Send Batch Requests

This document shows how to batch API calls together to reduce the number of connections your client has to make.

This document is specifically about making a batch request using the Java client library. A basic example is also available in the Google API Client Library for .NET. The batch system for the Google Play EMM API uses the same HTTP syntax as the OData batch processing system.

Overview

Each request that your client makes via the Google Play EMM API results in a certain amount of overhead. The Google Play EMM API supports batching, to allow your client to put several API calls into a single request.

Here are some examples of situations in which you might want to use batching:

  • A domain has just been enrolled and now has a lot of data to upload.
  • A user made changes to data while your application was offline, so your application needs to synchronize a great deal of local data with the server.

In cases such as these, instead of sending each call separately you can group them together into a single request. You can even group requests for multiple users, or for multiple Google APIs.

You are, however, limited to 1000 calls in a single batch request. If you need to make more calls than that, use multiple batch requests.

Batch details

A batch request consists of multiple API calls combined into one JSON-RPC request. This section describes the batch request syntax in detail, with an example in the section following.

Note: A set of n requests batched together counts toward your usage limit as n requests, not as one request. The batch request is taken apart into a set of requests before processing.

Format of a batch request

The Java client library contains calls to create requests for each Google Play EMM API call. For instance, to list all apps installed on a device, you would use the following:

AndroidEnterprise enterprise = ...;
InstallsListResponse response = enterprise.installs().list(enterpriseId, userId, deviceId)
  .execute();

There is an additional batch() call that can queue several requests, as seen here:

AndroidEnterprise enterprise = ...;
BatchRequest batchRequest = enterprise.batch();
enterprise.installs().list(enterpriseId, userId, deviceId1).queue(batchRequest, callback1);
enterprise.installs().list(enterpriseId, userId, deviceId2).queue(batchRequest, callback2);
enterprise.installs().list(enterpriseId, userId, deviceId3).queue(batchRequest, callback3);
batchRequest.execute();
When batchRequest.execute() is called, all the queued requests are sent at once to the server as a JSON array. The server applies the outer request's query parameters and headers (as appropriate) to each part, and then treats each part as if it were a separate JSON request.

Response to a batch request

The server executes each separate request, and groups the result into single response made of a single array. The client library splits this response into individual responses, and each one is sent to the callback function passed to queue(). The callback is an interface defining a method for failure and a method for success. For instance, callback1 would be implemented as an instance of the following:

private class InstallsCallback implements JsonBatchCallback<InstallsListResponse> {

  @Override
  public void onSuccess(InstallsListResponse response, HttpHeaders responseHeaders) {
    ...
  }

  @Override
  public void onFailure(GoogleJsonError e, HttpHeaders responseHeaders) {
    ...
  }
}

Note: The server may perform your calls in any order, so don't rely on receiving results in the order specified in your request. If you want to ensure that two calls occur in a given order, you can't send them in a single request; instead, send the first request by itself, and wait for a response before sending the second.

Example batch request

The following example shows how to list all the apps installed on all of a given user devices. The first calls are used to obtain the id of the enterprise and of the user, and accordingly must be executed sequentially. Once all the device ids have been obtained with enterprise.devices().list(), we can do a batch request to retrieve all of the applications on all the user's devices at once.

package com.google.playenterprise.example;

import com.google.api.client.auth.oauth2.Credential;
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleCredential;
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.batch.BatchRequest;
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.batch.json.JsonBatchCallback;
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.json.GoogleJsonError;
import com.google.api.client.http.HttpHeaders;
import com.google.api.client.http.HttpRequest;
import com.google.api.client.http.HttpRequestInitializer;
import com.google.api.client.http.HttpTransport;
import com.google.api.client.http.javanet.NetHttpTransport;
import com.google.api.client.json.JsonFactory;
import com.google.api.client.json.jackson.JacksonFactory;
import com.google.api.services.androidenterprise.AndroidEnterprise;
import com.google.api.services.androidenterprise.AndroidEnterprise.Installs;
import com.google.api.services.androidenterprise.AndroidEnterpriseScopes;
import com.google.api.services.androidenterprise.model.Device;
import com.google.api.services.androidenterprise.model.DevicesListResponse;
import com.google.api.services.androidenterprise.model.Enterprise;
import com.google.api.services.androidenterprise.model.Install;
import com.google.api.services.androidenterprise.model.InstallsListResponse;

import java.io.BufferedInputStream;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

