Service Accounts

A service account is a type of Google account that can be used by an application to access Google APIs programmatically via OAuth 2.0. This does not require human authorization but instead uses a key file that only your application can access.

Before reading more about service accounts consider the much simpler, and highly recommended, alternative of implementing the OAuth 2.0 installed application flow. This approach does require a user to manually authorize the application to generate a refresh token, but this only needs to be done once as these tokens never expire.

Still reading? OK, you can implement a service account in either of the following ways:

  • If your users reside on different domains, implement using a service account as a DCM user. This enables you to connect to multiple accounts owned by different agencies by creating a new user profile on each account and associating them all with a single service account. This is the preferred way to use service accounts with DCM.
  • If your users reside on a single domain that you own, implement domain-wide delegation. In this case you must have administrator access to a domain registered with G Suite. For help with G Suite and / or domain configuration see the G Suite support page.

Prerequisites

To implement using a service account as a DCM user, select the DCM USER tab. To implement domain-wide delegation, select the DELEGATION tab.

DCM user

You must have access to a DCM account with API access enabled.

Delegation
  1. You must have access to a DCM account with API access enabled.
  2. You must have administrator access to a domain registered with G Suite.
  3. You must have a DCM user profile linked to one or more accounts under your G Suite-registered domain. User profiles linked to accounts under other domains, gmail.com for example, cannot be used.

Configuring and using a service account

To implement using a service account as a DCM user, select the DCM user tab. To implement domain-wide delegation, select the Delegation tab.

DCM user
  1. Generate a service account key in the Google API Console.

    Caution: It's important to protect the key file that grants a service account access to Google services for which it has been authorized.
  2. Associate the DCM user profile with the service account email obtained in the previous step as described in the Manage user access help center article.
  3. Implement the server-to-server OAuth 2.0 flow in your application, using your newly created service account. For more information, see the examples section.
Delegation
  1. Generate a service account key in the Google API Console.

    Caution: It's important to protect the key file that grants a service account access to Google services for which it has been authorized. This is especially true for domain-wide delegation flow because of G Suite's domain-level control that gives the service account the ability to impersonate any user in the domain. It's also good practice to allow service accounts to only access one Google API each (using the “scope” field described in the next step). This is a preventative measure to mitigate the amount of data an attacker can access in the event that a service account’s key file is compromised.
  2. Delegate domain-wide authority to this service account to allow it to impersonate users within your domain. When prompted, provide the following API scopes:
    Scope Meaning
    https://www.googleapis.com/auth/dfatrafficking Read/write access to DCM trafficking.
    https://www.googleapis.com/auth/dfareporting Read/write access to DDM reporting.
    https://www.googleapis.com/auth/ddmconversions Read/write access to DDM offline conversions.
  3. Implement the server-to-server OAuth 2.0 flow in your application, using your newly created service account. For more information, see the examples section. Remember that you will need to provide an account to impersonate, and it must belong to the domain for which your service account was delegated domain-wide authority in the previous step.

For help with G Suite and / or domain configuration see the G Suite support page.

Examples

C#

/*
 * Copyright 2015 Google Inc
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0(the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
*/

using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2;
using Google.Apis.Dfareporting.v2_8;
using Google.Apis.Dfareporting.v2_8.Data;
using Google.Apis.Json;
using Google.Apis.Services;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.IO;

namespace DfaReporting.Samples {
  /// <summary>
  /// This example demonstrates how to authenticate and make a basic request using a service
  /// account.
  /// </summary>
  class AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount : SampleBase {
    /// <summary>
    /// The OAuth 2.0 scopes to request.
    /// </summary>
    private static readonly IEnumerable<string> OAuthScopes = new[] {
      DfareportingService.Scope.Dfareporting
    };

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns a description about the code example.
    /// </summary>
    public override string Description {
      get {
        return "This example demonstrates how to authenticate and make a basic request" +
               " using a service account.\n";
      }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Main method, to run this code example as a standalone application.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="args">The command line arguments.</param>
    public static void Main(string[] args) {
      SampleBase codeExample = new AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount();
      Console.WriteLine(codeExample.Description);
      codeExample.Run(null);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Run the code example.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="service">Unused</param>
    public override void Run(DfareportingService service) {
      string pathToJsonFile = _T("ENTER_PATH_TO_JSON_FILE_HERE");

