服务帐号

服务帐号是一类 Google 帐号,可供应用通过 OAuth 2.0 以编程方式访问 Google API。这个过程无需人工授权,但需要使用仅您的应用可访问的密钥文件。

在深入了解服务帐号之前,强烈建议您采用我们的替代方法来实施 OAuth 2.0 已安装应用流程,该方法比下文中介绍的方法要简便多了。使用此方法时,用户必须对应用进行手动授权,才能生成刷新令牌;然而,由于这些令牌永远不会过期,因此用户只需这样操作一次即可。

还要继续阅读?没问题,您可以通过以下任一方式实施服务帐号:

  • 如果您的用户位于不同网域,请将服务帐号作为 Campaign Manager 用户进行实施。这样,您便可以在每个帐号上分别创建新的用户个人资料并将它们全部与单个服务帐号相关联,从而连接到归不同机构所有的多个帐号。这是通过 Campaign Manager 使用服务帐号的首选方式。
  • 如果您的用户位于归您所有的单个网域,请实施全网域委派。在这种情况下,您必须对某个使用 G Suite 注册的网域拥有管理员权限。如需获取有关 G Suite 和/或网域配置的帮助,请参阅 G Suite 支持页面

前提条件

要将服务帐号作为 Campaign Manager 用户进行实施,请选择 Campaign Manager 用户标签页。要实施全网域委派,请选择下面的委派标签页。

Campaign Manager 用户

您必须有权访问某个已启用 API 访问权限的 Campaign Manager 帐号。

委派
  1. 您必须有权访问某个已启用 API 访问权限的 Campaign Manager 帐号。
  2. 您必须对某个使用 G Suite 注册的网域拥有管理员权限。
  3. 您必须将 Campaign Manager 用户个人资料关联到使用 G Suite 注册的网域中的一个或多个帐号。无法使用与其他网域(例如 gmail.com)中的帐号关联的用户个人资料。

配置和使用服务帐号

要将服务帐号作为 Campaign Manager 用户进行实施,请选择 Campaign Manager 用户标签页。要实施全网域委派,请选择下面的委派标签页。

Campaign Manager 用户
  1. 在 Google API 控制台中生成服务帐号密钥

    注意:请务必妥善保护相关的密钥文件(该文件让服务帐号能够访问其已获得授权的 Google 服务)。
  2. 将 Campaign Manager 用户个人资料与上一步中获取的服务帐号电子邮件地址相关联,如管理用户访问权限帮助中心文章中所述。
  3. 使用您新创建的服务帐号在您的应用中实施服务器到服务器 OAuth 2.0 流程。有关详细信息,请参阅示例部分。
委派
  1. 在 Google API 控制台中生成服务帐号密钥

    注意:请务必妥善保护相关的密钥文件(该文件让服务帐号能够访问其已获得授权的 Google 服务)。由于 G Suite 的网域级控制会准许该服务帐号模拟相应网域中的任何用户,因此这一点对于全网域委派流程尤为重要。此外,您最好使每个服务帐号仅能访问一个 Google API(通过使用下一步骤中介绍的“范围”字段)。这是一项预防性措施;万一服务帐号的密钥文件遭到入侵,该措施可减少攻击者所能访问的数据量。
  2. 全网域权限委派给该服务帐号,以使其可模拟您网域内的用户。当系统提示时,请提供下列 API 范围:
    范围 含义
    https://www.googleapis.com/auth/dfatrafficking 对 DCM 广告投放管理的读/写权限。
    https://www.googleapis.com/auth/dfareporting 对 DDM 报表的读/写权限。
    https://www.googleapis.com/auth/ddmconversions 对 DDM 离线转化数据的读/写权限。
  3. 使用您新创建的服务帐号在您的应用中实施服务器到服务器 OAuth 2.0 流程。有关详细信息,请参阅示例部分。请注意,您需要提供一个帐号以供模拟,而且该帐号必须属于上一步骤中提到的那个网域(在上一步骤中,您的服务帐号已获得该网域的全网域权限)。

如需获取有关 G Suite 和/或网域配置的帮助,请参阅 G Suite 支持页面

示例

C#

/*
 * Copyright 2015 Google Inc
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0(the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
*/

using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2;
using Google.Apis.Dfareporting.v3_3;
using Google.Apis.Dfareporting.v3_3.Data;
using Google.Apis.Json;
using Google.Apis.Services;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.IO;

namespace DfaReporting.Samples {
  /// <summary>
  /// This example demonstrates how to authenticate and make a basic request using a service
  /// account.
  /// </summary>
  class AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount : SampleBase {
    /// <summary>
    /// The OAuth 2.0 scopes to request.
    /// </summary>
    private static readonly IEnumerable<string> OAuthScopes = new[] {
      DfareportingService.Scope.Dfareporting
    };

