

This dataset is the atmospherically corrected surface reflectance from the Landsat 5 ETM sensor. These images contain 4 visible and near-infrared (VNIR) bands and 2 short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands processed to orthorectified surface reflectance, and one thermal infrared (TIR) band processed to orthorectified brightness temperature. The VNIR and SWIR bands have a resolution of 30m / pixel. The TIR band, while originally collected with a resolution of 120m / pixel (60m / pixel for Landsat 7) has been resampled using cubic convolution to 30m.

photo_library Tier 1 Collection photo_library Tier 2 Collection

Top of Atmosphere

Landsat 5 TM Collection 1 Tier 1 calibrated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. Calibration coefficients are extracted from the image metadata. Landsat scenes with the highest available data quality are placed into Tier 1 and are considered suitable for time-series processing analysis. Tier 1 includes Level-1 Precision Terrain (L1TP) processed data that have well-characterized radiometry and are inter-calibrated across the different Landsat sensors.

photo_library Tier 1 Collection photo_library Tier 2 Collection

Raw Images

Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 5 MSS Collection 1 DN values, representing scaled, calibrated at-sensor radiance.

photo_library Tier 1 Collection (TM) photo_library Tier 2 Collection (TM) photo_library Tier 1 Collection (MSS) photo_library Tier 2 Collection (MSS)

Derived Datasets

These composites are created from all the scenes in each 8-day/32-day/1 year period beginning from the first day of the year and continuing to the 360th day of the year. The last composite of the year, beginning on day 361, will overlap the first composite of the following year by 3 days. All the images from each 8-day period are included in the composite, with the most recent pixel as the composite value.

Burn Area Index (BAI)

The Burn Area Index (BAI) is generated from the Red and Near-IR bands, and measures the spectral distance of each pixel from a reference spectral point (the measured reflectance of charcoal). This index is intended to emphasize the charcoal signal in post-fire images.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI)

The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) is generated from the Near-IR, Red and Blue bands of each scene, and ranges in value from -1.0 to 1.0. See Huete et al. (2002) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index is generated from the Near-IR and Red bands of each scene as (NIR - Red) / (NIR + Red), and ranges in value from -1.0 to 1.0.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Burn Ratio Thermal (NBRT)

The Normalized Burn Ratio Thermal (NBRT) index is generated from the Near-IR, Mid-IR (2215 nm), and Thermal bands, and has a range from -1.0 to 1.0. See Holden et al. (2005) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI)

The Normalized Difference Snow Index is used to identify snow, based on its characteristically higher reflectance in the visible portion of the spectrum compared to the mid-IR. NDSI is computed using the Green and Mid-IR bands, and has a range of -1.0 to 1.0. See Riggs et al. (1994) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI)

The Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) is sensitive to changes in liquid water content of vegetation canopies. It is derived from the Near-IR band and a second IR band, ≈1.24μm when available and the nearest available IR band otherwise. It ranges in value from -1.0 to 1.0. See Gao (1996) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Landsat 4

Availability: 1982-08-22 – 1993-12-14

Surface Reflectance

This dataset is the atmospherically corrected surface reflectance from the Landsat 4 ETM sensor. These images contain 4 visible and near-infrared (VNIR) bands and 2 short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands processed to orthorectified surface reflectance, and one thermal infrared (TIR) band processed to orthorectified brightness temperature. The VNIR and SWIR bands have a resolution of 30m / pixel. The TIR band, while originally collected with a resolution of 120m / pixel (60m / pixel for Landsat 7) has been resampled using cubic convolution to 30m.

photo_library Tier 1 Collection photo_library Tier 2 Collection

Top of Atmosphere

Landsat 4 TM Collection 1 calibrated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. Calibration coefficients are extracted from the image metadata. Landsat scenes with the highest available data quality are placed into Tier 1 and are considered suitable for time-series processing analysis. Tier 1 includes Level-1 Precision Terrain (L1TP) processed data that have well-characterized radiometry and are inter-calibrated across the different Landsat sensors.

photo_library Tier 1 Collection photo_library Tier 2 Collection

Raw Images

Landsat 4 TM and Landsat 4 MSS Collection 1 DN values, representing scaled, calibrated at-sensor radiance.

photo_library Tier 1 Collection (TM) photo_library Tier 2 Collection (TM) photo_library Tier 1 Collection (MSS) photo_library Tier 2 Collection (MSS)

Derived Datasets

These composites are created from all the scenes in each 8-day/32-day/1 year period beginning from the first day of the year and continuing to the 360th day of the year. The last composite of the year, beginning on day 361, will overlap the first composite of the following year by 3 days. All the images from each 8-day period are included in the composite, with the most recent pixel as the composite value.

