Contas de serviço

As contas de serviço são um tipo de Conta do Google que pode ser usado por um aplicativo para acessar as APIs do Google de maneira programática via OAuth 2.0. Esse processo não requer autorização humana porque usa um arquivo de chave que só o aplicativo pode acessar.

Antes de ler mais sobre as contas de serviço, considere implementar o fluxo de OAuth 2.0 para aplicativos instalados, uma alternativa muito mais simples e altamente recomendada. Essa abordagem requer uma autorização manual de um usuário para que o aplicativo gere um token de atualização. No entanto, isso só precisa ser feito uma vez, já que esses tokens nunca expiram.

Se você ainda estiver interessado, poderá implementar uma conta de serviço de uma das seguintes maneiras:

  • Caso seus usuários estejam em domínios diferentes, faça a implementação usando uma conta de serviço como um usuário do Campaign Manager. Isso permite que você se conecte a várias contas de propriedade de agências diferentes criando um novo perfil de usuário em cada uma delas e associando todas a uma única conta de serviço. Essa é a maneira ideal de usar contas de serviço com o Campaign Manager.
  • Se os usuários estiverem em um único domínio de sua propriedade, implemente a delegação em todo esse domínio. Nesse caso, será preciso ter acesso de administrador a um domínio registrado no G Suite. Se precisar de ajuda com a configuração do G Suite e/ou do domínio, consulte a página de suporte do G Suite.

Pré-requisitos

Para implementar uma conta de serviço como um usuário do Campaign Manager, selecione a guia Usuário do Campaign Manager. Para implementar a delegação em todo o domínio, selecione a guia Delegação.

Usuário do Campaign Manager

Você precisa ter acesso a uma conta do Campaign Manager com acesso à API ativado.

Delegação
  1. Você precisa ter acesso a uma conta do Campaign Manager com acesso à API ativado.
  2. Você precisa ter acesso de administrador a um domínio registrado no G Suite.
  3. Você precisa ter um perfil de usuário do Campaign Manager vinculado a uma ou mais contas do domínio registrado no G Suite. Não é possível usar perfis de usuário vinculados a contas em outros domínios (gmail.com, por exemplo).

Configuração e uso das contas de serviço

Para fazer a implementação usando uma conta de serviço como um usuário do Campaign Manager, selecione a guia Usuário do Campaign Manager. Para implementar a delegação em todo o domínio, selecione a guia Delegação.

Usuário do Campaign Manager
  1. Gere uma chave de conta de serviço no Console de APIs do Google.

    Atenção: é importante proteger o arquivo de chave que concede à conta de serviço o acesso aos serviços do Google autorizados.
  2. Associe o perfil de usuário do Campaign Manager ao e-mail da conta de serviço gerado na etapa anterior, conforme descrito no artigo da Central de Ajuda Gerenciar o acesso do usuário.
  3. Implemente o fluxo OAuth 2.0 de servidor para servidor no aplicativo usando a nova conta de serviço. Para mais informações, consulte a seção de exemplos.
Delegação
  1. Gere uma chave de conta de serviço no Console de APIs do Google.

    Atenção: é importante proteger o arquivo de chave que concede à conta de serviço o acesso aos serviços do Google autorizados. Isso é ainda mais essencial no caso do fluxo de delegação em todo o domínio, já que o controle no nível de domínio do G Suite permite que a conta de serviço represente qualquer usuário do domínio. Outra prática recomendada é permitir que cada conta de serviço acesse somente uma API do Google usando o campo de escopo descrito na próxima etapa. Essa é uma medida preventiva para reduzir a quantidade de dados que um invasor poderá acessar se o arquivo de chave de uma conta de serviço for comprometido.
  2. Delegue autoridade em todo o domínio a essa conta de serviço para permitir que ela represente usuários do domínio. Quando solicitado, forneça os seguintes escopos da API:
    Escopo Significado
    https://www.googleapis.com/auth/dfatrafficking Acesso de leitura/gravação ao tráfego do DCM.
    https://www.googleapis.com/auth/dfareporting Acesso de leitura/gravação aos relatórios do DDM.
    https://www.googleapis.com/auth/ddmconversions Acesso de leitura/gravação a conversões off-line do DDM.
  3. Implemente o fluxo OAuth 2.0 de servidor para servidor no aplicativo usando a nova conta de serviço. Para mais informações, consulte a seção de exemplos. Será necessário fornecer uma conta a ser representada. Ela precisa pertencer ao mesmo domínio em que sua conta de serviço tem autoridade, conforme delegado na etapa anterior.

Se precisar de ajuda com a configuração do G Suite e/ou do domínio, consulte a página de suporte do G Suite.

