The Copernicus Program is an ambitious initiative headed by the European Commission in partnership with the European Space Agency (ESA). The Sentinels are a constellation of satellites developed by ESA to operationalize the Copernicus program, which include all-weather radar images from Sentinel-1A and 1B, high-resolution optical images from Sentinel-2A and 2B, as well as ocean and land data suitable for environmental and climate monitoring from Sentinel-3.
Sentinel-1 C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
The Sentinel-1 mission provides data from a dual-polarization C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instrument. Unlike optical instruments, SAR instruments are capable of acquiring meaningful data in all weather conditions (even clouds) during daytime and nighttime. Sentinel-1 data is used across many domains, including maritime activity, sea-ice mapping, humanitarian aid, crisis response, and forest management.
Sentinel-2 MultiSpectral Instrument, Level-1C
The Sentinel-2 mission collects high-resolution multispectral imagery useful for a broad range of applications, including monitoring of vegetation, soil and water cover, land cover change, as well as humanitarian and disaster risk.
Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Color Instrument
The Sentinel-3 instrument provides systematic measurements of the planet's oceans, land, ice, and atmosphere, including the temperature, colour and height of the sea surface as well as the thickness of sea ice.
Sentinel-5P Tropomi (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument)
The Sentinel 5 Precursor is a satellite launched in October 2017 by the European Space Agency to monitor air pollution. The onboard sensor is frequently referred to as Tropomi (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument).