Custom Search

XML API reference

This page refers to the XML version of the Custom Search API, which is available only to Google Site Search customers.

  1. Overview
  2. Custom Search Request Format
    1. Request Overview
    2. Query Terms
    3. Request Parameters
      1. Sample WebSearch Queries
      2. WebSearch Query Parameter Definitions
      3. Advanced Search
      4. Advanced Search Query Parameters
      5. Special Query Terms
      6. Sample Image Queries
      7. Image Search Query Parameters
      8. Request Limits
    4. Internationalizing Queries and Results Presentation
      1. Character Encoding
      2. Interface Languages
      3. Searching for Documents Written in Specific Languages
      4. Simplified and Traditional Chinese Search
    5. Filtering Results
      1. Automatic Filtering of Search Results
      2. Language and Country Filtering
      3. Filtering Adult Content with SafeSearch
  3. XML Results
    1. Google XML Results DTD
    2. About the XML Response
    3. XML Results for Regular, Image, and Advanced Search Queries
      1. Regular/Advanced Search: Sample Query and XML Result
      2. Regular/Advanced Search: XML Tags
      3. XML Results for Image Search Queries
      4. Image Search: Sample Query and XML Result
      5. Image Search: XML Tags
  4. Appendices
    1. Boolean Operators
    2. URL Escaping
    3. Compressing Results
    4. International Values
      1. Character Encoding Schemes
      2. Supported Interface Languages
      3. Language Collection Values
      4. Country Collection Values
      5. Country Codes

Overview

The Google WebSearch service enables Google Site Search customers to display Google search results on their own web sites. The WebSearch service uses a simple HTTP-based protocol to serve search results. Search administrators have complete control over the way they request search results and the way they present those results to the end user. This document describes the technical details of the Google search request and results formats.

To retrieve Google WebSearch results, your application sends Google a simple HTTP request. Google then returns search results in XML format. XML-formatted results give you the ability to customize the way search results are displayed.

WebSearch Request Format

Request Overview

The Google search request is a standard HTTP GET command. It includes a collection of parameters relevant to your queries. These parameters are included in the request URL as name=value pairs separated by ampersand (&) characters. Parameters include data like the search query and a unique CSE ID (cx) that identifies the CSE that is making the HTTP request. The WebSearch or Image Search service returns XML results in response to your HTTP requests.

Query Terms

Most search requests include one or more query terms. A query term appears as the value of a parameter in the search request.

Query terms can specify several types of information to filter and organize the search results that Google returns. Queries can specify:

  • Words or phrases to include or exclude
    • All of the words in a search query (default)
    • An exact phrase in the search query
    • Any word or phrase in a search query
  • Where in a document to look for the search terms
    • Anywhere in the document (default)
    • Only in the body of the document
    • Only in the document title
    • Only in the document URL
    • Only in links in the document
  • Restrictions on the documents themselves
    • Including or excluding documents of particular file types (such as PDF files or Word documents)
  • Special URL queries that return information about a given URL, rather than doing a search
    • Queries that return general information about a URL, such as its Open Directory category, snippet or language
    • Queries that return the set of web pages that link to a URL
    • Queries that return a set of web pages similar to a given URL

Default Search

Search query parameter values must be URL-escaped. Note that you would substitute the plus sign ("+") for any whitespace sequences in the search query. This is discussed further in the URL Escaping section of this document.

The search query term is submitted to the WebSearch service using the q parameter. A sample search query term is:

q=horses+cows+pigs

By default, the Google WebSearch service only returns documents that include all of the terms in the search query.

Request Parameters

This section lists the parameters that you can use when making a search request. The parameters are split into two lists. The first list contains parameters that are relevant to all search requests. The second list contains parameters that are only relevant to advanced search requests.

Three request parameters are required:

  • The client parameter must be set to google-csbe
  • The output parameter specifies the format of the returned XML results; results can be returned with (xml) or without (xml_no_dtd) a reference to Google's DTD. We recommend setting this value to xml_no_dtd. Note: If you do not specify this parameter, then results will be returned in HTML instead of XML.
  • The cx parameter which represents the unique ID of the CSE.

The most commonly used request parameters other than the ones mentioned above are:

  • num—the requested number of search results
  • q—the search term(s)
  • start—the starting index for the results

Sample WebSearch Queries

The examples below show a couple of WebSearch HTTP requests to illustrate how different query parameters are used. Definitions for the different query parameters are provided in the WebSearch Query Parameter Definitions and the Advanced Search Query Parameters sections of this document.

This request asks for the first 10 results (start=0&num=10) for the query term "red sox" (q=red+sox). The query also specifies that results should come from Canadian web sites (cr=countryCA) and should be written in French (lr=lang_fr). Finally, the query specifies values for the client, output, and cx parameters, all three of which are required.

http://www.google.com/search?
start=0
&num=10
&q=red+sox
&cr=countryCA
&lr=lang_fr
&client=google-csbe
&output=xml_no_dtd
&cx=00255077836266642015:u-scht7a-8i

This example uses some of the advanced search query parameters to further customize the search query. This request uses the as_q parameter (as_q=red+sox) instead of the q parameter. It also uses the as_eq parameter to exclude any documents containing the word "Yankees" from the search results (as_eq=yankees).

http://www.google.com/search?
start=0
&num=10
&as_q=red+sox
&as_eq=Yankees
&client=google-csbe
&output=xml_no_dtd
&cx=00255077836266642015:u-scht7a-8i

WebSearch Query Parameter Definitions

c2coff
Description

Optional. The c2coff parameter enables or disables the Simplified and Traditional Chinese Search feature.

The default value for this parameter is 0 (zero), meaning that the feature is enabled. Values for the c2coff parameter are:

Value Action
1 Disabled
0 Enabled
Examples q=google&c2coff=1

client
Description

Required. The client parameter must be set to google-csbe.

Examples q=google&client=google-csbe

cr
Description

Optional. The cr parameter restricts search results to documents originating in a particular country. You may use Boolean operators in the cr parameter's value.

Google WebSearch determines the country of a document by analyzing:

  • the top-level domain (TLD) of the document's URL
  • the geographic location of the Web server's IP address

See the Country (cr) Parameter Values section for a list of valid values for this parameter.

Examples q=Frodo&cr=countryNZ

cx
Description

Required. The cx parameter specifies a unique code that identifies a custom search engine. You must specify a Custom Search Engine using the cx parameter to retrieve search results from that CSE.

To find the value of the cx parameter, go to Control Panel > Codes tab of your CSE and you will find it in the text area under 'Paste this code in the page where you'd like your search box to appear. The search results will be shown on a Google-hosted page.'

Examples q=Frodo&cx=00255077836266642015:u-scht7a-8i

filter
Description

Optional. The filter parameter activates or deactivates the automatic filtering of Google search results. See the Automatic Filtering section of this document for more information about Google's search results filters.

The default value for the filter parameter is 1, which indicates that the feature is enabled. Valid values for this parameter are:

Value Action
1 Disabled
0 Enabled

Note: By default, Google applies filtering to all search results to improve the quality of those results.

Examples q=google&filter=0

gl
Description

Optional. The gl parameter value is a two-letter country code. For WebSearch results, the gl parameter boosts search results whose country of origin matches the parameter value. See the Country Codes section for a list of valid values.

Specifying a gl parameter value in WebSearch requests should improve the relevance of results. This is particularly true for international customers and, even more specifically, for customers in English-speaking countries other than the United States.

Examples

This request boosts documents written in the United Kingdom in WebSearch results:
q=pizza&gl=uk


hl
Description

Optional. The hl parameter specifies the interface language (host language) of your user interface. To improve the performance and the quality of your search results, you are strongly encouraged to set this parameter explicitly.

See the Interface Languages section of Internationalizing Queries and Results Presentation for more information and Supported Interface Languages for a list of supported languages.

Examples

This request targets ads for wine in French. (Vin is the French term for wine.)

q=vin&ip=10.10.10.10&ad=w5&hl=fr

hq
Description

Optional. The hq parameter appends the specified query terms to the query, as if they were combined with a logical AND operator.

Examples

This request searches for 'pizza' AND 'cheese'. The expression is the same as q=pizza+cheese.

q=pizza&hq=cheese


ie
Description

Optional. The ie parameter sets the character encoding scheme that should be used to interpret the query string. The default ie value is latin1.

See the Character Encoding section for a discussion of when you might need to use this parameter.

See the Character Encoding Schemes section for the list of possible ie values.

Examples q=google&ie=utf8&oe=utf8
lr
Description

Optional. The lr (language restrict) parameter restricts search results to documents written in a particular language.

Google WebSearch determines the language of a document by analyzing:

  • the top-level domain (TLD) of the document's URL
  • language meta tags within the document
  • the primary language used in the body text of the document
  • secondary languages, if any, used in the body text of the document

See the Language (lr) Collection Values section for a list of valid values for this parameter.

Examples q=Frodo&lr=lang_en

num
Description

Optional. The num parameter identifies the number of search results to return.

The default num value is 10, and the maximum value is 20. If you request more than 20 results, only 20 results will be returned.