Exemplos

C#

/*
 * Copyright 2015 Google Inc
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0(the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
*/

using Google.Apis.Auth.OAuth2;
using Google.Apis.Dfareporting.v3_3;
using Google.Apis.Dfareporting.v3_3.Data;
using Google.Apis.Json;
using Google.Apis.Services;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.IO;

namespace DfaReporting.Samples {
  /// <summary>
  /// This example demonstrates how to authenticate and make a basic request using a service
  /// account.
  /// </summary>
  class AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount : SampleBase {
    /// <summary>
    /// The OAuth 2.0 scopes to request.
    /// </summary>
    private static readonly IEnumerable<string> OAuthScopes = new[] {
      DfareportingService.Scope.Dfareporting
    };

    /// <summary>
    /// Returns a description about the code example.
    /// </summary>
    public override string Description {
      get {
        return "This example demonstrates how to authenticate and make a basic request" +
               " using a service account.\n";
      }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Main method, to run this code example as a standalone application.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="args">The command line arguments.</param>
    public static void Main(string[] args) {
      SampleBase codeExample = new AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount();
      Console.WriteLine(codeExample.Description);
      codeExample.Run(null);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Run the code example.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="service">Unused</param>
    public override void Run(DfareportingService service) {
      string pathToJsonFile = _T("ENTER_PATH_TO_JSON_FILE_HERE");

      // An optional Google account email to impersonate. Only applicable to service accounts which
      // have enabled domain-wide delegation and wish to make API requests on behalf of an account
      // within their domain. Setting this field will not allow you to impersonate a user from a
      // domain you don't own (e.g., gmail.com).
      string emailToImpersonate = _T("");

      // Build service account credential.
      ServiceAccountCredential credential =
          getServiceAccountCredential(pathToJsonFile, emailToImpersonate);

      // Create a Dfareporting service object.
      //
      // Note: application name should be replaced with a value that identifies your application.
      service = new DfareportingService(
          new BaseClientService.Initializer {
            HttpClientInitializer = credential,
            ApplicationName = "C# service account sample"
          }
      );

      // Retrieve and print all user profiles for the current authorized user.
      UserProfileList profiles = service.UserProfiles.List().Execute();

      foreach (UserProfile profile in profiles.Items) {
        Console.WriteLine("Found user profile with ID {0} and name \"{1}\".",
            profile.ProfileId, profile.UserName);
      }
    }

    private ServiceAccountCredential getServiceAccountCredential(String pathToJsonFile,
        String emailToImpersonate) {
      // Load and deserialize credential parameters from the specified JSON file.
      JsonCredentialParameters parameters;
      using (Stream json = new FileStream(pathToJsonFile, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Read)) {
        parameters = NewtonsoftJsonSerializer.Instance.Deserialize<JsonCredentialParameters>(json);
      }

      // Create a credential initializer with the correct scopes.
      ServiceAccountCredential.Initializer initializer =
          new ServiceAccountCredential.Initializer(parameters.ClientEmail) {
            Scopes = OAuthScopes
          };

      // Configure impersonation (if applicable).
      if (!String.IsNullOrEmpty(emailToImpersonate)) {
        initializer.User = emailToImpersonate;
      }

      // Create a service account credential object using the deserialized private key.
      ServiceAccountCredential credential =
          new ServiceAccountCredential(initializer.FromPrivateKey(parameters.PrivateKey));

      return credential;
    }
  }
}

Java

// Copyright 2014 Google Inc. All Rights Reserved.
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
// you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
// http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.

package com.google.api.services.samples.dfareporting.auth;

import com.google.api.client.auth.oauth2.Credential;
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleCredential;
import com.google.api.services.dfareporting.Dfareporting;
import com.google.api.services.dfareporting.DfareportingScopes;
import com.google.api.services.dfareporting.model.UserProfileList;
import com.google.common.base.Strings;
import com.google.common.collect.ImmutableSet;
import java.io.FileInputStream;

/**
 * This example demonstrates how to authenticate and make a basic request using a service account.
 */
public class AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount {
  private static final String PATH_TO_JSON_FILE = "ENTER_PATH_TO_JSON_FILE_HERE";

  /**
   * An optional Google account email to impersonate. Only applicable to service accounts which have
   * enabled domain-wide delegation and wish to make API requests on behalf of an account within
   * their domain. Setting this field will not allow you to impersonate a user from a domain you
   * don't own (e.g., gmail.com).
   */
  private static final String EMAIL_TO_IMPERSONATE = "";

  // The OAuth 2.0 scopes to request.
  private static final ImmutableSet<String> OAUTH_SCOPES =
      ImmutableSet.of(DfareportingScopes.DFAREPORTING);

  private static Credential getServiceAccountCredential(
      String pathToJsonFile, String emailToImpersonate) throws Exception {
    // Generate a credential object from the specified JSON file.
    GoogleCredential credential = GoogleCredential.fromStream(new FileInputStream(pathToJsonFile));