      // An optional Google account email to impersonate. Only applicable to service accounts which
      // have enabled domain-wide delegation and wish to make API requests on behalf of an account
      // within their domain. Setting this field will not allow you to impersonate a user from a
      // domain you don't own (e.g., gmail.com).
      string emailToImpersonate = _T("");

      // Build service account credential.
      ServiceAccountCredential credential =
          getServiceAccountCredential(pathToJsonFile, emailToImpersonate);

      // Create a Dfareporting service object.
      //
      // Note: application name should be replaced with a value that identifies your application.
      service = new DfareportingService(
          new BaseClientService.Initializer {
            HttpClientInitializer = credential,
            ApplicationName = "C# service account sample"
          }
      );

      // Retrieve and print all user profiles for the current authorized user.
      UserProfileList profiles = service.UserProfiles.List().Execute();

      foreach (UserProfile profile in profiles.Items) {
        Console.WriteLine("Found user profile with ID {0} and name \"{1}\".",
            profile.ProfileId, profile.UserName);
      }
    }

    private ServiceAccountCredential getServiceAccountCredential(String pathToJsonFile,
        String emailToImpersonate) {
      // Load and deserialize credential parameters from the specified JSON file.
      JsonCredentialParameters parameters;
      using (Stream json = new FileStream(pathToJsonFile, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Read)) {
        parameters = NewtonsoftJsonSerializer.Instance.Deserialize<JsonCredentialParameters>(json);
      }

      // Create a credential initializer with the correct scopes.
      ServiceAccountCredential.Initializer initializer =
          new ServiceAccountCredential.Initializer(parameters.ClientEmail) {
            Scopes = OAuthScopes
          };

      // Configure impersonation (if applicable).
      if (!String.IsNullOrEmpty(emailToImpersonate)) {
        initializer.User = emailToImpersonate;
      }

      // Create a service account credential object using the deserialized private key.
      ServiceAccountCredential credential =
          new ServiceAccountCredential(initializer.FromPrivateKey(parameters.PrivateKey));

      return credential;
    }
  }
}

Java

// Copyright 2014 Google Inc. All Rights Reserved.
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
// http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.

package com.google.api.services.samples.dfareporting.auth;

import com.google.api.client.auth.oauth2.Credential;
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleCredential;
import com.google.api.services.dfareporting.Dfareporting;
import com.google.api.services.dfareporting.DfareportingScopes;
import com.google.api.services.dfareporting.model.UserProfileList;
import com.google.common.base.Strings;
import com.google.common.collect.ImmutableSet;
import java.io.FileInputStream;

/**
 * This example demonstrates how to authenticate and make a basic request using a service account.
 */
public class AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount {
  private static final String PATH_TO_JSON_FILE = "ENTER_PATH_TO_JSON_FILE_HERE";

  /**
   * An optional Google account email to impersonate. Only applicable to service accounts which have
   * enabled domain-wide delegation and wish to make API requests on behalf of an account within
   * their domain. Setting this field will not allow you to impersonate a user from a domain you
   * don't own (e.g., gmail.com).
   */
  private static final String EMAIL_TO_IMPERSONATE = "";

  // The OAuth 2.0 scopes to request.
  private static final ImmutableSet<String> OAUTH_SCOPES =
      ImmutableSet.of(DfareportingScopes.DFAREPORTING);

  private static Credential getServiceAccountCredential(
      String pathToJsonFile, String emailToImpersonate) throws Exception {
    // Generate a credential object from the specified JSON file.
    GoogleCredential credential = GoogleCredential.fromStream(new FileInputStream(pathToJsonFile));

    // Update the credential object with appropriate scopes and impersonation info (if applicable).
    if (Strings.isNullOrEmpty(emailToImpersonate)) {
      credential = credential.createScoped(OAUTH_SCOPES);
    } else {
      credential =
          new GoogleCredential.Builder()
              .setTransport(credential.getTransport())
              .setJsonFactory(credential.getJsonFactory())
              .setServiceAccountId(credential.getServiceAccountId())
              .setServiceAccountPrivateKey(credential.getServiceAccountPrivateKey())
              .setServiceAccountScopes(OAUTH_SCOPES)
              // Set the email of the user you are impersonating (this can be yourself).
              .setServiceAccountUser(emailToImpersonate)
              .build();
    }

    return credential;
  }

  public static void runExample(Dfareporting reporting) throws Exception {
    // Retrieve and print all user profiles for the current authorized user.
    UserProfileList profiles = reporting.userProfiles().list().execute();
    for (int i = 0; i < profiles.getItems().size(); i++) {
      System.out.printf("%d) %s%n", i + 1, profiles.getItems().get(i).getUserName());
    }
  }