Note: If the total number of search results is less than the requested number of results, all available search results will be returned.

Examples q=google&num=10

oe
Description

Optional. The oe parameter sets the character encoding scheme that should be used to decode the XML result. The default oe value is latin1.

See the Character Encoding section for a discussion of when you might need to use this parameter.

See the Character Encoding Schemes section for the list of possible oe values.

Examples q=google&ie=utf8&oe=utf8

output
Description

Required. The output parameter specifies the format of the XML results. The only valid values for this parameter are xml and xml_no_dtd. The chart below explains how these parameter values differ.

Value Output Format
xml_no_dtd The XML results will not include a !DOCTYPE statement. (Recommended)
xml The XML results will contain a Google DTD reference. The second line of the result will identify the document definition type (DTD) that the results use:
    <!DOCTYPE GSP SYSTEM "google.dtd">
Examples output=xml_no_dtd
output=xml

q
Description

Optional. The q parameter specifies the search query entered by the user. Even though this parameter is optional, you must specify a value for at least one of the query parameters (as_epq, as_lq, as_oq, as_q, as_rq) to get search results.

There are also a number of special query terms that can be used as part of the q parameter's value. Please see Special Query Terms for a list and definitions of these terms.

The Google Search Control Panel includes a report of the top queries submitted using the q parameter.

Note: The value specified for the q parameter must be URL-escaped.

Examples q=vacation&as_oq=london+paris

safe
Description

Optional. The safe parameter indicates how search results should be filtered for adult and pornographic content. The default value for the safe parameter is off. Valid parameter values are:

Value Action
off Disable SafeSearch
medium Enable SafeSearch
high Enable a stricter version of SafeSearch

See the Filtering Adult Content with SafeSearch section for more details about this feature.

Examples q=adult&safe=high

start
Description

Optional. The start parameter indicates the first matching result that should be included in the search results. The start parameter uses a zero-based index, meaning the first result is 0, the second result is 1 and so forth.

The start parameter works in conjunction with the num parameter to determine which search results to return. Note that no more than 1000 results will ever be returned for any query, even if more than 1000 documents match the query, so setting start to 1000 or more will produce no results.

Examples start=10

sort
Description

Optional. The sort parameter specifies that the results be sorted according to the specified expression. For example, sort by date.

Examples

sort=date


ud
Description

Optional. The ud parameter indicates whether the XML response should include the IDN-encoded URL for the search result. IDN (International Domain Name) encoding allows domains to be displayed using local languages, for example:

http://www.花井鮨.com

Valid values for this parameter are 1 (default), meaning the XML result should include IDN-encoded URLs, and 0, meaning the XML result should not include IDN-encoded URLs. If the ud parameter is set to 1, the IDN-encoded URL will appear in in the UD tag in your XML results.

If the ud parameter is set to 0, the URL in the example above would be displayed as:

http://www.xn--elq438j.com.

Note: This is a beta feature.

Examples q=google&ud=1

Advanced Search

The additional query parameters listed below the image are relevant to advanced search queries. When you submit an advanced search, the values of several parameters (e.g. as_eq, as_epq, as_oq, etc.) are all factored into the query terms for that search. The image sows Google's Advanced Search page. On the image, the name of each advanced search parameter is written in red text inside of or next to the field on the page to which that parameter corresponds.



Advanced Search Query Parameters

as_dt
Description

Optional. The as_dt parameter controls whether to include or exclude results from the site named in the as_sitesearch parameter. The values i and e denote inclusion and exclusion respectively.

Examples as_dt=i,as_dt=e

as_epq
Description

Optional. The as_epq parameter identifies a phrase that all documents in the search results must contain. You can also use the phrase search query term to search for a phrase.

Examples as_epq=abraham+lincoln

as_eq
Description

Optional. The as_eq parameter identifies a word or phrase that should not appear in any documents in the search results. You can also use the exclude query term to ensure that a particular word or phrase will not appear in the documents in a set of search results.

Examples

q=bass&as_eq=music.


as_lq
Description

Optional. The as_lq parameter specifies that all search results should contain a link to a particular URL. You can also use the link: query term for this type of query.

Examples

as_lq=www.google.com


as_nlo
Description

Optional. The as_nlo parameter specifies the starting value for a search range. Use as_nlo and as_nhi to append an inclusive search range of as_nlo...as_nhi to the query.

Examples

The following sets a search range of 5 to 10, inclusive:

as_nlo=5&as_nhi=10

as_nhi
Description

Optional. The as_nhi parameter specifies the ending value for a search range. Use as_nlo and as_nhi to append an inclusive search range of as_nlo...as_nhi to the query.

Examples

The following sets a search range of 5 to 10, inclusive:

as_nlo=5&as_nhi=10

as_oq
Description

Optional. The as_oq parameter provides additional search terms to check for in a document, where each document in the search results must contain at least one of the additional search terms. You can also use the Boolean OR query term for this type of query.

Examples

q=vacation&as_oq=London+Paris


as_q
Description

Optional. The as_q parameter provides search terms to check for in a document. This parameter is also commonly used to allow users to specify additional terms to search for within a set of search results.

Examples

q=president&as_q=John+Adams


as_qdr
Description

Optional. The as_qdr parameter requests search results from a specified time period (quick date range). The following values are supported:

d[number] requests results from the specified number of past days.
w[number] requests results from the specified number of past weeks.
m[number] requests results from the specified number of past months.
y[number] requests results from the specified number of past years.

Examples

This example requests results from the past year:

as_qdr=y

This example requests results from the past 10 days:

as_qdr=d10

as_rq
Description

Optional. The as_rq parameter specifies that all search results should be pages that are related to the specified URL. The parameter value should be a URL. You can also use the related: query term for this type of query.

Examples

This example shows a search for pages that are related to www.google.com:
as_rq=www.google.com


as_sitesearch
Description

Optional. The as_sitesearch parameter allows you to specify that all search results should be pages from a given site. By setting the as_dt parameter, you can also use it to exclude pages from a given site from your search resutls.

Examples

q=vacation&as_sitesearch=www.google.com


Special Query Terms

Google WebSearch allows the use of several special query terms that access additional capabilities of the Google search engine. These special query terms should be included in the value of the q request parameter. Like other query terms, the special query terms must be URL-escaped. A number of the special query terms contain a colon (:). This character must also be URL-escaped; its URL-escaped value is %3A.

Back Links [link:]
Description

The link: query term retrieves the set of Web pages that link to a particular URL. The search query should be formatted as link:URL with no space between the link: query term and the URL.

The URL-escaped version of link: is link%3A.

You can also use the as_lq request parameter to submit a link: request.

Note: You cannot specify any other query terms when using link:.

Examples

http://www.google.com/search?q=link%3Awww.example.com


Boolean OR Search [ OR ]
Description

The OR query term retrieves documents that include one of a series of (two or more) query terms. To use the OR query term, you would insert the search term OR, in uppercase letters, between each term in the series.

You can also use the as_oq request parameter to submit a search for any term in a set of terms.

Note: If a search request specifies the query "London+OR+Paris", the search results will include documents containing at least one of those two words. In some cases, documents in the search results may contain both words.

Examples

Search for London or Paris:

User input:london OR paris Query term:q=london+OR+paris

Search for vacation and either London or Paris:

Query term:q=vacation+london+OR+paris

Search for vacation and one of London, Paris or chocolates:

Query term:  q=vacation+london+OR+paris+OR+chocolates

Search for vacation and chocolates and either london or paris, with the least weight being given to chocolates:

Query term:  q=vacation+london+OR+paris+chocolates

Search for vacation, chocolates and flowers in documents that also contain either London or Paris:

Query term:  q=vacation+london+OR+paris+chocolates+flowers

Search for vacation and one of London or Paris and also search for one of chocolates or flowers:

Query term:  q=vacation+london+OR+paris+chocolates+OR+flowers

Exclude Query Term [-]
Description

The exclude (-) query term restricts results for a particular search request to documents that do not contain a particular word or phrase. To use the exclude query term, you would preface the word or phrase to be excluded from the matching documents with "-" (a minus sign).

The URL-escaped version of - is %2D.

The exclude query term is useful when a search term has more than one meaning. For example, the word "bass" could return results about either fish or music. If you were looking for documents about fish, you could exclude documents about music from your search results by using the exclude query term.

You can also use the as_eq request parameter to exclude documents matching a particular word or phrase from search results.

Examples User input: bass -music
Query term: q=bass+%2Dmusic

File Type Exclusion [ -filetype: ]
Description

The -filetype: query term excludes documents with a particular file extension, such as ".pdf" or ".doc" from search results. The search query should be formatted as -filetype:EXTENSION with no space between the -filetype: query term and the specified extension.

The URL-escaped version of -filetype: is %2Dfiletype%3A.

Note: You can exclude multiple file types from search results by adding more -filetype: query terms to your query. You should have one -filetype: query term in your search query for each file extension that should be excluded from the search results.