/**
 * Lists all the apps installed on all devices of a given user.
 */
public class ListAllInstalls {
  private AndroidEnterprise enterprise;
  private final List<String> installList = new ArrayList<>();

  public static void main(String[] argv) throws Exception {
    if (argv.length != 2) {
      throw new IllegalArgumentException("Usage: ListAllInstalls email jsonFilename");
    } else if (!argv[0].contains("@")) {
      throw new IllegalArgumentException("First parameter should be a valid email.");
    }
    new ListAllInstalls().run(argv[0], argv[1]);
  }

  private void run(String userEmail, String jsonKeyPath) throws IOException {
    enterprise = createAndroidEnterprise(jsonKeyPath);

    // Get the enterprise id, user id, and user devices.
    String domain = userEmail.split("@")[1];
    List<Enterprise> results = enterprise.enterprises().list(domain).execute().getEnterprise();
    if (results.isEmpty()) {
      throw new RuntimeException("No enterprise found.");
    }
    String enterpriseId = results.get(0).getId();
    String userId = enterprise
        .users()
        .list(enterpriseId, userEmail)
        .execute()
        .getUser()
        .get(0)
        .getId();
    List<Device> devices = getAllDevices(enterpriseId, userId);

    // Batch all calls to get installs on all user devices.
    gatherAllInstalls(enterpriseId, userId, devices);

    for (String entry : installList) {
      // Do something.
      System.out.println(entry);
    }
  }

  private List<Device> getAllDevices(String enterpriseId, String userId) throws IOException {
    DevicesListResponse devices = enterprise.devices().list(enterpriseId, userId).execute();
    return devices.getDevice();
  }

  private void gatherAllInstalls(String enterpriseId, String userId, List<Device> devices)
      throws IOException {
    BatchRequest batchRequest = enterprise.batch();
    for (Device device : devices) {
      Installs.List list = enterprise
          .installs().list(enterpriseId, userId, device.getAndroidId());
      // Each callback can take the specifics of the associated request in its constructor.
      list.queue(batchRequest, new InstallsCallback(device.getAndroidId()));
    }
    // Executes all the queued requests and their callbacks, single-threaded.
    batchRequest.execute();
  }

  private class InstallsCallback extends JsonBatchCallback<InstallsListResponse> {
    private final String androidId;

    InstallsCallback(String androidId) {
      this.androidId = androidId;
    }

    @Override
    public void onSuccess(InstallsListResponse response, HttpHeaders responseHeaders) {
      for (Install install : response.getInstall()) {
        installList.add(androidId + "," + install.getProductId());
      }
    }

    @Override
    public void onFailure(GoogleJsonError e, HttpHeaders responseHeaders) {
      throw new RuntimeException("Error fetching a device");
    }
  }

  private AndroidEnterprise createAndroidEnterprise(String jsonKeyPath) throws IOException {
    HttpTransport httpTransport = new NetHttpTransport();
    JsonFactory jsonFactory = new JacksonFactory();

    InputStream is = new BufferedInputStream(new FileInputStream(jsonKeyPath));
    final Credential credential = GoogleCredential.fromStream(is, httpTransport, jsonFactory)
        .createScoped(AndroidEnterpriseScopes.all());

    HttpRequestInitializer httpRequestInitializer = new HttpRequestInitializer() {
      @Override
      public void initialize(HttpRequest request) throws IOException {
        credential.initialize(request);
      }
    };
    return new AndroidEnterprise.Builder(httpTransport, jsonFactory, httpRequestInitializer)
        .build();
  }
}

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