Sentinel-5P OFFL NO2: Offline Nitrogen Dioxide

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air-quality copernicus esa eu knmi nitrogen-dioxide no2 pollution s5p sentinel tropomi



This dataset provides offline high-resolution imagery of NO2 concentrations.

Nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NO) are important trace gases in the Earth's atmosphere, present in both the troposphere and the stratosphere. They enter the atmosphere as a result of anthropogenic activities (notably fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning) and natural processes (wildfires, lightning, and microbiological processes in soils). Here, NO2 is used to represent concentrations of collective nitrogen oxides because during daytime, i.e. in the presence of sunlight, a photochemical cycle involving ozone (O3) converts NO into NO2 and vice versa on a timescale of minutes. The TROPOMI NO2 processing system is based on the algorithm developments for the DOMINO-2 product and for the EU QA4ECV NO2 reprocessed dataset for OMI, and has been adapted for TROPOMI. This retrieval-assimilation-modelling system uses the 3-dimensional global TM5-MP chemistry transport model at a resolution of 1x1 degree as an essential element. More information.

OFFL L3 Product

To make our OFFL L3 products, we find areas within the product's bounding box with data using a command like this:

harpconvert --format hdf5 --hdf5-compression 9
-a 'tropospheric_NO2_column_number_density_validity>50;derive(datetime_stop {time})'

We then merge all the data into one large mosaic (area-averaging values for pixels that may have different values for different times). From the mosaic, we create a set of tiles containing orthorectified raster data.

Example harpconvert invocation for one tile: harpconvert --format hdf5 --hdf5-compression 9 -a 'tropospheric_NO2_column_number_density_validity>50;derive(datetime_stop {time}); bin_spatial(2001, 50.000000, 0.01, 2001, -120.000000, 0.01); keep(NO2_column_number_density,tropospheric_NO2_column_number_density, stratospheric_NO2_column_number_density,NO2_slant_column_number_density, tropopause_pressure,absorbing_aerosol_index,cloud_fraction, sensor_altitude,sensor_azimuth_angle, sensor_zenith_angle,solar_azimuth_angle,solar_zenith_angle)' output.h5

Sentinel-5 Precursor

Sentinel-5 Precursor is a satellite launched on 13 October 2017 by the European Space Agency to monitor air pollution. The onboard sensor is frequently referred to as Tropomi (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument).

All of the S5P datasets, except CH4, have two versions: Near Real-Time (NRTI) and Offline (OFFL). CH4 is available as OFFL only. The NRTI assets cover a smaller area than the OFFL assets, but appear more quickly after acquisition. The OFFL assets contain data from a single orbit (which, due to half the earth being dark, contains data only for a single hemisphere).

Because of noise on the data, negative vertical column values are often observed in particular over clean regions or for low SO2 emissions. It is recommended not to filter these values except for outliers, i.e. for vertical columns lower than -0.001 mol/m^2.

The original Sentinel 5P Level 2 (L2) data is binned by time, not by latitude/longitude. To make it possible to ingest the data into Earth Engine, each Sentinel 5P L2 product is converted to L3, keeping a single grid per orbit (that is, no aggregation across products is performed).

Source products spanning the antimeridian are ingested as two Earth Engine assets, with suffixes _1 and _2.

The conversion to L3 is done by the harpconvert tool using the bin_spatial operation. The source data is filtered to remove pixels with QA values less than:

  • 80% for AER_AI
  • 75% for the tropospheric_NO2_column_number_density band of NO2
  • 50% for all other datasets except for O3 and SO2

The O3_TCL product is ingested directly (without running harpconvert).


1113.2 meters


Name Units Min Max Description
NO2_column_number_density mol/m^2 -0.00051* 0.0192*

Total vertical column of NO2 (ratio of the slant column density of NO2 and the total air mass factor).

tropospheric_NO2_column_number_density mol/m^2 -0.0005375* 0.0192044*

tropospheric vertical column of NO2

stratospheric_NO2_column_number_density mol/m^2 8.6e-06* 0.000107*

stratospheric vertical column of NO2

NO2_slant_column_number_density mol/m^2 1.48e-05* 0.003908*

NO2 slant column density

tropopause_pressure Pa 6156* 37345*

topopause pressure

absorbing_aerosol_index Dimensionless -14.43* 10.67*

Aerosol index (at wavelengths 354/388, i.e. the OMI pair) from the AER_AI level 2 product. See Level 2 Algorithms - Ultraviolet Aerosol Index.

cloud_fraction Fraction 0* 1*

Effective cloud fraction. See the Sentinel 5P L2 Input/Output Data Definition Spec, p.220.

sensor_altitude m 828543* 856078*

Altitude of the satellite with respect to the geodetic sub-satellite point (WGS84).

sensor_azimuth_angle deg -180* 180*

Azimuth angle of the satellite at the ground pixel location (WGS84); angle measured East-of-North.

sensor_zenith_angle deg 0.09* 67*

Zenith angle of the satellite at the ground pixel location (WGS84); angle measured away from the vertical.

solar_azimuth_angle deg -180* 180*

Azimuth angle of the Sun at the ground pixel location (WGS84); angle measured East-of-North.

solar_zenith_angle deg 8* 82*

Zenith angle of the satellite at the ground pixel location (WGS84); angle measured away from the vertical.

* estimated min or max value

Image Properties

Image Properties

Name Type Description

The algorithm version used in L2 processing. It is separate from the processor (framework) version, to accommodate different release schedules for different products.


The date, expressed as milliseconds since 1 Jan 1970, when the software used to perform L2 processing was built.


The version of the HARP tool used to grid the L2 data into an L3 product.


The institution where data processing from L1 to L2 was performed.


The date, expressed as milliseconds since 1 Jan 1970, when Google processed the L2 data into L3 using harpconvert.


The maximum latitude of the asset (degrees).


The minimum latitude of the asset (degrees).


The maximum longitude of the asset (degrees).


The minimum longitude of the asset (degrees).


The orbit number of the satellite when the data was acquired.


Name of the platform which acquired the data.


The processing status of the product on a global level, mainly based on the availability of auxiliary input data. Possible values are "Nominal" and "Degraded".


The version of the software used for L2 processing, as a string of the form "major.minor.patch".


Id of the L2 product used to generate this asset.


Indicator that specifies whether the product quality is degraded or not. Allowed values are "Degraded" and "Nominal".


Name of the sensor which acquired the data.


Spatial resolution at nadir. For most products this is 3.5x7km2, except for L2__O3__PR, which uses 28x21km2, and L2__CO____ and L2__CH4___, which both use 7x7km2. This attribute originates from the CCI standard.


Days from 1 Jan 1950 to when the data was acquired.


The Julian day number when the data was acquired.


UUID for the L2 product file.

Terms of Use

Terms of Use

The use of Sentinel data is governed by the Copernicus Sentinel Data Terms and Conditions.

Explore with Earth Engine

Code Editor (JavaScript)

var collection = ee.ImageCollection('COPERNICUS/S5P/OFFL/L3_NO2')
  .filterDate('2019-06-01', '2019-06-06');

var band_viz = {
  min: 0,
  max: 0.0002,
  palette: ['black', 'blue', 'purple', 'cyan', 'green', 'yellow', 'red']

Map.addLayer(collection.mean(), band_viz, 'S5P N02');
Map.setCenter(65.27, 24.11, 4);
Open in Code Editor