Filetypes supported by Google include:

  • Adobe Portable Document Format (pdf)
  • Adobe PostScript (ps)
  • Lotus 1-2-3 (wk1, wk2, wk3, wk4, wk5, wki, wks, wku)
  • Lotus WordPro (lwp)
  • Macwrite (mw)
  • Microsoft Excel (xls)
  • Microsoft PowerPoint (ppt)
  • Microsoft Word (doc)
  • Microsoft Works (wks, wps, wdb)
  • Microsoft Write (wri)
  • Rich Text Format (rtf)
  • Shockwave Flash (swf)
  • Text (ans, txt).

Additional filetypes may be added in the future. An up-to-date list can always be found in Google's file type FAQ.

Examples

This example returns documents that mention "Google" but that are not PDF documents:
q=Google+%2Dfiletype%3Apdf

This example returns documents that mention "Google" but excludes both PDF and Word documents:
q=Google+%2Dfiletype%3Apdf+%2Dfiletype%3Adoc


File Type Filtering [ filetype: ]
Description

The filetype: query term restricts search results to documents with a particular file extension, such as ".pdf" or ".doc". The search query should be formatted as filetype:EXTENSION with no space between the filetype: query term and the specified extension.

The URL-escaped version of filetype: is filetype%3A.

You can restrict search results to documents matching one of several file extensions by adding more filetype: query terms to your query. You should have one filetype: query term in your search query for each file extension that should be included in the search results. Multiple filetype: query terms must be separated using the OR query term.

By default, search results will include documents with any file extension.

Filetypes supported by Google include:

  • Adobe Portable Document Format (pdf)
  • Adobe PostScript (ps)
  • Lotus 1-2-3 (wk1, wk2, wk3, wk4, wk5, wki, wks, wku)
  • Lotus WordPro (lwp)
  • Macwrite (mw)
  • Microsoft Excel (xls)
  • Microsoft PowerPoint (ppt)
  • Microsoft Word (doc)
  • Microsoft Works (wks, wps, wdb)
  • Microsoft Write (wri)
  • Rich Text Format (rtf)
  • Shockwave Flash (swf)
  • Text (ans, txt).

Additional filetypes may be added in the future. An up-to-date list can always be found in Google's file type FAQ.

Examples

This example returns PDF documents that mention "Google":
q=Google+filetype%3Apdf

This example returns PDF and Word documents that mention "Google":
q=Google+filetype%3Apdf+OR+filetype%3Adoc


Include Query Term [+]
Description

The include (+) query term specifies that a word or phrase must occur in all documents included in the search results. To use the include query term, you would preface the word or phrase that must be included in all search results with "+" (a plus sign).

The URL-escaped version of + (a plus sign) is %2B.

You should use + before a common word that Google normally discards before identifying search results.

Examples User input: Star Wars Episode +I
Query term: q=Star+Wars+Episode+%2BI

Links Only Search, all terms [ allinlinks: ]
Description

The allinlinks: query term requires documents in search results to contain all of the words in the search query in URL links. The search query should be formatted as allinlinks: followed by the words in your search query.

If your search query includes the allinlinks: query term, Google will only check the URL links in documents for the words in your search query, ignoring other text in the documents, the document titles and the URLs of each document. Note that the document URL is different from the URL links contained in the document.

The URL-escaped version of allinlinks: is allinlinks%3A.

Examples User input:allinlinks: Google search
Query term:q=allinlinks%3A+Google+search

Phrase Search
Description

The phrase search (") query term allows you to search for complete phrases by enclosing the phrases in quotation marks or by connecting them with hyphens.

The URL-escaped version of " (a quotation mark) is %22.

Phrase searches are particularly useful if you are searching for famous quotes or proper names.

You can also use the as_epq request parameter to submit a phrase search.

Examples User input:"Abraham Lincoln"
Query term: q=%22Abraham+Lincoln%22

Related Links [related:]
Description

The related: query term retrieves a set of Web pages that are similar to a particular URL. The search query should be formatted as related:URL with no space between the related: query term and the URL.

The URL-escaped version of related: is related%3A.

You can also use the as_rq request parameter to submit a related: request.

Note: You cannot specify any other query terms when using related:.

Examples

This example supposes the user is looking for sites that are similar to www.example.com, in which case the user-entered search term would be related:www.example.com.

http://www.google.com/search?q=related%3Awww.example.com


Text Only Search, all terms [allintext:]
Description

The allintext: query term requires each document in the search results to contain all of the words in the search query in the body of the document. The query should be formatted as allintext: followed by the words in your search query.

If your search query includes the allintext: query term, Google will only check the body text of documents for the words in your search query, ignoring links in those documents, document titles and document URLs.

The URL-escaped version of allintext: is allintext%3A.

Examples This example specifies that the words "Google" and "search" must appear in the body of all documents included in the search results:
User input:allintext:Google search
Query term:q=allintext%3AGoogle+search

Title Search, single term [intitle:]
Description

The intitle: query term restricts search results to documents that contain a particular word in the document title. The search query should be formatted as intitle:WORD with no space between the intitle: query term and the following word.

Note: You can specify more than one word that must be included in the document title by putting the intitle: query term in front of each such word. You can also use the allintitle: query term to specify that all query words must be included in the titles of documents that are in the search results.

The URL-escaped version of intitle: is intitle%3A.

Examples

This example specifies that the word "Google" must appear in the titles of any documents in the search results, and the word "search" must appear anywhere in the titles, URLs, links or body text of those documents:
User input:intitle:Google search
Query term:q=intitle%3AGoogle+search


Title Search, all terms [allintitle:]
Description

The allintitle: query term restricts search results to documents that contain all of the query words in the document title. To use the allintitle: query term, include "allintitle:" at the start of your search query.

Note: Putting allintitle: at the beginning of a search query is equivalent to putting intitle: in front of each word in the search query.

The URL-escaped version of allintitle: is allintitle%3A.

Examples

This example specifies that the words "Google" and "search" must appear in the titles of any documents in the search results:
User input: allintitle: Google search
Query term: q=allintitle%3A+Google+search


URL Search, single term [inurl:]
Description

The inurl: query term restricts search results to documents that contain a particular word in the document URL. The search query should be formatted as inurl:WORD with no space between the inurl: query term and the following word.

The inurl: query term ignores punctuation and uses only the first word following the inurl: operator. You can specify more than one word that must be included in the document URL by putting the inurl: query term in front of each such word. You can also use the allinurl: query term to specify that all query words must be included in the URLs of documents that are in the search results.

The URL-escaped version of inurl: is inurl%3A.

Examples

This example specifies that the word "Google" must appear in the URLs of any documents in the search results, and the word "search" must appear anywhere in the titles, URLs, links or body text of those documents:
User input: inurl:Google search
Query term: q=inurl%3AGoogle+search


URL Search, all terms [allinurl:]
Description

The allinurl: query term restricts search results to documents that contain all of the query words in the document URL. To use the allinurl: query term, include allinurl:code> at the start of your search query.

The allinurl: query term ignores punctuation, so it works only on words, not on URL components. For example, allinurl: uk/scotland will restrict results to documents that contain the words "uk" and "scotland" in their URLs, but will not require that those two words appear in any particular order or that they be separated by a slash.

The URL-escaped version of allinurl: is allinurl%3A.

Examples

This example specifies that the words "Google" and "search" must appear in the URLs of any documents in the search results:
User input: allinurl: Google search
Query term: q=allinurl%3A+Google+search



Web Document Info [info:]
Description

The info: query term retrieves general information about a URL as long as that URL is included in Google's search index. The search query should be formatted as info:URL with no space between the info: query term and the URL.

The URL-escaped version of info: is info%3A.

Note: You cannot specify any other query terms when using info:.

Examples User input: info:www.google.com
Query term: q=info%3Awww.google.com

Sample Image Queries

The examples below show a couple of Image HTTP requests to illustrate how different query parameters are used. Definitions for the different query parameters are provided in the Image Query Parameter Definitions sections of this document.

This request asks for the first 5 results (start=0&num=5) for the query term "monkey" (q=monkey), of filetype .png. Finally, the query specifies values for the client, output, and cx parameters, all three of which are required.

http://www.google.com/cse?
  searchtype=image
  start=0
  &num=5
  &q=monkey
  &as_filetype=png
  &client=google-csbe
  &output=xml_no_dtd
  &cx=00255077836266642015:u-scht7a-8i

Image Search Query Parameters

as_filetype
Description

Optional. Returns images of a specified type. Allowed values are: bmp, gif, png, jpg, and svg.