  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
    // Build service account credential.
    Credential credential = getServiceAccountCredential(PATH_TO_JSON_FILE, EMAIL_TO_IMPERSONATE);

    // Create a Dfareporting client instance.
    //
    // Note: application name below should be replaced with a value that identifies your
    // application. Suggested format is "MyCompany-ProductName/Version.MinorVersion".
    Dfareporting reporting =
        new Dfareporting.Builder(credential.getTransport(), credential.getJsonFactory(), credential)
            .setApplicationName("dfareporting-java-service-acct-sample")
            .build();

    runExample(reporting);
  }
}

PHP

<?php
/*
 * Copyright 2017 Google Inc.
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

require_once dirname(__DIR__) . '/vendor/autoload.php';

/**
 * This example demonstrates how to authenticate and make a basic request using
 * a service account.
 *
 * This example is written to be run as a command line application, not as a
 * webpage. An optional Google account email to impersonate may be specified as
 * follows:
 *
 *     AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount.php /path/to/client_secrets.json <email>
 *
 * This optional flag only applies to service accounts which have domain-wide
 * delegation enabled and wish to make API requests on behalf of an account
 * within that domain. Using this flag will not allow you to impersonate a user
 * from a domain that you don't own (e.g., gmail.com).
 */
class AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount {
  // The OAuth 2.0 scopes to request.
  private static $OAUTH_SCOPES = [
      Google_Service_Dfareporting::DFAREPORTING
  ];

  public function run($pathToJsonFile, $email = null) {
    // Create an authenticated client object.
    $client = $this->createAuthenticatedClient($pathToJsonFile, $email);

    // Create a Dfareporting service object.
    $service = new Google_Service_Dfareporting($client);

    $this->getUserProfiles($service);
  }

  private function createAuthenticatedClient($pathToJsonFile, $email) {
    // Create a Google_Client instance.
    //
    // Note: application name should be replaced with a value that identifies
    // your application. Suggested format is "MyCompany-ProductName".
    $client = new Google_Client();
    $client->setApplicationName('PHP service account sample');
    $client->setScopes(self::$OAUTH_SCOPES);

    // Load the service account credentials.
    $client->setAuthConfig($pathToJsonFile);

    // Configure impersonation (if applicable).
    if (!is_null($email)) {
      $client->setSubject($email);
    }

    return $client;
  }

  private function getUserProfiles($service) {
    // Retrieve and print all user profiles for the current authorized user.
    $result = $service->userProfiles->listUserProfiles();
    foreach ($result['items'] as $userProfile) {
      printf(
          "User profile \"%s\" (ID: %d) found for account %d.\n",
          $userProfile->getUserName(),
          $userProfile->getProfileId(),
          $userProfile->getAccountId()
      );
    }
  }
}

if ($argc < 2 || $argc >= 4) {
  printf(
      "Usage: %s /path/to/client_secrets.json [email_to_impersonate]\n",
      $argv[0]
  );
} else {
  $sample = new AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount();

  if ($argc == 2) {
    $sample->run($argv[1]);
  } else {
    $sample->run($argv[1], $argv[2]);
  }
}

Python

#!/usr/bin/python
#
# Copyright 2015 Google Inc. All Rights Reserved.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

"""This example demonstrates how to authenticate using a service account.

An optional Google account email to impersonate may be specified as follows:
    authenticate_using_service_account.py <path_to_json_file> -i <email>

This optional flag only applies to service accounts which have domain-wide
delegation enabled and wish to make API requests on behalf of an account
within that domain. Using this flag will not allow you to impersonate a
user from a domain you don't own (e.g., gmail.com).
"""

import argparse
import sys

from googleapiclient import discovery
import httplib2
from oauth2client import client
from oauth2client import tools
from oauth2client.service_account import ServiceAccountCredentials

# Declare command-line flags.
argparser = argparse.ArgumentParser(add_help=False)
argparser.add_argument(
    'json_file',
    help='Path to the JSON file to use for authenticating.')
argparser.add_argument(
    '-i',
    '--impersonation_email',
    help='Google account email to impersonate.')