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns a description about the code example.
    /// </summary>
    public override string Description {
      get {
        return "This example demonstrates how to authenticate and make a basic request" +
               " using a service account.\n";
      }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Main method, to run this code example as a standalone application.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="args">The command line arguments.</param>
    public static void Main(string[] args) {
      SampleBase codeExample = new AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount();
      Console.WriteLine(codeExample.Description);
      codeExample.Run(null);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Run the code example.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="service">Unused</param>
    public override void Run(DfareportingService service) {
      string pathToJsonFile = _T("ENTER_PATH_TO_JSON_FILE_HERE");

      // An optional Google account email to impersonate. Only applicable to service accounts which
      // have enabled domain-wide delegation and wish to make API requests on behalf of an account
      // within their domain. Setting this field will not allow you to impersonate a user from a
      // domain you don't own (e.g., gmail.com).
      string emailToImpersonate = _T("");

      // Build service account credential.
      ServiceAccountCredential credential =
          getServiceAccountCredential(pathToJsonFile, emailToImpersonate);

      // Create a Dfareporting service object.
      //
      // Note: application name should be replaced with a value that identifies your application.
      service = new DfareportingService(
          new BaseClientService.Initializer {
            HttpClientInitializer = credential,
            ApplicationName = "C# service account sample"
          }
      );

      // Retrieve and print all user profiles for the current authorized user.
      UserProfileList profiles = service.UserProfiles.List().Execute();

      foreach (UserProfile profile in profiles.Items) {
        Console.WriteLine("Found user profile with ID {0} and name \"{1}\".",
            profile.ProfileId, profile.UserName);
      }
    }

    private ServiceAccountCredential getServiceAccountCredential(String pathToJsonFile,
        String emailToImpersonate) {
      // Load and deserialize credential parameters from the specified JSON file.
      JsonCredentialParameters parameters;
      using (Stream json = new FileStream(pathToJsonFile, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Read)) {
        parameters = NewtonsoftJsonSerializer.Instance.Deserialize<JsonCredentialParameters>(json);
      }

      // Create a credential initializer with the correct scopes.
      ServiceAccountCredential.Initializer initializer =
          new ServiceAccountCredential.Initializer(parameters.ClientEmail) {
            Scopes = OAuthScopes
          };

      // Configure impersonation (if applicable).
      if (!String.IsNullOrEmpty(emailToImpersonate)) {
        initializer.User = emailToImpersonate;
      }

      // Create a service account credential object using the deserialized private key.
      ServiceAccountCredential credential =
          new ServiceAccountCredential(initializer.FromPrivateKey(parameters.PrivateKey));

      return credential;
    }
  }
}

Java

// Copyright 2014 Google Inc. All Rights Reserved.
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
// http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.

package com.google.api.services.samples.dfareporting.auth;

import com.google.api.client.auth.oauth2.Credential;
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleCredential;
import com.google.api.services.dfareporting.Dfareporting;
import com.google.api.services.dfareporting.DfareportingScopes;
import com.google.api.services.dfareporting.model.UserProfileList;
import com.google.common.base.Strings;
import com.google.common.collect.ImmutableSet;
import java.io.FileInputStream;

/**
 * This example demonstrates how to authenticate and make a basic request using a service account.
 */
public class AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount {
  private static final String PATH_TO_JSON_FILE = "ENTER_PATH_TO_JSON_FILE_HERE";

  /**
   * An optional Google account email to impersonate. Only applicable to service accounts which have
   * enabled domain-wide delegation and wish to make API requests on behalf of an account within
   * their domain. Setting this field will not allow you to impersonate a user from a domain you
   * don't own (e.g., gmail.com).
   */
  private static final String EMAIL_TO_IMPERSONATE = "";

  // The OAuth 2.0 scopes to request.
  private static final ImmutableSet<String> OAUTH_SCOPES =
      ImmutableSet.of(DfareportingScopes.DFAREPORTING);

  private static Credential getServiceAccountCredential(
      String pathToJsonFile, String emailToImpersonate) throws Exception {
    // Generate a credential object from the specified JSON file.
    GoogleCredential credential = GoogleCredential.fromStream(new FileInputStream(pathToJsonFile));