Examples q=google&as_filetype=png

imgsz
Description

Optional. Returns images of a specified size, where size can be one of:

  • icon (small)
  • small|medium|large|xlarge (medium)
  • xxlarge (large)
  • huge (extra-large)

Examples q=google&as_filetype=png&imgsz=icon

imgtype
Description

Optional. Returns images of a type, which can be one of:

  • clipart (clipart)
  • face (face)
  • lineart (lineart)
  • news (news)
  • photo (photo)

Examples q=google&as_filetype=png&imgtype=photo

imgc
Description

Optional. Returns black and white, grayscale, or color images:

  • mono (black and white)
  • gray (grayscale)
  • color (color)

Examples q=google&as_filetype=png&imgc=gray

imgcolor
Description

Optional. Returns images of a specific dominant color:

  • yellow
  • green
  • teal
  • blue
  • purple
  • pink
  • white
  • gray
  • black
  • brown
Examples q=google&as_filetype=png&imgcolor=yellow

as_rights
Description

Optional. Filters based on licensing. Supported values include:

  • cc_publicdomain
  • cc_attribute
  • cc_sharealike
  • cc_noncommercial
  • cc_nonderived

Examples q=cats&as_filetype=png&as_rights=cc_attribute

Request Limits

The chart below lists limitations on the search requests that you send to Google:

Component Limit Comment
Search request length 2048 bytes  
Number of query terms 10 includes terms in the following parameters: q, as_epq, as_eq, as_lq, as_oq, as_q, as_rq
Number of results 20 If you set the num parameter to a number greater than 20, only 20 results are returned. To get more results, you would need to send multiple requests and increment the value of the start parameter with each request.

Internationalizing Queries and Results Presentation

The Google WebSearch service enables you to search for documents in multiple languages. You can specify the character encoding that should be used to interpret your HTTP request and to encode your XML response (using the ie and oe search parameters). You can also filter results to only include documents written in certain languages.

The following sections discuss issues related to searching in multiple languages:

Character Encoding

Servers send data, such as web pages, to user agents, such as browsers, as a sequence of encoded bytes. The user agent then decodes the bytes into a sequence of characters. When sending requests to the WebSearch service, you can specify the encoding schemes for both your search query and for the XML response that you receive.

You can use the ie request parameter to specify the encoding mechanism for the characters in your HTTP request. You can also use the oe parameter to specify the encoding scheme that Google should use to encode your XML response. If you are using an encoding scheme other than ISO-8859-1 (or latin1), please ensure that you specify the correct values for the ie and oe parameters.

Note: If you are providing search functionality for multiple languages, we recommend you use the utf8 (UTF-8) encoding value for both the ie and oe parameters.

Please refer to the Character Encoding Schemes appendix for a complete list of the values that you can use for the ie and oe parameters.

For more general information about character encoding, please see http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/charset.html.

Interface Languages

You can use the hl request parameter to identify the language of your graphical interface. The hl parameter value may affect XML search results, especially on international queries when language restriction (using the lr parameter) is not explicitly specified. In such cases, the hl parameter may promote search results in the same language as the user's input language.

We suggest you explicitly set the hl parameter in search results to ensure that Google selects the highest quality search results for each query.

Please see the Supported Interface Languages section for a complete list of valid values for the hl parameter.

Searching for Documents Written in Specific Languages

You can use the lr request parameter to restrict search results to documents that are written in a particular language or set of languages.

The lr parameter supports Boolean Operators to allow you to specify multiple languages that should be included (or excluded) from search results.

The following examples show how you might use Boolean Operators to request documents in different languages.

For documents written in Japanese:

lr=lang_jp

For documents written in Italian or German:

lr=lang_it|lang_de

For documents not written in Hungarian or Czech:

lr=(-lang_hu).(-lang_cs)

Please see the Language Collection Values section for a complete list of possible values for the lr parameter and the Boolean Operators section for a complete discussion of the use of these operators.

Simplified and Traditional Chinese Search

Simplified Chinese and Traditional Chinese are two writing variants of the Chinese language. The same concept may be written differently in each variant. Given a query in one of the variants, the Google WebSearch service can return results that include pages in both variants.

To use this feature:

  1. Set the c2coff request parameter to 0
    and
  2. Do one of the following:
    • Do not set the lr request parameter
      or
    • Set the lr request parameter to lr=lang_zh-TW|lang_zh-CN

The following example shows the query parameters you would include in a request for results in both simplified and traditional Chinese. (Note that additional required information, such as the client, is not included in the example.)

search?hl=zh-CN
    &lr=lang_zh-TW|lang_zh-CN
    &c2coff=0

Filtering Results

Google WebSearch provides a number of ways to filter your search results:

Automatic Filtering of Search Results

In an effort to provide the best search results possible, Google uses two techniques to automatically filter search results that are generally considered undesirable:

  • Duplicate Content—If multiple documents contain the same information, then only the most relevant document of that set is included in your search results.

  • Host Crowding—If there are many search results from the same site, Google may not show all the results from that site or may show the results lower in
    the ranking than they otherwise would have been.

We recommend you leave these filters on for typical search requests because the filters significantly enhance the quality of most search results. However, you can bypass these automatic filters by setting the filter query parameter to 0 in your search request.

Language and Country Filtering

The Google WebSearch service returns results from a master index of all Web documents. The master index contains subcollections of documents that are grouped by particular attributes, including language and country of origin.

You can use the lr and cr request parameters to restrict search results to subcollections of documents that are written in particular languages or originate from particular countries, respectively.

Google WebSearch determines the language of a document by analyzing:

  • the top-level domain (TLD) of the document's URL
  • language meta tags within the document
  • the primary language used in the body text of the document


Please also see the definition of the lr parameter, the section on Searching for Documents Written in Specific Languages and the Language Collection Values that can be used as values for the lr parameter for more information on restricting results based on language.

Google WebSearch determines the country of a document by analyzing:

  • the top-level domain (TLD) of the document's URL
  • the geographic location of the Web server's IP address

Please also see the definition of the cr parameter and the Country Collection Values that can be used as values for the cr parameter for more information on restricting results by country of origin.

Note: You can combine language values and country values to customize your search results. For example, you could request documents that are written in French and come from France or Canada, or you could request documents that come from Holland and are not written in English. The lr and cr parameters both support Boolean Operators.

Filtering Adult Content with SafeSearch

Many Google customers do not want to display search results for sites that contain adult content. Using our SafeSearch filter, you can screen for search results that contain adult content and eliminate them. Google's filters use proprietary technology to check keywords, phrases and URLs. While no filters are 100 percent accurate, SafeSearch will remove the overwhelming majority of adult content from your search results.

Google strives to keep SafeSearch as current and comprehensive as possible by continually crawling the Web and by incorporating updates from user suggestions.

SafeSearch is available in the following languages:

Dutch
English
French
German
Italian
Portuguese (Brazilian)
Spanish
Traditional Chinese

You can adjust the degree to which Google filters your results for adult content using the safe query parameter. The following table explains Google's SafeSearch settings and how those settings will affect your search results:

SafeSearch Level Description
high Enables a stricter version of safe search.
medium Blocks web pages containing pornography and other explicit sexual content.
off Does not filter adult content from search results.

* The default SafeSearch setting is off.

If you have SafeSearch activated and you find sites that contain offensive content in your results, please email the site's URL to safesearch@google.com, and we will investigate the site.

XML Results

Google XML Results DTD

Google uses the same DTD to describe the XML format for all types of search results. Many of the tags and attributes are applicable for all search types. Some tags, however, are applicable only for certain search types. Consequently, the definitions in the DTD may be less restrictive than the definitions given in this document.

This document describes those aspects of the DTD that are relevant for WebSearch. When you look at the DTD, if you're working on WebSearch, you can safely ignore tags and attributes that are not documented here. If the definition differs between the DTD and the documentation, that fact is noted in this document.

Google can return XML results either with or without a reference to the most recent DTD. The DTD is a guide to help search administrators and XML parsers understand Google's XML results. Because Google's XML grammar may change from time to time, you should not configure your parser to use the DTD to validate each XML result.

Additionally, you should not configure your XML parser to fetch the DTD each time you submit a search request. Google updates the DTD infrequently, and these requests create unnecessary delay and bandwidth requirements.

Google recommends that you use the xml_no_dtd output format to get XML results. If you specify the xml output format in your search request, the only difference is the inclusion of the following line in the XML results:

<!DOCTYPE GSP SYSTEM "google.dtd">

You can access the latest DTD at http://www.google.com/google.dtd.

Please note that not all features in the DTD may be available or supported at this time.