Burn Area Index (BAI)

The Burn Area Index (BAI) is generated from the Red and Near-IR bands, and measures the spectral distance of each pixel from a reference spectral point (the measured reflectance of charcoal). This index is intended to emphasize the charcoal signal in post-fire images.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI)

The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) is generated from the Near-IR, Red and Blue bands of each scene, and ranges in value from -1.0 to 1.0. See Huete et al. (2002) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index is generated from the Near-IR and Red bands of each scene as (NIR - Red) / (NIR + Red), and ranges in value from -1.0 to 1.0.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Burn Ratio Thermal (NBRT)

The Normalized Burn Ratio Thermal (NBRT) index is generated from the Near-IR, Mid-IR (2215 nm), and Thermal bands, and has a range from -1.0 to 1.0. See Holden et al. (2005) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI)

The Normalized Difference Snow Index is used to identify snow, based on its characteristically higher reflectance in the visible portion of the spectrum compared to the mid-IR. NDSI is computed using the Green and Mid-IR bands, and has a range of -1.0 to 1.0. See Riggs et al. (1994) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI)

The Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) is sensitive to changes in liquid water content of vegetation canopies. It is derived from the Near-IR band and a second IR band, ≈1.24μm when available and the nearest available IR band otherwise. It ranges in value from -1.0 to 1.0. See Gao (1996) for details.

photo_library 8-day photo_library 32-day photo_library Annual

Landsat 3

Availability: 1978-03-05 – 1983-03-31

MSS Raw Scenes

Landsat 3 MSS Collection 1 Tier 1 DN values, representing scaled, calibrated at-sensor radiance. Landsat scenes with the highest available data quality are placed into Tier 1 and are considered suitable for time-series processing analysis. Tier 1 includes Level-1 Precision Terrain (L1TP) processed data that have well-characterized radiometry and are inter-calibrated across the different Landsat sensors. The georegistration of Tier 1 scenes will be consistent and within prescribed tolerances [<=12 m root mean square error (RMSE)]. All Tier 1 Landsat data can be considered consistent and inter-calibrated (regardless of sensor) across the full collection.

photo_library Tier 1 Collection photo_library Tier 2 Collection

Landsat 2

Availability: 1975-01-22 – 1982-02-26

MSS Raw Scenes

Landsat 2 MSS Collection 1 Tier 2 DN values, representing scaled, calibrated at-sensor radiance. Scenes not meeting Tier 1 criteria during processing are assigned to Tier 2. This includes Systematic terrain (L1GT) and Systematic (L1GS) processed scenes, as well as any L1TP scenes that do not meet the Tier 1 specifications due to significant cloud cover, insufficient ground control, and other factors. Users interested in Tier 2 scenes can analyze the RMSE and other properties to determine the suitability for use in individual applications and studies.

photo_library Tier 1 Collection photo_library Tier 2 Collection

Landsat 1

Availability: 1972-07-23 – 1978-01-07

MSS Raw Scenes

Landsat 1 MSS Collection 1 Tier 1 DN values, representing scaled, calibrated at-sensor radiance. Landsat scenes with the highest available data quality are placed into Tier 1 and are considered suitable for time-series processing analysis. Tier 1 includes Level-1 Precision Terrain (L1TP) processed data that have well-characterized radiometry and are inter-calibrated across the different Landsat sensors. The georegistration of Tier 1 scenes will be consistent and within prescribed tolerances [<=12 m root mean square error (RMSE)]. All Tier 1 Landsat data can be considered consistent and inter-calibrated (regardless of sensor) across the full collection.

photo_library Tier 1 Collection photo_library Tier 2 Collection

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