    // Update the credential object with appropriate scopes and impersonation info (if applicable).
    if (Strings.isNullOrEmpty(emailToImpersonate)) {
      credential = credential.createScoped(OAUTH_SCOPES);
    } else {
      credential =
          new GoogleCredential.Builder()
              .setTransport(credential.getTransport())
              .setJsonFactory(credential.getJsonFactory())
              .setServiceAccountId(credential.getServiceAccountId())
              .setServiceAccountPrivateKey(credential.getServiceAccountPrivateKey())
              .setServiceAccountScopes(OAUTH_SCOPES)
              // Set the email of the user you are impersonating (this can be yourself).
              .setServiceAccountUser(emailToImpersonate)
              .build();
    }

    return credential;
  }

  public static void runExample(Dfareporting reporting) throws Exception {
    // Retrieve and print all user profiles for the current authorized user.
    UserProfileList profiles = reporting.userProfiles().list().execute();
    for (int i = 0; i < profiles.getItems().size(); i++) {
      System.out.printf("%d) %s%n", i + 1, profiles.getItems().get(i).getUserName());
    }
  }

  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
    // Build service account credential.
    Credential credential = getServiceAccountCredential(PATH_TO_JSON_FILE, EMAIL_TO_IMPERSONATE);

    // Create a Dfareporting client instance.
    //
    // Note: application name below should be replaced with a value that identifies your
    // application. Suggested format is "MyCompany-ProductName/Version.MinorVersion".
    Dfareporting reporting =
        new Dfareporting.Builder(credential.getTransport(), credential.getJsonFactory(), credential)
            .setApplicationName("dfareporting-java-service-acct-sample")
            .build();

    runExample(reporting);
  }
}

PHP

<?php
/*
 * Copyright 2017 Google Inc.
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

require_once dirname(__DIR__) . '/vendor/autoload.php';

/**
 * This example demonstrates how to authenticate and make a basic request using
 * a service account.
 *
 * This example is written to be run as a command line application, not as a
 * webpage. An optional Google account email to impersonate may be specified as
 * follows:
 *
 *     AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount.php /path/to/client_secrets.json <email>
 *
 * This optional flag only applies to service accounts which have domain-wide
 * delegation enabled and wish to make API requests on behalf of an account
 * within that domain. Using this flag will not allow you to impersonate a user
 * from a domain that you don't own (e.g., gmail.com).
 */
class AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount
{
    // The OAuth 2.0 scopes to request.
    private static $OAUTH_SCOPES = [
        Google_Service_Dfareporting::DFAREPORTING
    ];

    public function run($pathToJsonFile, $email = null)
    {
        // Create an authenticated client object.
        $client = $this->createAuthenticatedClient($pathToJsonFile, $email);

        // Create a Dfareporting service object.
        $service = new Google_Service_Dfareporting($client);

        $this->getUserProfiles($service);
    }

    private function createAuthenticatedClient($pathToJsonFile, $email)
    {
        // Create a Google_Client instance.
        //
        // Note: application name should be replaced with a value that identifies
        // your application. Suggested format is "MyCompany-ProductName".
        $client = new Google_Client();
        $client->setApplicationName('PHP service account sample');
        $client->setScopes(self::$OAUTH_SCOPES);

        // Load the service account credentials.
        $client->setAuthConfig($pathToJsonFile);

        // Configure impersonation (if applicable).
        if (!is_null($email)) {
            $client->setSubject($email);
        }

        return $client;
    }

    private function getUserProfiles($service)
    {
        // Retrieve and print all user profiles for the current authorized user.
        $result = $service->userProfiles->listUserProfiles();
        foreach ($result['items'] as $userProfile) {
            printf(
                "User profile \"%s\" (ID: %d) found for account %d.\n",
                $userProfile->getUserName(),
                $userProfile->getProfileId(),
                $userProfile->getAccountId()
            );
        }
    }
}

if ($argc < 2 || $argc >= 4) {
    printf(
        "Usage: %s /path/to/client_secrets.json [email_to_impersonate]\n",
        $argv[0]
    );
} else {
    $sample = new AuthenticateUsingServiceAccount();

    if ($argc == 2) {
        $sample->run($argv[1]);
    } else {
        $sample->run($argv[1], $argv[2]);
    }
}

Python

#!/usr/bin/python
#
# Copyright 2015 Google Inc. All Rights Reserved.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

"""This example demonstrates how to authenticate using a service account.