About the XML Response

  • All element values are valid HTML suitable for display unless otherwise noted in the XML tag definitions.
  • Some element values are URLs that need to be HTML-encoded before they are displayed.
  • Your XML parser should ignore undocumented attributes and tags. This allows your application to continue working without modification if Google adds more features to the XML output.
  • Certain characters must be escaped when included as values in XML tags. Your XML processor should convert these entities back to the appropriate characters. If you do not convert entities properly, the browser may, for example, render the & character as "&amp;". The XML Standard documents these characters; these characters are reproduced in the table below:

    Character Escaped Forms Entity Character Code
    Ampersand & &amp; &#38;
    Single Quote ' &apos; &#39;
    Double Quote " &quot; &#34;
    Greater Than > &gt; &#62;
    Less Than < &lt; &#60;

XML Results for Regular and Advanced Search Queries

Regular/Advanced Search: Sample Query and XML Result

This sample WebSearch request asks for 10 results (num=10) about the search term "socer" (q=socer), which is the word "soccer" intentionally spelled wrong for this example.)

http://www.google.com/search?
q=socer
&hl=en
&start=10
&num=10
&output=xml
&client=google-csbe
&cx=00255077836266642015:u-scht7a-8i

This request yields the XML result below. Note that there are several comments in the XML result to indicate where certain tags not included in the result would appear.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" standalone="no" ?>

<GSP VER="3.2">
<TM>0.452923</TM>
<Q>socer</Q>
<PARAM name="cx" value="00255077836266642015:u-scht7a-8i" original_value="00255077836266642015%3Au-scht7a-8i"/>
<PARAM name="hl" value="en" original_value="en"/>
<PARAM name="q" value="socer" original_value="socer"/>
<PARAM name="output" value="xml" original_value="xml"/>
<PARAM name="client" value="google-csbe" original_value="google-csbe"/>
<PARAM name="num" value="10" original_value="10"/>
<Spelling>
<Suggestion q="soccer"><b><i>soccer</i></b></Suggestion>
</Spelling>
<Context>
<title>Sample Vacation CSE</title>
<Facet>
<FacetItem>
<label>restaurants</label>
<anchor_text>restaurants</anchor_text>
</FacetItem>
<FacetItem>
<label>wineries</label>
<anchor_text>wineries</anchor_text>
</FacetItem>
</Facet>
<Facet>
<FacetItem>
<label>golf_courses</label>
<anchor_text>golf courses</anchor_text>
</FacetItem>
</Facet>
<Facet>
<FacetItem>
<label>hotels</label>
<anchor_text>hotels</anchor_text>
</FacetItem>
</Facet>
<Facet>
<FacetItem>
<label>nightlife</label>
<anchor_text>nightlife</anchor_text>
</FacetItem>
</Facet>
<Facet>
<FacetItem>
<label>soccer_sites</label>
<anchor_text>soccer sites</anchor_text>
</FacetItem>
</Facet>
</Context>
<RES SN="1" EN="10">
<M>6080</M>
/*
* The FI tag after the comment indicates that the result
* set has been filtered. If the number of results were exact, the
* FI tag would be replaced by an XT tag in the same format.
*/
<FI />
<NB>
/*
* Since the request is for the first page of results, the PU tag,
* which contains a link to the previous page of search results,
* is not included in this XML result. If the sample result did include
* a previous page of results, it would be listed here, in the same format
* as the NU tag on the following line
*/
<NU>/search?q=socer&hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&output=xml&client=test&start=10&sa=N</NU>
</NB>
<R N="1">
<U>http://www.soccerconnection.net/</U>
<UE>http://www.soccerconnection.net/</UE>
<T>SoccerConnection.net</T>
<CRAWLDATE>May 21, 2007</CRAWLDATE>
<S><b>soccer</b>; players; coaches; ball; world cup;<b>...</b></S>
<Label>transcodable_pages</Label>
<Label>accessible</Label>
<Label>soccer_sites</Label>
<LANG>en</LANG>
<HAS>
<DI>
<DT>SoccerConnection.net</DT>
<DS>Post your <b>soccer</b> resume directly on the Internet.</DS>
</DI>
<L/>
<C SZ="8k" CID="kWAPoYw1xIUJ"/>
<RT/>
</HAS>
</R>
/*
* The result includes nine more results, each enclosed by an R tag.
*/
</RES>
</GSP>

Regular/Advanced Search: XML Tags

XML responses for regular search requests and advanced search requests both use the same set of XML tags. These XML tags are shown in the XML example above and explained in the tables below.

The XML tags below are listed alphabetically by tag name, and each tag definition contains a description of the tag, an example showing how the tag would appear in an XML result and the format of the tag's content. If the tag is a subtag of another XML tag or if the tag has subtags or attributes of its own, that information is also provided in the tag's definition table.

Certain symbols may be displayed next to some subtags in the definitions below. These symbols, and their meanings, are:

? = optional subtag
* = zero or more instances of the subtag
+ = one or more instances of the subtag
A B C D F G H I L M N P Q R S T U X

anchor_text
Definition

The <anchor_text> tag specifies the text that you should display to users to identify a refinement label associated with a search result set. Since refinement labels replace nonalphanumeric characters with underscores, you should not display the value of the <label> tag in your user interface. Instead, you should display the value of the <anchor_text> tag.

Example <anchor_text>golf courses</anchor_text>
Subtag of FacetItem
Content Format Text

BLOCK
Definition

This tag encapsulates the contents of a block in a body line of a promotion result. Each block has subtags T, U, and L. A nonempty T tag denotes that the block contains text; nonempty U and L tags denote that the block contains a link (with URL given in the U subtag and anchor text in the L subtag).

Subtags T, U, L
Subtag of BODY_LINE
Content Format Empty

BODY_LINE
Definition

This tag encapsulates the contents of a line in the body of promoted result. Each body line consists of several BLOCK tags, which either contain some text or a link with URL and anchor text.

Subtags BLOCK*
Subtag of SL_MAIN
Content Format Empty

C
Definition

The <C> tag indicates that the WebSearch service can retrieve a cached version of this search result URL. You cannot retrieve cached pages through the XML API, but you can redirect users to www.google.com for this content.

Attributes
Name Format Description
SZ Text (Integer + "k") Provides the size of the cached version of the search result in kilobytes ("k").
CID Text Identifies a document in Google's cache. To fetch the document from the cache, send a search term built as follows:
cache:CIDtext:escapedURL

The escaped URL is available in the UE tag.

Example <C SZ="6k" CID="kvOXK_cYSSgJ" />
Subtag of HAS
Content Format Empty

C2C
Definition The <C2C> tag indicates that the result refers to a Traditional Chinese language page. This tag appears only when Simplified and Traditional Chinese Search is enabled. See the c2coff query parameter definition for more information about enabling and disabling this feature.
Content Format Text

Context
Definition

The <Context> tag encapsulates a list of refinement labels associated with a set of search results.

Example <Context>
Subtags title, Facet+
Content Format Container

CRAWLDATE
Definition

The <CRAWLDATE> tag identifies the date that the page was last crawled. CRAWLDATE is not returned for every search result page.

Example <CRAWLDATE>May 21, 2005</CRAWLDATE>
Subtag of R
Content Format Text

DI
Definition

The <DI> tag encapsulates Open Directory Project (ODP) category information for a single search result.

Example <DI>
Subtags DT?, DS?
Subtag of HAS
Content Format Empty

DS
Definition

The <DS> tag provides the summary listed for a single category in the ODP directory.

Example <DS>Post your &lt;b&gt;soccer&lt;/b&gt; resume directly on the Internet.</DS>
Subtag of DI
Content Format Text (may contain HTML)

DT
Definition

The <DT> tag provides the title for a single category listed in the ODP directory.

Example <DT>SoccerConnection.net</DT>
Subtag of DI
Content Format Text (may contain HTML)

Facet
Definition

The <Facet> tag contains a logical grouping of <FacetItem> tags. You can create these groupings using the Custom Search Engine XML Specification format. If you do not create these groupings, the results_xml_tag_Context><Context> tag will contain up to four <Facet> tags. The items within each <Facet> tag will be grouped for display purposes but may not have a logical relationship.

Example <Facet>
Subtags FacetItem+, title+
Subtag of Context
Content Format Container

FacetItem
Definition

The <FacetItem> tag encapsulates information about a refinement label associated with a set of search results.

Example <FacetItem>
Subtags label, anchor_text+
Subtag of Facet
Content Format FacetItem

FI
Definition The <FI> tag serves as a flag that indicates whether document filtering was performed for the search. See the Automatic Filtering section of this document for more information about Google's search results filters.
Example <FI />
Subtag of RES
Content Format Empty

GSP
Definition

The <GSP> tag encapsulates all data returned in Google XML search results. "GSP" is an abbreviation for "Google Search Protocol".

Attributes
Name Format Description
VER Text (Integer) The VER attribute specifies the version of the search results output. The current output version is "3.2".
Example <GSP VER="3.2">
Subtags PARAM+, Q, RES?, TM
Content Format Empty

HAS
Definition The <HAS> tag encapsulates information about any special search request parameters supported for a particular URL.

Note: The definition of <HAS> for WebSearch is more restrictive than in the DTD.

Subtags DI?, L?, C?, RT?
Subtag of R

ISURL
Definition Google returns the <ISURL> tag if the associated search query is a URL.
Subtag of GSP
Content Format Empty

L
Definition The presence of the <L> tag indicates that the WebSearch service can find other sites that link to this search result URL. To find such sites, you would use the link: special query term.
Subtag of HAS
Content Format Empty

label
Definition

The <label> tag specifies a refinement label that you can use to filter the search results that you receive. To use a refinement label, add the string more:[[label tag value]] to the value of the q parameter in your HTTP request to Google as shown in the following example. Please note that this value must be URL-escaped before you send the query to Google.

This example uses the refinement label golf_courses to
filter search results about Palm Springs:
q=Palm+Springs+more:golf_courses

The URL-escaped version of this query is:
q=Palm+Springs+more%3Agolf_courses

Note: The <label> tag is not the same as the <Label> tag, which identifies a refinement label associated with a particular URL in your search results.

Example <label>golf_courses</label>
Subtag of FacetItem
Content Format Text

LANG
Definition

The <LANG> tag contains Google's best guess of the language of the search result.

