Exchange data

Once connections are established between devices, you can exchange data by sending and receiving Payload objects. A Payload can represent a simple byte array, such as a short text message; a file, such as a photo or video; or a stream, such as the audio stream from the device's microphone.

Payloads are sent using the sendPayload() method, and received in an implementation of PayloadCallback that's passed to acceptConnection() as described in Manage Connections.

Types of payloads

Bytes

Byte payloads are the simplest type of payloads. They are suitable for sending simple data like messages or metadata up to a maximum size of Connections.MAX_BYTES_DATA_SIZE. Here's an example of sending a BYTES payload:

Payload bytesPayload = Payload.fromBytes(new byte[] {0xa, 0xb, 0xc, 0xd});
Nearby.getConnectionsClient(context).sendPayload(toEndpointId, bytesPayload);

Receive a BYTES payload by implementing the onPayloadReceived() method of the PayloadCallback you passed to acceptConnection().

static class ReceiveBytesPayloadListener extends PayloadCallback {

  @Override
  public void onPayloadReceived(String endpointId, Payload payload) {
    // This always gets the full data of the payload. Will be null if it's not a BYTES
    // payload. You can check the payload type with payload.getType().
    byte[] receivedBytes = payload.asBytes();
  }

  @Override
  public void onPayloadTransferUpdate(String endpointId, PayloadTransferUpdate update) {
    // Bytes payloads are sent as a single chunk, so you'll receive a SUCCESS update immediately
    // after the call to onPayloadReceived().
  }
}

Unlike FILE and STREAM payloads, BYTES payloads are sent as a single chunk, so there is no need to wait for the SUCCESS update (although it will still be delivered, immediately after the call to onPayloadReceived()). Instead, you can safely call payload.asBytes() to get the full data of the payload as soon as onPayloadReceived() is called.

File

File payloads are created from a file stored on the local device, such as a photo or video file. Here's a simple example of sending a FILE payload:

File fileToSend = new File(context.getFilesDir(), "hello.txt");
try {
  Payload filePayload = Payload.fromFile(fileToSend);
  Nearby.getConnectionsClient(context).sendPayload(toEndpointId, filePayload);
} catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
  Log.e("MyApp", "File not found", e);
}

It can be more efficient to use a ParcelFileDescriptor to create the FILES payload if one is available, for example from a ContentResolver. This minimizes copying of the file's bytes:

ParcelFileDescriptor pfd = getContentResolver().openFileDescriptor(uri, "r");
filePayload = Payload.fromFile(pfd);

When a file is received, it is saved in the Downloads folder (DIRECTORY_DOWNLOADS) on the recipient's device with a generic name and no extension. Once the transfer has completed, indicated by a call to onPayloadTransferUpdate() with PayloadTransferUpdate.Status.SUCCESS, you can retrieve the File object like so:

// Get the received file (which will be in the Downloads folder)
File payloadFile = filePayload.asFile().asJavaFile();

In the following more complex example, the ACTION_OPEN_DOCUMENT intent prompts the user to choose a file and the file is efficiently sent as a payload using ParcelFileDescriptor. The file name is also sent as a BYTES payload.

private static final int READ_REQUEST_CODE = 42;
private static final String ENDPOINT_ID_EXTRA = "com.foo.myapp.EndpointId";

/**
 * Fires an intent to spin up the file chooser UI and select an image for sending to endpointId.
 */
private void showImageChooser(String endpointId) {
  Intent intent = new Intent(Intent.ACTION_OPEN_DOCUMENT);
  intent.addCategory(Intent.CATEGORY_OPENABLE);
  intent.setType("image/*");
  intent.putExtra(ENDPOINT_ID_EXTRA, endpointId);
  startActivityForResult(intent, READ_REQUEST_CODE);
}

@Override
public void onActivityResult(int requestCode, int resultCode, Intent resultData) {
  if (requestCode == READ_REQUEST_CODE
      && resultCode == Activity.RESULT_OK
      && resultData != null) {
    String endpointId = resultData.getStringExtra(ENDPOINT_ID_EXTRA);

    // The URI of the file selected by the user.
    Uri uri = resultData.getData();

    Payload filePayload;
    try {
      // Open the ParcelFileDescriptor for this URI with read access.
      ParcelFileDescriptor pfd = getContentResolver().openFileDescriptor(uri, "r");
      filePayload = Payload.fromFile(pfd);
    } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
      Log.e("MyApp", "File not found", e);
      return;
    }