An optional Google account email to impersonate may be specified as follows:
    authenticate_using_service_account.py <path_to_json_file> -i <email>

This optional flag only applies to service accounts which have domain-wide
delegation enabled and wish to make API requests on behalf of an account
within that domain. Using this flag will not allow you to impersonate a
user from a domain you don't own (e.g., gmail.com).
"""

import argparse
import sys

from googleapiclient import discovery
import httplib2
from oauth2client import client
from oauth2client import tools
from oauth2client.service_account import ServiceAccountCredentials

# Declare command-line flags.
argparser = argparse.ArgumentParser(add_help=False)
argparser.add_argument(
    'path_to_service_account_json_file',
    help='Path to the service account JSON file to use for authenticating.')
argparser.add_argument(
    '-i',
    '--impersonation_email',
    help='Google account email to impersonate.')

# The OAuth 2.0 scopes to request.
OAUTH_SCOPES = ['https://www.googleapis.com/auth/dfareporting']

def main(argv):
  # Retrieve command line arguments.
  parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(
      description=__doc__,
      formatter_class=argparse.RawDescriptionHelpFormatter,
      parents=[tools.argparser, argparser])
  flags = parser.parse_args(argv[1:])

  # Authenticate using the supplied service account credentials
  http = authenticate_using_service_account(
      flags.path_to_service_account_json_file,
      flags.impersonation_email)

  # Construct a service object via the discovery service.
  service = discovery.build('dfareporting', 'v3.3', http=http)

  try:
    # Construct the request.
    request = service.userProfiles().list()

    # Execute request and print response.
    response = request.execute()

    for profile in response['items']:
      print('Found user profile with ID %s and user name "%s".' %
            (profile['profileId'], profile['userName']))

  except client.AccessTokenRefreshError:
    print('The credentials have been revoked or expired, please re-run the '
          'application to re-authorize')

def authenticate_using_service_account(path_to_service_account_json_file,
                                       impersonation_email):
  """Authorizes an httplib2.Http instance using service account credentials."""
  # Load the service account credentials from the specified JSON keyfile.
  credentials = ServiceAccountCredentials.from_json_keyfile_name(
      path_to_service_account_json_file,
      scopes=OAUTH_SCOPES)

  # Configure impersonation (if applicable).
  if impersonation_email:
    credentials = credentials.create_delegated(impersonation_email)

  # Use the credentials to authorize an httplib2.Http instance.
  http = credentials.authorize(httplib2.Http())

  return http

if __name__ == '__main__':
  main(sys.argv)

Ruby

#!/usr/bin/env ruby

#
# Copyright:: Copyright 2016, Google Inc. All Rights Reserved.
#
# License:: Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
#           you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
#           You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#           http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
#           Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
#           distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
#           WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or
#           implied.
#           See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
#           limitations under the License.
#
# This example demonstrates how to authenticate using a service account.
#
# An optional Google account email to impersonate may be specified as follows:
#    authenticate_using_service_account.rb <path_to_json_file> --i <email>
#
# This optional flag only applies to service accounts which have domain-wide
# delegation enabled and wish to make API requests on behalf of an account
# within that domain. Using this flag will not allow you to impersonate a
# user from a domain you don't own (e.g., gmail.com).

require 'google/apis/dfareporting_v3_3'
require 'googleauth'
require 'optparse'

API_NAMESPACE = Google::Apis::DfareportingV3_3

def authenticate_using_service_account(path_to_json_file, impersonation_email)
  # Create a Dfareporting service object.
  #
  # Note: application name should be replaced with a value that identifies
  # your application. Suggested format is "MyCompany-ProductName".
  service = API_NAMESPACE::DfareportingService.new
  service.client_options.application_name = 'Ruby service account sample'
  service.client_options.application_version = '1.0.0'

  # Generate an authorization object from the specified JSON file.
  File.open(path_to_json_file, 'r+') do |json|
    service.authorization =
      Google::Auth::ServiceAccountCredentials.make_creds(
        json_key_io: json,
        scope: [API_NAMESPACE::AUTH_DFAREPORTING]
      )
  end

  # Configure impersonation (if applicable).
  service.authorization.sub = impersonation_email unless
    impersonation_email.nil?

  service
end

def get_userprofiles(service)
  # Get all user profiles.
  result = service.list_user_profiles

  # Display results.
  result.items.each do |profile|
    puts format(
      'User profile with ID %d and name "%s" was found for account %d.',
      profile.profile_id, profile.user_name, profile.account_id
    )
  end
end

if $PROGRAM_NAME == __FILE__
  # Retrieve command line arguments.
  impersonation_email = nil
  optparse = OptionParser.new do |opts|
    opts.banner = format('Usage: %s path_to_json_file [options]', $PROGRAM_NAME)
    opts.on_tail('-i', '--impersonate EMAIL',
      'Google account email to impersonate') do |email|
      impersonation_email = email
    end
  end
  optparse.parse!

  if ARGV.empty?
    puts optparse
    exit(-1)
  end

  # Authenticate and initialize API service using service account.
  service = authenticate_using_service_account(ARGV.shift, impersonation_email)

  get_userprofiles(service)
end