Example <LANG>en</LANG>
Subtag of R
Content Format Text

M
Definition

The <M> tag identifies the estimated total number of results for the search.

Note: This estimate may not be accurate.

Example <M>16200000</M>
Subtag of RES
Content Format Text

NB
Definition

The <NB> tag encapsulates navigation information—links to the next page of search results or the previous page of search results—for the result set.

Note: This tag is only present if more results are available.

Example <NB>
Subtags NU?, PU?
Subtag of RES
Content Format Empty

NU
Definition

The <NU> tag contains a relative link to the next page of search results.

Example <NU>/search?q=flowers&num=10&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
    &output=xml&client=test&start=10</NU>
Subtag of NB
Content Format Text (Relative URL)

PARAM
Definition

The <PARAM> tag identifies an input parameter submitted in the HTTP request associated with the XML result. Information about the parameter is contained in the tag attributes—name, value, original_value—and there will be one PARAM tag for each parameter submitted in the HTTP request.

Attributes
Name Format Description
name Text Input parameter name.
value HTML HTML-formatted version of the input parameter value.
original_value Text Original URL-escaped version of the input parameter value.
Example <PARAM name="cr" value="countryNZ" original_value="countryNZ" />
Subtag of GSP
Content Format Complex

PU
Definition

The <PU> tag provides a relative link to the previous page of search results.

Example <PU>/search?q=flowers&num=10&hl=en&output=xml
    &client=test&start=10</PU>
Subtag of NB
Content Format Text (Relative URL)

Q
Definition

The <Q> tag identifies the search query submitted in the HTTP request associated with the XML result.

Example

<Q>pizza</Q>

Subtag of GSP
Content Format Text

R
Definition

The <R> tag encapsulates the details of an individual search result.

Note: The definition of the <R> tag for WebSearch is more restrictive than in the DTD.

Attributes
Name Format Description
N Text (Integer) Indicates the index (1-based) of this search result.
MIME Text Indicates the MIME type of the search result.
Subtags U, UE, T?, CRAWLDATE, S?, LANG?, HAS
Subtag of RES

RES
Definition

The <RES> tag encapsulates the set of individual search results and details about those results.

Attributes
Name Format Description
SN Text (Integer) Indicates the index (1-based) of the first search result returned in this result set.
EN Text (Integer) Indicates the index (1-based) of the last search result returned in this result set.
Example <RES SN="1" EN="10">
Subtags M, FI?, XT?, NB?, R*
Subtag of GSP
Content Format Empty

RT
Definition The presence of the <RT> tag indicates that the WebSearch service can find a set of web pages that are similar to this search result URL. To find this set of Web pages, you would use the related: special query term.
Subtag of HAS
Content Format Empty

S
Definition

The <S> tag contains an excerpt for a search result that shows query terms highlighted in bold. Line breaks are included in the excerpt for proper text wrapping.

Example <S>Washington (CNN) -- A bid to end the Senate standoff over President &lt;b&gt;Bush&#39;s&lt;/b&gt; judicial picks would let five nominees advance to a final vote while preserving the &lt;b&gt;...&lt;b&gt;...&lt;/b&gt;<S>
Subtag of R
Content Format Text (HTML)

SL_MAIN
Definition

This tag encapsulates the contents of a promotion result. Use for parsing promotions. The anchor text and URL of the title link are contained in T and U subtags respectively. The lines of body text and links are contained in BODY_LINE subtags.

Subtags BODY_LINE*, T, U
Subtag of SL_RESULTS
Content Format Empty

SL_RESULTS
Definition

Container tag for promoted results. One of these will appear whenever you have a promotion in your search results. The SL_MAIN subtag contains the main result data.

Subtags SL_MAIN*
Subtag of R
Content Format Empty

Spelling
Definition

The <Spelling> tag encapsulates an alternate spelling suggestion for the submitted query. This tag only appears on the first page of search results. Spelling suggestions are available in English, Chinese, Japanese and Korean.

Note: Google will only return spelling suggestions for queries where the gl parameter value is in lowercase letters.

Example <Spelling>
Subtags Suggestion
Subtag of GSP
Content Format Empty

Suggestion
Definition The <Suggestion> tag contains an alternate spelling suggestion for the submitted query. You can use the tag's content to suggest the alternate spelling to your search user. The value of the q attribute is the URL-escaped spelling suggestion that you can use as a query term.
Attributes
Name Format Description
q Text The q attribute specifies the URL-escaped version of the spelling suggestion.
Example <Suggestion q="soccer">&lt;b&gt;&lt;i&gt;soccer&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/b&gt;</Suggestion>
Subtag of Spelling
Content Format Text (HTML)

T
Definition The <T> tag contains the title of the result.
Example <T>Amici's East Coast Pizzeria</T>
Subtag of R
Content Format Text (HTML)

title
Definition

As a child of <Context>, the <title> tag contains the name of your Custom Search Engine.

As a child of <Facet>, the <title> tag provides a title for a set of facets.

Example

As a child of <Context>: <title>My Search Engine</title>

As a child of <Facet>: <title>facet title</title>

Subtag of Context, Facet
Content Format Text

TM
Definition

The <TM> tag identifies the total server time needed to return search results, measured in seconds.

Example <TM>0.100445</TM>
Subtag of GSP
Content Format Text (Floating-point number)

TT
Definition The <TT> tag provides a search tip.
Example <TT>&lt;i&gt;Tip: For most browsers, pressing the Return key produces the same results as clicking the Search button.&lt;/i&gt;</TT>
Subtag of GSP

U
Definition The <U> tag provides the URL of the search result.
Example <U>http://www.dominos.com/</U>
Subtag of R
Content Format Text (Absolute URL)

UD
Definition

The <UD> tag provides the IDN-encoded (International Domain Name) URL for the search result. The value allows domains to be displayed using local languages. For example, the IDN-encoded URL http://www.%E8%8A%B1%E4%BA%95.com could be decoded and displayed as http://www.花井鮨.com. This <UD> tag will only be included in search results for requests that included the ud parameter.

Note: This is a beta feature.

Example <UD>http://www.%E8%8A%B1%E4%BA%95.com/</UD>
Subtag of R
Content Format Text (IDN-encoded URL)

UE
Definition The <UE> tag provides the URL of the search result. The value is URL-escaped so that it is suitable for passing as a query parameter in a URL.
Example <UE>http://www.dominos.com/</UE>
Subtag of R
Content Format Text (URL-escaped URL)

XT
Definition The <XT> tag indicates that the estimated total number of results, as specified by the M tag, actually represents the exact total number of results. See the Automatic Filtering section of this document for more details.
Example <XT />
Subtag of RES
Content Format Empty


XML Results for Image Search Queries

This sample Image request asks for 5 results (num=5) about the search term "monkey" (q=monkey).

http://www.google.com/cse?
  searchtype=image
  &num=2
  &q=monkey
  &client=google-csbe
  &output=xml_no_dtd
  &cx=00255077836266642015:u-scht7a-8i

This request yields the XML result below.


<GSP VER="3.2">
  <TM>0.395037</TM>
  <Q>monkeys</Q>

  <PARAM name="cx" value="011737558837375720776:mbfrjmyam1g" original_value="011737558837375720776:mbfrjmyam1g" url_<escaped_value="011737558837375720776%3Ambfrjmyam1g" js_escaped_value="011737558837375720776:mbfrjmyam1g"/>
  <PARAM name="client" value="google-csbe" original_value="google-csbe" url_escaped_value="google-csbe" js_escaped_value="google-csbe"/>
  <PARAM name="q" value="monkeys" original_value="monkeys" url_escaped_value="monkeys" js_escaped_value="monkeys"/>
  <PARAM name="num" value="2" original_value="2" url_escaped_value="2" js_escaped_value="2"/>
  <PARAM name="output" value="xml_no_dtd" original_value="xml_no_dtd" url_escaped_value="xml_no_dtd" js_escaped_value="xml_no_dtd"/>
  <PARAM name="adkw" value="AELymgUP4VYSok20wy9SeYczEZ5UXxpBmRsJH4oC4aXhVuZgwGKuponcNXjrYkkw2bRv1BylIm89ndJ-Q4vxvyW0tcbiqipcQC9op_cBG84T12WMvX8660A" original_value="AELymgUP4VYSok20wy9SeYczEZ5UXxpBmRsJH4oC4aXhVuZgwGKuponcNXjrYkkw2bRv1BylIm89ndJ-Q4vxvyW0tcbiqipcQC9op_cBG84T12WMvX8660A" url_escaped_value="AELymgUP4VYSok20wy9SeYczEZ5UXxpBmRsJH4oC4aXhVuZgwGKuponcNXjrYkkw2bRv1BylIm89ndJ-Q4vxvyW0tcbiqipcQC9op_cBG84T12WMvX8660A" js_escaped_value="AELymgUP4VYSok20wy9SeYczEZ5UXxpBmRsJH4oC4aXhVuZgwGKuponcNXjrYkkw2bRv1BylIm89ndJ-Q4vxvyW0tcbiqipcQC9op_cBG84T12WMvX8660A"/>
  <PARAM name="hl" value="en" original_value="en" url_escaped_value="en" js_escaped_value="en"/>
  <PARAM name="oe" value="UTF-8" original_value="UTF-8" url_escaped_value="UTF-8" js_escaped_value="UTF-8"/>
  <PARAM name="ie" value="UTF-8" original_value="UTF-8" url_escaped_value="UTF-8" js_escaped_value="UTF-8"/>
  <PARAM name="boostcse" value="0" original_value="0" url_escaped_value="0" js_escaped_value="0"/>