    // Construct a simple message mapping the ID of the file payload to the desired filename.
    String filenameMessage = filePayload.getId() + ":" + uri.getLastPathSegment();

    // Send the filename message as a bytes payload.
    Payload filenameBytesPayload =
        Payload.fromBytes(filenameMessage.getBytes(StandardCharsets.UTF_8));
    Nearby.getConnectionsClient(context).sendPayload(endpointId, filenameBytesPayload);

    // Finally, send the file payload.
    Nearby.getConnectionsClient(context).sendPayload(endpointId, filePayload);
  }
}

Since the filename was sent as a payload, our receiver can rename the file so that it has an appropriate extension:

static class ReceiveFilePayloadCallback extends PayloadCallback {
  private final SimpleArrayMap<Long, Payload> incomingFilePayloads = new SimpleArrayMap<>();
  private final SimpleArrayMap<Long, Payload> completedFilePayloads = new SimpleArrayMap<>();
  private final SimpleArrayMap<Long, String> filePayloadFilenames = new SimpleArrayMap<>();

  @Override
  public void onPayloadReceived(String endpointId, Payload payload) {
    if (payload.getType() == Payload.Type.BYTES) {
      String payloadFilenameMessage = new String(payload.asBytes(), StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
      long payloadId = addPayloadFilename(payloadFilenameMessage);
      processFilePayload(payloadId);
    } else if (payload.getType() == Payload.Type.FILE) {
      // Add this to our tracking map, so that we can retrieve the payload later.
      incomingFilePayloads.put(payload.getId(), payload);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Extracts the payloadId and filename from the message and stores it in the
   * filePayloadFilenames map. The format is payloadId:filename.
   */
  private long addPayloadFilename(String payloadFilenameMessage) {
    String[] parts = payloadFilenameMessage.split(":");
    long payloadId = Long.parseLong(parts[0]);
    String filename = parts[1];
    filePayloadFilenames.put(payloadId, filename);
    return payloadId;
  }

  private void processFilePayload(long payloadId) {
    // BYTES and FILE could be received in any order, so we call when either the BYTES or the FILE
    // payload is completely received. The file payload is considered complete only when both have
    // been received.
    Payload filePayload = completedFilePayloads.get(payloadId);
    String filename = filePayloadFilenames.get(payloadId);
    if (filePayload != null && filename != null) {
      completedFilePayloads.remove(payloadId);
      filePayloadFilenames.remove(payloadId);

      // Get the received file (which will be in the Downloads folder)
      File payloadFile = filePayload.asFile().asJavaFile();

      // Rename the file.
      payloadFile.renameTo(new File(payloadFile.getParentFile(), filename));
    }
  }

  @Override
  public void onPayloadTransferUpdate(String endpointId, PayloadTransferUpdate update) {
    if (update.getStatus() == PayloadTransferUpdate.Status.SUCCESS) {
      long payloadId = update.getPayloadId();
      Payload payload = incomingFilePayloads.remove(payloadId);
      completedFilePayloads.put(payloadId, payload);
      if (payload.getType() == Payload.Type.FILE) {
        processFilePayload(payloadId);
      }
    }
  }
}

Stream

Stream payloads are suitable when you want to send large amounts of data that is generated on the fly, such as an audio stream. Create a STREAM Payload by calling Payload.fromStream(), passing in either an InputStream or a ParcelFileDescriptor. For example:

URL url = new URL("https://developers.google.com/nearby/connections/android/exchange-data");
Payload streamPayload = Payload.fromStream(url.openStream());
Nearby.getConnectionsClient(context).sendPayload(toEndpointId, streamPayload);

On the recipient, call payload.asStream().asInputStream() or payload.asStream().asParcelFileDescriptor() in a successful onPayloadTransferUpdate callback:

static class ReceiveStreamPayloadCallback extends PayloadCallback {
  private final SimpleArrayMap<Long, Payload> incomingPayloads = new SimpleArrayMap<>();

  @Override
  public void onPayloadTransferUpdate(String endpointId, PayloadTransferUpdate update) {
    if (update.getStatus() == PayloadTransferUpdate.Status.SUCCESS) {
      Payload payload = incomingPayloads.get(update.getPayloadId());
      InputStream is = payload.asStream().asInputStream();
      // Do something with is here...
    }
  }

  @Override
  public void onPayloadReceived(String endpointId, Payload payload) {
    incomingPayloads.put(payload.getId(), payload);
  }
}

Ordering with multiple payloads

Payloads of the same type are guaranteed to arrive in the order they were sent, but there is no guarantee of preserving the ordering amongst payloads of different types. For example, if a sender sends a FILE payload followed by a BYTE payload, the receiver could get the BYTE payload first, followed by the FILE payload.

