使用后端服务器进行身份验证

如果您在与后端服务器通信的应用或网站上使用 Google 登录功能,则可能需要识别该服务器上当前已登录的用户。为了安全地执行此操作,请在用户成功登录后,使用 HTTPS 将该用户的 ID 令牌发送到您的服务器。然后,在服务器上验证 ID 令牌的完整性,并使用令牌中包含的用户信息来建立会话或创建新帐号。

将 ID 令牌发送到您的服务器

在用户成功登录后,获取其 ID 令牌:

function onSignIn(googleUser) {
  var id_token = googleUser.getAuthResponse().id_token;
  ...
}

然后,使用 HTTPS POST 请求将 ID 令牌发送到您的服务器:

var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
xhr.open('POST', 'https://yourbackend.example.com/tokensignin');
xhr.setRequestHeader('Content-Type', 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded');
xhr.onload = function() {
  console.log('Signed in as: ' + xhr.responseText);
};
xhr.send('idtoken=' + id_token);

验证 ID 令牌的完整性

通过 HTTPS POST 收到 ID 令牌后,您必须验证令牌的完整性。

To verify that the token is valid, ensure that the following criteria are satisfied:

  • The ID token is properly signed by Google. Use Google's public keys (available in JWK or PEM format) to verify the token's signature. These keys are regularly rotated; examine the Cache-Control header in the response to determine when you should retrieve them again.
  • The value of aud in the ID token is equal to one of your app's client IDs. This check is necessary to prevent ID tokens issued to a malicious app being used to access data about the same user on your app's backend server.
  • The value of iss in the ID token is equal to accounts.google.com or https://accounts.google.com.
  • The expiry time (exp) of the ID token has not passed.
  • If you need to validate that the ID token represents a Google Workspace or Cloud organization account, you can check the hd claim, which indicates the hosted domain of the user. This must be used when restricting access to a resource to only members of certain domains. The absence of this claim indicates that the account does not belong to a Google hosted domain.

Rather than writing your own code to perform these verification steps, we strongly recommend using a Google API client library for your platform, or a general-purpose JWT library. For development and debugging, you can call our tokeninfo validation endpoint.

Using a Google API Client Library

Using one of the Google API Client Libraries (e.g. Java, Node.js, PHP, Python) is the recommended way to validate Google ID tokens in a production environment.

Java

To validate an ID token in Java, use the GoogleIdTokenVerifier object. For example:

import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleIdToken;
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleIdToken.Payload;
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleIdTokenVerifier;

...

GoogleIdTokenVerifier verifier = new GoogleIdTokenVerifier.Builder(transport, jsonFactory)
    // Specify the CLIENT_ID of the app that accesses the backend:
    .setAudience(Collections.singletonList(CLIENT_ID))
    // Or, if multiple clients access the backend:
    //.setAudience(Arrays.asList(CLIENT_ID_1, CLIENT_ID_2, CLIENT_ID_3))
    .build();

// (Receive idTokenString by HTTPS POST)

GoogleIdToken idToken = verifier.verify(idTokenString);
if (idToken != null) {
  Payload payload = idToken.getPayload();

  // Print user identifier
  String userId = payload.getSubject();
  System.out.println("User ID: " + userId);

  // Get profile information from payload
  String email = payload.getEmail();
  boolean emailVerified = Boolean.valueOf(payload.getEmailVerified());
  String name = (String) payload.get("name");
  String pictureUrl = (String) payload.get("picture");
  String locale = (String) payload.get("locale");
  String familyName = (String) payload.get("family_name");
  String givenName = (String) payload.get("given_name");

  // Use or store profile information
  // ...

} else {
  System.out.println("Invalid ID token.");
}

The GoogleIdTokenVerifier.verify() method verifies the JWT signature, the aud claim, the iss claim, and the exp claim.

If you need to validate that the ID token represents a Google Workspace or Cloud organization account, you can verify the hd claim by checking the domain name returned by the Payload.getHostedDomain() method. The domain of the email claim is insufficient to ensure that the account is managed by a domain or organization.

Node.js

To validate an ID token in Node.js, use the Google Auth Library for Node.js. Install the library:

npm install google-auth-library --save
Then, call the verifyIdToken() function. For example:

const {OAuth2Client} = require('google-auth-library');
const client = new OAuth2Client();
async function verify() {
  const ticket = await client.verifyIdToken({
      idToken: token,
      audience: CLIENT_ID,  // Specify the CLIENT_ID of the app that accesses the backend
      // Or, if multiple clients access the backend:
      //[CLIENT_ID_1, CLIENT_ID_2, CLIENT_ID_3]
  });
  const payload = ticket.getPayload();
  const userid = payload['sub'];
  // If request specified a G Suite domain:
  // const domain = payload['hd'];
}
verify().catch(console.error);

The verifyIdToken function verifies the JWT signature, the aud claim, the exp claim, and the iss claim.

If you need to validate that the ID token represents a Google Workspace or Cloud organization account, you can check the hd claim, which indicates the hosted domain of the user. This must be used when restricting access to a resource to only members of certain domains. The absence of this claim indicates that the account does not belong to a Google hosted domain.