  <Context>
    <title>domestigeek</title>
  </Context>

  <ARES/>
  <RES SN="1" EN="2">
    <M>2500000</M>
    <NB>
      <NU>/images?q=monkeys&num=2&hl=en&client=google-csbe&cx=011737558837375720776:mbfrjmyam1g&boostcse=0&output=xml_no_dtd
        &ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&tbm=isch&ei=786oTsLiJaaFiALKrPChBg&start=2&sa=N
      </NU>
    </NB>
    <RG START="1" SIZE="2"/>
      <R N="1" MIME="image/jpeg">
        <RU>http://www.flickr.com/photos/fncll/135465558/</RU>
        <U>
          http://farm1.static.flickr.com/46/135465558_123402af8c.jpg
        </U>
        <UE>
          http://farm1.static.flickr.com/46/135465558_123402af8c.jpg
        </UE>
        <T>Computer <b>Monkeys</b> | Flickr - Photo Sharing!</T>
        <RK>0</RK>
        <BYLINEDATE>1146034800</BYLINEDATE>
        <S>Computer <b>Monkeys</b> | Flickr</S>
        <LANG>en</LANG>
        <IMG WH="500" HT="305" IID="ANd9GcQARKLwzi-t4lpWi2AERV3kJb4ansaQzTn3MNDZR9fD_JDiktPKByKUBLs">
          <SZ>88386</SZ>
          <IN/>
        </IMG>
        <TBN TYPE="0" WH="130" HT="79" URL="http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQARKLwzi-
t4lpWi2AERV3kJb4ansaQzTn3MNDZR9fD_JDiktPKByKUBLs"/>
      </R>
      <R N="2" MIME="image/jpeg">
        <RU>
          http://www.flickr.com/photos/flickerbulb/187044366/
        </RU>
        <U>
          http://farm1.static.flickr.com/73/187044366_506a1933f4.jpg
        </U>
        <UE>
          http://farm1.static.flickr.com/73/187044366_506a1933f4.jpg
        </UE>
        <T>
          one. ugly. <b>monkey</b>. | Flickr - Photo Sharing!
        </T>
        <RK>0</RK>
        <BYLINEDATE>1152514800</BYLINEDATE>
        <S>one. ugly. <b>monkey</b>.</S>
        <LANG>en</LANG>
        <IMG WH="400" HT="481" IID="ANd9GcQ3Qom0bYbee4fThCQVi96jMEwMU6IvVf2b8K5vERKVw-
           EF4tQQnDDKOq0"><SZ>58339</SZ>
          <IN/>
        </IMG>
        <TBN TYPE="0" WH="107" HT="129" URL="http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ3Qom0bYbee4fThCQ
          Vi96jMEwMU6IvVf2b8K5vERKVw-EF4tQQnDDKOq0"/>
      </R>
  </RES>
</GSP>

Image Search: XML Tags

The table below shows additional XML tags used in XML responses for image search queries.

Certain symbols may be displayed next to some subtags in the definitions below. These symbols, and their meanings, are:

? = optional subtag
* = zero or more instances of the subtag
+ = one or more instances of the subtag

RG
Definition

The <RG> tag encloses the details of an individual image search result.

Attributes
Name Format Description
N Text (Integer) Indicates the index (1-based) of this search result.
MIME Text Indicates the MIME type of the search result.
Subtag of RES
RU
Definition

The <RU tag> tag encloses details of each image search result.

Subtag of R

Appendices

Boolean Operators

You may use Boolean operators in values for the following parameters:

Boolean Operator Definitions

Note: You cannot include spaces in parameter values.

Boolean AND [.]
Description

The AND operator (.) returns results that are in the intersection of the collections to either side of the "." operator.

Examples

This example removes all results that are in either French or Italian:
lr=(-lang_fr).(-lang_it)


Boolean NOT [-]
Description

The NOT operator (.) removes all results that are in the collection immediately following the minus ("-") operator.

Examples

This example removes all results that are in French:
lr=-lang_fr

This example removes all results that are in either French or Italian:
lr=(-lang_fr).(-lang_it)

Note: You may have noticed that the second example above uses the Boolean AND operator to specify that results should not be written in French or Italian. Depending on the placement of parentheses in your query, you could use either the Boolean AND operator or the Boolean OR operator to express this query. This is because if a document is written in French, then it is not written in Italian. Thus, your Boolean statement must express that the document is not written in French and the document is not written in Italian.


Boolean OR [|]
Description

The OR operator (.) returns results that are in either the collection to the left or the collection to the right of the pipe ("|") operator.

Examples

This example returns all results that are written in either Simplified Chinese or Traditional Chinese:
lr=lang_zh-TW|lang_zh-CN

This example requests all results that are not written in French or Italian; notice that it places parentheses in a different location than the sample query for the Boolean AND operator:
lr=-(lang_fr|lang_it)


Boolean Parentheses [()]
Description

This operator lets you ensure that all terms in the innermost set of parentheses are evaluated before terms outside the parentheses are evaluated. You can use parentheses to adjust the order in which terms are evaulated.

Examples

The example for the NOT [-] operator shows the following construct for request results that are not written in either French or Italian:
lr=(-lang_fr).(-lang_it)

The example for the OR (|) operator also shows a request for results not written in French of Italian. Since the latter example uses the OR operator rather than the AND operator, it also must change the location of the parentheses:
lr=-(lang_fr|lang_it)


URL Escaping

To make an HTTP search request, you must follow certain conventions so that Google can correctly translate your HTTP request and generate an appropriate response.

The HTTP URL schema specifies that an HTTP URL request may only contain certain characters:

  • Alphanumeric characters: (a-z, A-Z, 0-9)
  • Special characters: $ - _ . | + ! * ' ( )
  • Reserved characters: ; / ? : @ = &

Google uses reserved characters to decode URLs and uses some special characters to request search features. Consequently, you should URL-escape all nonalphanumeric characters that occur in search parameter values.

To URL escape a string, convert each sequence of whitespace characters to a single "+" (plus sign) and replace any other nonalphanumeric characters with the hexadecimal encoding that represents the value of that character. The hexadecimal encodings for the special and reserved characters listed above are shown in the following table. Each of these characters should be URL escaped in request parameter values.

Character Hexadecimal
Encoding
$ %24
- %2D
_ %5F
. %2E
+ %2B
! %21
* %2A
" %22
' %27
( %28
) %29
; %3B
/ %2F
? %3F
: %3A
@ %40
= %3D
& %26
| %7C

Examples

Original String URL Escaped String
punch&judy punch%26judy
O'Reilly O%27Reilly

You can find additional information on URL escaping at the W3C and IETF web sites.

Compressing Results

Google can compress search results using HTTP gzip compression. If you can decompress content that has been compressed using the gzip algorithm, you can obtain a 50 percent to 70 percent bandwidth savings, which may improve your response times.

To request that Google return results in compressed format, add the HTTP Accept-Encoding header to your HTTP search request as follows:

Accept-Encoding: gzip

If Google does return the search results using gzip compression, then we include the following line in the returned HTTP headers:

Content-Encoding: gzip

Note: If the Content-Encoding HTTP header is not present in the response as shown above, then Google did not compress the results.

This behavior is specified in the HTTP standard. Please consult that document for additional information about using HTTP gzip compression.

International Values

Character Encoding Schemes

The following table lists the character encoding schemes that Google supports. You can assign the ie and oe parameters the values in either of the first two columns of this table. The values in the first column are nicknames for the encoding schemes; the values in the second column are the standard names for the encoding schemes. Google returns the standard names in XML results, and the standard names are suitable for use in your document's HTTP Content-type headers.

Google name Encoding Associated Supported Languages
latin1 ISO-8859-1 Western European (Catalan, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Indonesian, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish)
latin2 ISO-8859-2 Eastern European (Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian)
latin3 ISO-8859-3  
latin4 ISO-8859-4 Baltic (Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian)
cyrillic ISO-8859-5 Bulgarian, Russian
arabic ISO-8859-6  
greek ISO-8859-7 Greek
hebrew ISO-8859-8 Hebrew
latin5 ISO-8859-9  
latin6 ISO-8859-10 Icelandic
euc-jp EUC-JP Japanese
euc-kr EUC-KR Korean
sjis Shift_JIS Japanese
big5 Big5 Traditional Chinese
gb GB2312 Simplified Chinese
utf8 UTF-8 All

Supported Interface Languages

Google supports more than 80 languages. The default interface language is English. The following list identifies all of the interface languages that Google supports.

