Batching Google Analytics API Requests

This document shows how to batch API calls together to reduce the number of HTTP connections your client has to make.

This document is specifically about making a batch request by sending an HTTP request. If, instead, you're using a Google client library to make a batch request, see the client library's documentation.

Overview

Each HTTP connection that your client makes results in a certain amount of overhead. The Google Analytics API supports batching, to allow your client to put several API calls into a single HTTP request.

Examples of situations when you might want to use batching:

  • Updating User permissions. There are particular performance gains and quota incentives you get when making batch requests updating user permissions, see the User Permissions developer guide for details.
  • Your mobile reporting application might go offline, and you need to make a group of data requests when the application comes back online.
  • You have a service account application that needs to create multiple reports on a regular basis.
  • You need to create a set of custom dimensions or custom metrics, and would prefer to make only one HTTP request.

In each case, instead of sending each call separately, you can group them together into a single HTTP request. You can even group requests for multiple users or multiple Google APIs.

You're limited to 1000 calls in a single batch request. If you need to make more calls than that, use multiple batch requests.

Note: The batch system for the Google Analytics API uses the same syntax as the OData batch processing system, but the semantics differ.

Batch details

A batch request consists of multiple API calls combined into one HTTP request. This section describes the batch syntax in detail; later, there's an example.

Note: A set of n requests batched together counts toward your usage limit as n requests, not as one request. The batch request is taken apart into a set of requests before processing.

Format of a batch request

A batch request is a single standard HTTP request containing multiple Google Analytics API calls, using the multipart/mixed content type. Within that main HTTP request, each of the parts contains a nested HTTP request.

Each part begins with its own Content-Type: application/http HTTP header. It can also have an optional Content-ID header. However, the part headers are just there to mark the beginning of the part; they're separate from the nested request. After the server unwraps the batch request into separate requests, the part headers are ignored.

The body of each part is itself a complete HTTP request, with its own verb, URL, headers, and body. The HTTP request must only contain the path portion of the URL; full URLs are not allowed in batch requests.

The HTTP headers for the outer batch request, except for the Content- headers such as Content-Type, apply to every request in the batch. If you specify a given HTTP header in both the outer request and an individual call, then the individual call header's value overrides the outer batch request header's value. The headers for an individual call apply only to that call.

For example, if you provide an Authorization header for a specific call, then that header applies only to that call. If you provide an Authorization header for the outer request, then that header applies to all of the individual calls unless they override it with Authorization headers of their own.

When the server receives the batched request, it applies the outer request's query parameters and headers (as appropriate) to each part, and then treats each part as if it were a separate HTTP request.

Response to a batch request

The server's response is a single standard HTTP response with a multipart/mixed content type; each part is the response to one of the requests in the batched request, in the same order as the requests.

Like the parts in the request, each response part contains a complete HTTP response, including a status code, headers, and body. And like the parts in the request, each response part is preceded by a Content-Type header that marks the beginning of the part.

If a given part of the request had a Content-ID header, then the corresponding part of the response has a matching Content-ID header, with the original value preceded by the string response-, as shown in the following example.

Note: The server may perform your calls in any order. Don't count on their being executed in the order in which you specified them. If you want to ensure that two calls occur in a given order, you can't send them in a single request; instead, send the first one by itself, then wait for the response to the first one before sending the second one.

Example

The following example shows the use of batching with the Google Analytics API.

Example batch request

POST /batch HTTP/1.1
Host: www.googleapis.com
Content-length: 731
Content-type: multipart/mixed; boundary=batch_0123456789
Authorization: Bearer ya29.5gFZooleNoSpGqYOOF0eFciUGz1x26k9GagZoW7HJCogWlCoNOotxlZPo7bDbwo1ykDq
--batch_0123456789
Content-Type: application/http
Content-ID: 
Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary


POST https://www.googleapis.com/analytics/v3/management/accounts/XXXXXX/webproperties/UA-XXXXXX-1/customDimensions
Content-Type: application/json
Content-Length: 68


{
 "name": "Campaign Group",
 "scope": "SESSION",
 "active": true
}

--batch_0123456789
Content-Type: application/http
Content-ID: 
Content-Transfer-Encoding: binary


POST https://www.googleapis.com/analytics/v3/management/accounts/XXXXXX/webproperties/UA-XXXXXX-1/customDimensions
Content-Type: application/json
Content-Length: 67


{
 "name": "Campaign Type",
 "scope": "SESSION",
 "active": true
}

--batch_0123456789--

Example batch response

This is the response to the example request in the previous section.