# The OAuth 2.0 scopes to request.
OAUTH_SCOPES = ['https://www.googleapis.com/auth/dfareporting']


def main(argv):
  # Retrieve command line arguments.
  parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(
      description=__doc__,
      formatter_class=argparse.RawDescriptionHelpFormatter,
      parents=[tools.argparser, argparser])
  flags = parser.parse_args(argv[1:])

  # Authenticate using the supplied service account credentials
  http = authenticate_using_service_account(
      flags.json_file,
      flags.impersonation_email)

  # Construct a service object via the discovery service.
  service = discovery.build('dfareporting', 'v3.0', http=http)

  try:
    # Construct the request.
    request = service.userProfiles().list()

    # Execute request and print response.
    response = request.execute()

    for profile in response['items']:
      print('Found user profile with ID %s and user name "%s".' %
            (profile['profileId'], profile['userName']))

  except client.AccessTokenRefreshError:
    print('The credentials have been revoked or expired, please re-run the '
          'application to re-authorize')


def authenticate_using_service_account(json_file, impersonation_email):
  """Authorizes an httplib2.Http instance using service account credentials."""
  # Load the service account credentials from the specified JSON keyfile.
  credentials = ServiceAccountCredentials.from_json_keyfile_name(
      json_file,
      scopes=OAUTH_SCOPES)

  # Configure impersonation (if applicable).
  if impersonation_email:
    credentials = credentials.create_delegated(impersonation_email)

  # Use the credentials to authorize an httplib2.Http instance.
  http = credentials.authorize(httplib2.Http())

  return http


if __name__ == '__main__':
  main(sys.argv)

Ruby

#!/usr/bin/env ruby
# Encoding: utf-8
#
# Copyright:: Copyright 2016, Google Inc. All Rights Reserved.
#
# License:: Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
#           you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
#           You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#           http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
#           Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
#           distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
#           WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or
#           implied.
#           See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
#           limitations under the License.
#
# This example demonstrates how to authenticate using a service account.
#
# An optional Google account email to impersonate may be specified as follows:
#    authenticate_using_service_account.rb <path_to_json_file> --i <email>
#
# This optional flag only applies to service accounts which have domain-wide
# delegation enabled and wish to make API requests on behalf of an account
# within that domain. Using this flag will not allow you to impersonate a
# user from a domain you don't own (e.g., gmail.com).

require 'google/apis/dfareporting_v3_0'
require 'googleauth'
require 'optparse'

API_NAMESPACE = Google::Apis::DfareportingV3_0

def authenticate_using_service_account(path_to_json_file, impersonation_email)
  # Create a Dfareporting service object.
  #
  # Note: application name should be replaced with a value that identifies
  # your application. Suggested format is "MyCompany-ProductName".
  service = API_NAMESPACE::DfareportingService.new
  service.client_options.application_name = "Ruby service account sample"
  service.client_options.application_version = '1.0.0'

  # Generate an authorization object from the specified JSON file.
  File.open(path_to_json_file, 'r+') do |json|
    service.authorization =
        Google::Auth::ServiceAccountCredentials.make_creds({
          :json_key_io => json,
          :scope => [API_NAMESPACE::AUTH_DFAREPORTING]
        })
  end

  # Configure impersonation (if applicable).
  unless impersonation_email.nil?
    service.authorization.sub = impersonation_email
  end

  return service
end

def get_userprofiles(service)
  # Get all user profiles.
  result = service.list_user_profiles()

  # Display results.
  result.items.each do |profile|
    puts 'User profile with ID %d and name "%s" was found for account %d.' %
        [profile.profile_id, profile.user_name, profile.account_id]
  end
end

if __FILE__ == $0
  # Retrieve command line arguments.
  impersonation_email = nil
  optparse = OptionParser.new do |opts|
    opts.banner = 'Usage: %s path_to_json_file [options]' % $0
    opts.on_tail('-i', '--impersonate EMAIL',
                 'Google account email to impersonate') do |email|
      impersonation_email = email
    end
  end
  optparse.parse!

  if ARGV.empty?
    puts optparse
    exit -1
  end

  # Authenticate and initialize API service using service account.
  service = authenticate_using_service_account(ARGV.shift, impersonation_email)

  get_userprofiles(service)
end

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