    // Update the credential object with appropriate scopes and impersonation info (if applicable).
    if (Strings.isNullOrEmpty(emailToImpersonate)) {
      credential = credential.createScoped(OAUTH_SCOPES);
    } else {
      credential =
          new GoogleCredential.Builder()
              .setTransport(credential.getTransport())
              .setJsonFactory(credential.getJsonFactory())
              .setServiceAccountId(credential.getServiceAccountId())
              .setServiceAccountPrivateKey(credential.getServiceAccountPrivateKey())
              .setServiceAccountScopes(OAUTH_SCOPES)
              // Set the email of the user you are impersonating (this can be yourself).
              .setServiceAccountUser(emailToImpersonate)
              .build();
    }

    return credential;
  }

  public static void runExample(Dfareporting reporting) throws Exception {
    // Retrieve and print all user profiles for the current authorized user.
    UserProfileList profiles = reporting.userProfiles().list().execute();
    for (int i = 0; i < profiles.getItems().size(); i++) {
      System.out.printf("%d) %s%n", i + 1, profiles.getItems().get(i).getUserName());
    }
  }

  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
    // Build service account credential.
    Credential credential = getServiceAccountCredential(PATH_TO_JSON_FILE, EMAIL_TO_IMPERSONATE);

    // Create a Dfareporting client instance.
    //
    // Note: application name below should be replaced with a value that identifies your
    // application. Suggested format is "MyCompany-ProductName/Version.MinorVersion".
    Dfareporting reporting =
        new Dfareporting.Builder(credential.getTransport(), credential.getJsonFactory(), credential)
            .setApplicationName("dfareporting-java-service-acct-sample")
            .build();

    runExample(reporting);
  }
}

PHP

<?php
/*
 * Copyright 2017 Google Inc.
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

require_once dirname(__DIR__) . '/vendor/autoload.php';

/**
 * This example demonstrates how to authenticate and make a basic request using
 * a service account.
 *
 * This example is written to be run as a command line application, not as a
 * webpage. An optional Google account email to impersonate may be specified as
 * follows:
 *
 *     AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount.php /path/to/client_secrets.json <email>
 *
 * This optional flag only applies to service accounts which have domain-wide
 * delegation enabled and wish to make API requests on behalf of an account
 * within that domain. Using this flag will not allow you to impersonate a user
 * from a domain that you don't own (e.g., gmail.com).
 */
class AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount
{
    // The OAuth 2.0 scopes to request.
    private static $OAUTH_SCOPES = [
        Google_Service_Dfareporting::DFAREPORTING
    ];

    public function run($pathToJsonFile, $email = null)
    {
        // Create an authenticated client object.
        $client = $this->createAuthenticatedClient($pathToJsonFile, $email);

        // Create a Dfareporting service object.
        $service = new Google_Service_Dfareporting($client);

        $this->getUserProfiles($service);
    }

    private function createAuthenticatedClient($pathToJsonFile, $email)
    {
        // Create a Google_Client instance.
        //
        // Note: application name should be replaced with a value that identifies
        // your application. Suggested format is "MyCompany-ProductName".
        $client = new Google_Client();
        $client->setApplicationName('PHP service account sample');
        $client->setScopes(self::$OAUTH_SCOPES);

        // Load the service account credentials.
        $client->setAuthConfig($pathToJsonFile);

        // Configure impersonation (if applicable).
        if (!is_null($email)) {
            $client->setSubject($email);
        }

        return $client;
    }

    private function getUserProfiles($service)
    {
        // Retrieve and print all user profiles for the current authorized user.
        $result = $service->userProfiles->listUserProfiles();
        foreach ($result['items'] as $userProfile) {
            printf(
                "User profile \"%s\" (ID: %d) found for account %d.\n",
                $userProfile->getUserName(),
                $userProfile->getProfileId(),
                $userProfile->getAccountId()
            );
        }
    }
}

if ($argc < 2 || $argc >= 4) {
    printf(
        "Usage: %s /path/to/client_secrets.json [email_to_impersonate]\n",
        $argv[0]
    );
} else {
    $sample = new AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount();

    if ($argc == 2) {
        $sample->run($argv[1]);
    } else {
        $sample->run($argv[1], $argv[2]);
    }
}

Python

#!/usr/bin/python
#
# Copyright 2015 Google Inc. All Rights Reserved.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

"""This example demonstrates how to authenticate using a service account.

An optional Google account email to impersonate may be specified as follows:
    authenticate_using_service_account.py <path_to_json_file> -i <email>

This optional flag only applies to service accounts which have domain-wide
delegation enabled and wish to make API requests on behalf of an account
within that domain. Using this flag will not allow you to impersonate a
user from a domain you don't own (e.g., gmail.com).
"""

import argparse
import sys

from googleapiclient import discovery
import httplib2
from oauth2client import client
from oauth2client import tools
from oauth2client.service_account import ServiceAccountCredentials

# Declare command-line flags.
argparser = argparse.ArgumentParser(add_help=False)
argparser.add_argument(
    'path_to_service_account_json_file',
    help='Path to the service account JSON file to use for authenticating.')
argparser.add_argument(
    '-i',
    '--impersonation_email',
    help='Google account email to impersonate.')