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-length: 1876
X-xss-protection: 1; mode=block
X-content-type-options: nosniff
Expires: Wed, 02 Sep 2015 21:36:35 GMT
Vary: Origin,X-Origin
Server: GSE
Cache-control: private, max-age=0
Date: Wed, 02 Sep 2015 21:36:35 GMT
X-frame-options: SAMEORIGIN
Content-type: multipart/mixed; boundary=batch_KDU-RkhYyNI_AAkR9Jc5Z_Q
--batch_KDU-RkhYyNI_AAkR9Jc5Z_Q
Content-Type: application/http
Content-ID: 

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
ETag: "o-85COrcxoYkAw5itMLG4AKNpMY/L-Y_3uM9BpST8Sea-SJDRQ7N7vE"
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
Date: Wed, 02 Sep 2015 21:36:35 GMT
Expires: Wed, 02 Sep 2015 21:36:35 GMT
Cache-Control: private, max-age=0
Content-Length: 548

{"kind":"analytics#customDimension","id":"ga:dimension18","accountId":"XXXXXX","webPropertyId":"UA-XXXXXX-1","name":"Campaign Group","index":18,"scope":"SESSION","active":true,"created":"2015-09-02T21:36:34.143Z","updated":"2015-09-02T21:36:34.143Z","selfLink":"https://www.googleapis.com/analytics/v3/management/accounts/XXXXXX/webproperties/UA-XXXXXX-1/customDimensions/ga:dimension18","parentLink":{"type":"analytics#webproperty","href":"https://www.googleapis.com/analytics/v3/management/accounts/XXXXXX/webproperties/UA-XXXXXX-1"}}
--batch_KDU-RkhYyNI_AAkR9Jc5Z_Q
Content-Type: application/http
Content-ID: 

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
ETag: "o-85COrcxoYkAw5itMLG4AKNpMY/VN-21fLS1T0Qko3pHEB5fi8vYJ8"
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
Date: Wed, 02 Sep 2015 21:36:35 GMT
Expires: Wed, 02 Sep 2015 21:36:35 GMT
Cache-Control: private, max-age=0
Content-Length: 547

{"kind":"analytics#customDimension","id":"ga:dimension19","accountId":"XXXXXX","webPropertyId":"UA-XXXXXX-1","name":"Campaign Type","index":19,"scope":"SESSION","active":true,"created":"2015-09-02T21:36:35.099Z","updated":"2015-09-02T21:36:35.099Z","selfLink":"https://www.googleapis.com/analytics/v3/management/accounts/XXXXXX/webproperties/UA-XXXXXX-1/customDimensions/ga:dimension19","parentLink":{"type":"analytics#webproperty","href":"https://www.googleapis.com/analytics/v3/management/accounts/XXXXXX/webproperties/UA-XXXXXX-1"}}
--batch_KDU-RkhYyNI_AAkR9Jc5Z_Q--

Client libraries

Use the following client library guides to see how to implement Batching in your language:

Batching and Google Analytics quota

While batching can save you on the overhead of constructing many HTTP requests each Google Analytics API request within a batch request will count against your daily project quota. By default a project can make up to 50,000 request per day; batching will not help you stay below this quota.

With the exception of batched User Permissions write (delete, insert, update) requests, all rate limits still apply. For example, the Core Reporting API is limited to 10 concurrent requests per view (profile); batching will not help you stay below this limit.

The 1.5 queries per second (QPS) per Account ID limit applies to Management API Write Requests and Provisioning API Write Requests. Hence, batching these write requests may not improve the performance.