Progress updates

The onPayloadTransferUpdate() method provides updates about the progress of both incoming and outgoing payloads. In both cases, this in an opportunity to display the progress of the transfer to the user, such as with a progress bar. For incoming payloads, updates also indicate when new data has been received.

The following sample code demonstrates one way to display the progress of incoming and outgoing payloads via notifications:

class ReceiveWithProgressCallback extends PayloadCallback {
  private final SimpleArrayMap<Long, NotificationCompat.Builder> incomingPayloads =
      new SimpleArrayMap<>();
  private final SimpleArrayMap<Long, NotificationCompat.Builder> outgoingPayloads =
      new SimpleArrayMap<>();

  NotificationManager notificationManager =
      (NotificationManager) context.getSystemService(Context.NOTIFICATION_SERVICE);

  private void sendPayload(String endpointId, Payload payload) {
    if (payload.getType() == Payload.Type.BYTES) {
      // No need to track progress for bytes.
      return;
    }

    // Build and start showing the notification.
    NotificationCompat.Builder notification = buildNotification(payload, /*isIncoming=*/ false);
    notificationManager.notify((int) payload.getId(), notification.build());

    // Add it to the tracking list so we can update it.
    outgoingPayloads.put(payload.getId(), notification);
  }

  private NotificationCompat.Builder buildNotification(Payload payload, boolean isIncoming) {
    NotificationCompat.Builder notification =
        new NotificationCompat.Builder(context)
            .setContentTitle(isIncoming ? "Receiving..." : "Sending...");
    boolean indeterminate = false;
    if (payload.getType() == Payload.Type.STREAM) {
      // We can only show indeterminate progress for stream payloads.
      indeterminate = true;
    }
    notification.setProgress(100, 0, indeterminate);
    return notification;
  }

  @Override
  public void onPayloadReceived(String endpointId, Payload payload) {
    if (payload.getType() == Payload.Type.BYTES) {
      // No need to track progress for bytes.
      return;
    }

    // Build and start showing the notification.
    NotificationCompat.Builder notification = buildNotification(payload, true /*isIncoming*/);
    notificationManager.notify((int) payload.getId(), notification.build());

    // Add it to the tracking list so we can update it.
    incomingPayloads.put(payload.getId(), notification);
  }

  @Override
  public void onPayloadTransferUpdate(String endpointId, PayloadTransferUpdate update) {
    long payloadId = update.getPayloadId();
    NotificationCompat.Builder notification = null;
    if (incomingPayloads.containsKey(payloadId)) {
      notification = incomingPayloads.get(payloadId);
      if (update.getStatus() != PayloadTransferUpdate.Status.IN_PROGRESS) {
        // This is the last update, so we no longer need to keep track of this notification.
        incomingPayloads.remove(payloadId);
      }
    } else if (outgoingPayloads.containsKey(payloadId)) {
      notification = outgoingPayloads.get(payloadId);
      if (update.getStatus() != PayloadTransferUpdate.Status.IN_PROGRESS) {
        // This is the last update, so we no longer need to keep track of this notification.
        outgoingPayloads.remove(payloadId);
      }
    }

    if (notification == null) {
      return;
    }

    switch (update.getStatus()) {
      case PayloadTransferUpdate.Status.IN_PROGRESS:
        long size = update.getTotalBytes();
        if (size == -1) {
          // This is a stream payload, so we don't need to update anything at this point.
          return;
        }
        int percentTransferred =
            (int) (100.0 * (update.getBytesTransferred() / (double) update.getTotalBytes()));
        notification.setProgress(100, percentTransferred, /* indeterminate= */ false);
        break;
      case PayloadTransferUpdate.Status.SUCCESS:
        // SUCCESS always means that we transferred 100%.
        notification
            .setProgress(100, 100, /* indeterminate= */ false)
            .setContentText("Transfer complete!");
        break;
      case PayloadTransferUpdate.Status.FAILURE:
      case PayloadTransferUpdate.Status.CANCELED:
        notification.setProgress(0, 0, false).setContentText("Transfer failed");
        break;
      default:
        // Unknown status.
    }

    notificationManager.notify((int) payloadId, notification.build());
  }
}