PHP

To validate an ID token in PHP, use the Google API Client Library for PHP. Install the library (for example, using Composer):

composer require google/apiclient
Then, call the verifyIdToken() function. For example:

require_once 'vendor/autoload.php';

// Get $id_token via HTTPS POST.

$client = new Google_Client(['client_id' => $CLIENT_ID]);  // Specify the CLIENT_ID of the app that accesses the backend
$payload = $client->verifyIdToken($id_token);
if ($payload) {
  $userid = $payload['sub'];
  // If request specified a G Suite domain:
  //$domain = $payload['hd'];
} else {
  // Invalid ID token
}

The verifyIdToken function verifies the JWT signature, the aud claim, the exp claim, and the iss claim.

If you need to validate that the ID token represents a Google Workspace or Cloud organization account, you can check the hd claim, which indicates the hosted domain of the user. This must be used when restricting access to a resource to only members of certain domains. The absence of this claim indicates that the account does not belong to a Google hosted domain.

Python

To validate an ID token in Python, use the verify_oauth2_token function. For example:

from google.oauth2 import id_token
from google.auth.transport import requests

# (Receive token by HTTPS POST)
# ...

try:
    # Specify the CLIENT_ID of the app that accesses the backend:
    idinfo = id_token.verify_oauth2_token(token, requests.Request(), CLIENT_ID)

    # Or, if multiple clients access the backend server:
    # idinfo = id_token.verify_oauth2_token(token, requests.Request())
    # if idinfo['aud'] not in [CLIENT_ID_1, CLIENT_ID_2, CLIENT_ID_3]:
    #     raise ValueError('Could not verify audience.')

    # If auth request is from a G Suite domain:
    # if idinfo['hd'] != GSUITE_DOMAIN_NAME:
    #     raise ValueError('Wrong hosted domain.')

    # ID token is valid. Get the user's Google Account ID from the decoded token.
    userid = idinfo['sub']
except ValueError:
    # Invalid token
    pass

The verify_oauth2_token function verifies the JWT signature, the aud claim, and the exp claim. You must also verify the hd claim (if applicable) by examining the object that verify_oauth2_token returns. If multiple clients access the backend server, also manually verify the aud claim.

Calling the tokeninfo endpoint

An easy way to validate an ID token signature for debugging is to use the tokeninfo endpoint. Calling this endpoint involves an additional network request that does most of the validation for you while you test proper validation and payload extraction in your own code. It is not suitable for use in production code as requests may be throttled or otherwise subject to intermittent errors.

To validate an ID token using the tokeninfo endpoint, make an HTTPS POST or GET request to the endpoint, and pass your ID token in the id_token parameter. For example, to validate the token "XYZ123", make the following GET request:

https://oauth2.googleapis.com/tokeninfo?id_token=XYZ123

If the token is properly signed and the iss and exp claims have the expected values, you will get a HTTP 200 response, where the body contains the JSON-formatted ID token claims. Here's an example response:

{
 // These six fields are included in all Google ID Tokens.
 "iss": "https://accounts.google.com",
 "sub": "110169484474386276334",
 "azp": "1008719970978-hb24n2dstb40o45d4feuo2ukqmcc6381.apps.googleusercontent.com",
 "aud": "1008719970978-hb24n2dstb40o45d4feuo2ukqmcc6381.apps.googleusercontent.com",
 "iat": "1433978353",
 "exp": "1433981953",

 // These seven fields are only included when the user has granted the "profile" and
 // "email" OAuth scopes to the application.
 "email": "testuser@gmail.com",
 "email_verified": "true",
 "name" : "Test User",
 "picture": "https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/-kYgzyAWpZzJ/ABCDEFGHI/AAAJKLMNOP/tIXL9Ir44LE/s99-c/photo.jpg",
 "given_name": "Test",
 "family_name": "User",
 "locale": "en"
}

If you need to validate that the ID token represents a Google Workspace account, you can check the hd claim, which indicates the hosted domain of the user. This must be used when restricting access to a resource to only members of certain domains. The absence of this claim indicates that the account does not belong to a Google Workspace hosted domain.

创建账号或会话

验证令牌后,检查用户是否已经在您的用户数据库中。如果是,请为用户建立经过身份验证的会话。如果用户不在您的用户数据库中,请根据 ID 令牌载荷中的信息创建新的用户记录,并为用户建立会话。当您在应用中检测到新创建的用户时,可以提示用户提供所需的任何其他个人资料信息。

使用跨账号保护功能保护用户账号

如果您依靠 Google 让用户登录,则会自动受益于 Google 为保护用户数据而构建的所有安全功能和基础架构。不过,万一用户的 Google 帐号遭到入侵或发生其他重大安全性事件,您的应用也很容易遭到攻击。为了更好地保护您的账号免受任何重大安全性事件的影响,请使用跨账号保护功能接收来自 Google 的安全提醒。收到这些事件后,您就可以深入了解用户 Google 帐号安全性方面的重要变化,然后根据自己的服务采取措施,以确保帐号安全。