# The OAuth 2.0 scopes to request.
OAUTH_SCOPES = ['https://www.googleapis.com/auth/dfareporting']

def main(argv):
  # Retrieve command line arguments.
  parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(
      description=__doc__,
      formatter_class=argparse.RawDescriptionHelpFormatter,
      parents=[tools.argparser, argparser])
  flags = parser.parse_args(argv[1:])

  # Authenticate using the supplied service account credentials
  http = authenticate_using_service_account(
      flags.path_to_service_account_json_file,
      flags.impersonation_email)

  # Construct a service object via the discovery service.
  service = discovery.build('dfareporting', 'v3.3', http=http)

  try:
    # Construct the request.
    request = service.userProfiles().list()

    # Execute request and print response.
    response = request.execute()

    for profile in response['items']:
      print('Found user profile with ID %s and user name "%s".' %
            (profile['profileId'], profile['userName']))

  except client.AccessTokenRefreshError:
    print('The credentials have been revoked or expired, please re-run the '
          'application to re-authorize')

def authenticate_using_service_account(path_to_service_account_json_file,
                                       impersonation_email):
  """Authorizes an httplib2.Http instance using service account credentials."""
  # Load the service account credentials from the specified JSON keyfile.
  credentials = ServiceAccountCredentials.from_json_keyfile_name(
      path_to_service_account_json_file,
      scopes=OAUTH_SCOPES)

  # Configure impersonation (if applicable).
  if impersonation_email:
    credentials = credentials.create_delegated(impersonation_email)

  # Use the credentials to authorize an httplib2.Http instance.
  http = credentials.authorize(httplib2.Http())

  return http

if __name__ == '__main__':
  main(sys.argv)

Ruby

#!/usr/bin/env ruby

#
# Copyright:: Copyright 2016, Google Inc. All Rights Reserved.
#
# License:: Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
#           you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
#           You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#           http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
#           Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
#           distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
#           WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or
#           implied.
#           See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
#           limitations under the License.
#
# This example demonstrates how to authenticate using a service account.
#
# An optional Google account email to impersonate may be specified as follows:
#    authenticate_using_service_account.rb <path_to_json_file> --i <email>
#
# This optional flag only applies to service accounts which have domain-wide
# delegation enabled and wish to make API requests on behalf of an account
# within that domain. Using this flag will not allow you to impersonate a
# user from a domain you don't own (e.g., gmail.com).

require 'google/apis/dfareporting_v3_3'
require 'googleauth'
require 'optparse'

API_NAMESPACE = Google::Apis::DfareportingV3_3

def authenticate_using_service_account(path_to_json_file, impersonation_email)
  # Create a Dfareporting service object.
  #
  # Note: application name should be replaced with a value that identifies
  # your application. Suggested format is "MyCompany-ProductName".
  service = API_NAMESPACE::DfareportingService.new
  service.client_options.application_name = 'Ruby service account sample'
  service.client_options.application_version = '1.0.0'

  # Generate an authorization object from the specified JSON file.
  File.open(path_to_json_file, 'r+') do |json|
    service.authorization =
      Google::Auth::ServiceAccountCredentials.make_creds(
        json_key_io: json,
        scope: [API_NAMESPACE::AUTH_DFAREPORTING]
      )
  end

  # Configure impersonation (if applicable).
  service.authorization.sub = impersonation_email unless
    impersonation_email.nil?

  service
end

def get_userprofiles(service)
  # Get all user profiles.
  result = service.list_user_profiles

  # Display results.
  result.items.each do |profile|
    puts format(
      'User profile with ID %d and name "%s" was found for account %d.',
      profile.profile_id, profile.user_name, profile.account_id
    )
  end
end

if $PROGRAM_NAME == __FILE__
  # Retrieve command line arguments.
  impersonation_email = nil
  optparse = OptionParser.new do |opts|
    opts.banner = format('Usage: %s path_to_json_file [options]', $PROGRAM_NAME)
    opts.on_tail('-i', '--impersonate EMAIL',
      'Google account email to impersonate') do |email|
      impersonation_email = email
    end
  end
  optparse.parse!

  if ARGV.empty?
    puts optparse
    exit(-1)
  end

  # Authenticate and initialize API service using service account.
  service = authenticate_using_service_account(ARGV.shift, impersonation_email)

  get_userprofiles(service)
end