Display Language hl Parameter Value
Afrikaans af
Albanian sq
Amharic sm
Arabic ar
Azerbaijani az
Basque eu
Belarusian be
Bengali bn
Bihari bh
Bosnian bs
Bulgarian bg
Catalan ca
Chinese (Simplified) zh-CN
Chinese (Traditional) zh-TW
Croatian hr
Czech cs
Danish da
Dutch nl
English en
Esperanto eo
Estonian et
Faroese fo
Finnish fi
French fr
Frisian fy
Galician gl
Georgian ka
German de
Greek el
Gujarati gu
Hebrew iw
Hindi hi
Hungarian hu
Icelandic is
Indonesian id
Interlingua ia
Irish ga
Italian it
Japanese ja
Javanese jw
Kannada kn
Korean ko
Latin la
Latvian lv
Lithuanian lt
Macedonian mk
Malay ms
Malayam ml
Maltese mt
Marathi mr
Nepali ne
Norwegian no
Norwegian (Nynorsk) nn
Occitan oc
Persian fa
Polish pl
Portuguese (Brazil) pt-BR
Portuguese (Portugal) pt-PT
Punjabi pa
Romanian ro
Russian ru
Scots Gaelic gd
Serbian sr
Sinhalese si
Slovak sk
Slovenian sl
Spanish es
Sudanese su
Swahili sw
Swedish sv
Tagalog tl
Tamil ta
Telugu te
Thai th
Tigrinya ti
Turkish tr
Ukrainian uk
Urdu ur
Uzbek uz
Vietnamese vi
Welsh cy
Xhosa xh
Zulu zu

Language Collection Values

You can use the following values to specify a language filter using the lr query parameter:

Language lr Parameter Value
Arabic lang_ar
Bulgarian lang_bg
Catalan lang_ca
Chinese (Simplified) lang_zh-CN
Chinese (Traditional) lang_zh-TW
Croatian lang_hr
Czech lang_cs
Danish lang_da
Dutch lang_nl
English lang_en
Estonian lang_et
Finnish lang_fi
French lang_fr
German lang_de
Greek lang_el
Hebrew lang_iw
Hungarian lang_hu
Icelandic lang_is
Indonesian lang_id
Italian lang_it
Japanese lang_ja
Korean lang_ko
Latvian lang_lv
Lithuanian lang_lt
Norwegian lang_no
Polish lang_pl
Portuguese lang_pt
Romanian lang_ro
Russian lang_ru
Serbian lang_sr
Slovak lang_sk
Slovenian lang_sl
Spanish lang_es
Swedish lang_sv
Turkish lang_tr

Country Collection Values

You can use the following values to specify a country filter using the cr query parameter:

Country Country Collection Name
Afghanistan countryAF
Albania countryAL
Algeria countryDZ
American Samoa countryAS
Andorra countryAD
Angola countryAO
Anguilla countryAI
Antarctica countryAQ
Antigua and Barbuda countryAG
Argentina countryAR
Armenia countryAM
Aruba countryAW
Australia countryAU
Austria countryAT
Azerbaijan countryAZ
Bahamas countryBS
Bahrain countryBH
Bangladesh countryBD
Barbados countryBB
Belarus countryBY
Belgium countryBE
Belize countryBZ
Benin countryBJ
Bermuda countryBM
Bhutan countryBT
Bolivia countryBO
Bosnia and Herzegovina countryBA
Botswana countryBW
Bouvet Island countryBV
Brazil countryBR
British Indian Ocean Territory countryIO
Brunei Darussalam countryBN
Bulgaria countryBG
Burkina Faso countryBF
Burundi countryBI
Cambodia countryKH
Cameroon countryCM
Canada countryCA
Cape Verde countryCV
Cayman Islands countryKY
Central African Republic countryCF
Chad countryTD
Chile countryCL
China countryCN
Christmas Island countryCX
Cocos (Keeling) Islands countryCC
Colombia countryCO
Comoros countryKM
Congo countryCG
Congo, the Democratic Republic of the countryCD
Cook Islands countryCK
Costa Rica countryCR
Cote D'ivoire countryCI
Croatia (Hrvatska) countryHR
Cuba countryCU
Cyprus countryCY
Czech Republic countryCZ
Denmark countryDK
Djibouti countryDJ
Dominica countryDM
Dominican Republic countryDO
East Timor countryTP
Ecuador countryEC
Egypt countryEG
El Salvador countrySV
Equatorial Guinea countryGQ
Eritrea countryER
Estonia countryEE
Ethiopia countryET
European Union countryEU
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) countryFK
Faroe Islands countryFO
Fiji countryFJ
Finland countryFI
France countryFR
France, Metropolitan countryFX
French Guiana countryGF
French Polynesia countryPF
French Southern Territories countryTF
Gabon countryGA
Gambia countryGM
Georgia countryGE
Germany countryDE
Ghana countryGH
Gibraltar countryGI
Greece countryGR
Greenland countryGL
Grenada countryGD
Guadeloupe countryGP
Guam countryGU
Guatemala countryGT
Guinea countryGN
Guinea-Bissau countryGW
Guyana countryGY
Haiti countryHT
Heard Island and Mcdonald Islands countryHM
Holy See (Vatican City State) countryVA
Honduras countryHN
Hong Kong countryHK
Hungary countryHU
Iceland countryIS
India countryIN
Indonesia countryID
Iran, Islamic Republic of countryIR
Iraq countryIQ
Ireland countryIE
Israel countryIL
Italy countryIT
Jamaica countryJM
Japan countryJP
Jordan countryJO
Kazakhstan countryKZ
Kenya countryKE
Kiribati countryKI
Korea, Democratic People's Republic of countryKP
Korea, Republic of countryKR
Kuwait countryKW
Kyrgyzstan countryKG
Lao People's Democratic Republic countryLA
Latvia countryLV
Lebanon countryLB
Lesotho countryLS
Liberia countryLR
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya countryLY
Liechtenstein countryLI
Lithuania countryLT
Luxembourg countryLU
Macao countryMO
Macedonia, the Former Yugosalv Republic of countryMK
Madagascar countryMG
Malawi countryMW
Malaysia countryMY
Maldives countryMV
Mali countryML
Malta countryMT
Marshall Islands countryMH
Martinique countryMQ
Mauritania countryMR
Mauritius countryMU
Mayotte countryYT
Mexico countryMX
Micronesia, Federated States of countryFM
Moldova, Republic of countryMD
Monaco countryMC
Mongolia countryMN
Montserrat countryMS
Morocco countryMA
Mozambique countryMZ
Myanmar countryMM
Namibia countryNA
Nauru countryNR
Nepal countryNP
Netherlands countryNL
Netherlands Antilles countryAN
New Caledonia countryNC
New Zealand countryNZ
Nicaragua countryNI
Niger countryNE
Nigeria countryNG
Niue countryNU
Norfolk Island countryNF
Northern Mariana Islands countryMP
Norway countryNO
Oman countryOM
Pakistan countryPK
Palau countryPW
Palestinian Territory countryPS
Panama countryPA
Papua New Guinea countryPG
Paraguay countryPY
Peru countryPE
Philippines countryPH
Pitcairn countryPN
Poland countryPL
Portugal countryPT
Puerto Rico countryPR
Qatar countryQA
Reunion countryRE
Romania countryRO
Russian Federation countryRU
Rwanda countryRW
Saint Helena countrySH
Saint Kitts and Nevis countryKN
Saint Lucia countryLC
Saint Pierre and Miquelon countryPM
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines countryVC
Samoa countryWS
San Marino countrySM
Sao Tome and Principe countryST
Saudi Arabia countrySA
Senegal countrySN
Serbia and Montenegro countryCS
Seychelles countrySC
Sierra Leone countrySL
Singapore countrySG
Slovakia countrySK
Slovenia countrySI
Solomon Islands countrySB
Somalia countrySO
South Africa countryZA
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands countryGS
Spain countryES
Sri Lanka countryLK
Sudan countrySD
Suriname countrySR
Svalbard and Jan Mayen countrySJ
Swaziland countrySZ
Sweden countrySE
Switzerland countryCH
Syrian Arab Republic countrySY
Taiwan, Province of China countryTW
Tajikistan countryTJ
Tanzania, United Republic of countryTZ
Thailand countryTH
Togo countryTG
Tokelau countryTK
Tonga countryTO
Trinidad and Tobago countryTT
Tunisia countryTN
Turkey countryTR
Turkmenistan countryTM
Turks and Caicos Islands countryTC
Tuvalu countryTV
Uganda countryUG
Ukraine countryUA
United Arab Emirates countryAE
United Kingdom countryUK
United States countryUS
United States Minor Outlying Islands countryUM
Uruguay countryUY
Uzbekistan countryUZ
Vanuatu countryVU
Venezuela countryVE
Vietnam countryVN
Virgin Islands, British countryVG
Virgin Islands, U.S. countryVI
Wallis and Futuna countryWF
Western Sahara countryEH
Yemen countryYE
Yugoslavia countryYU
Zambia countryZM
Zimbabwe countryZW

Country Codes

The following table lists the two-letter country codes that can be used as values of the gl parameter:

Country Country Code
Afghanistan af
Albania al
Algeria dz
American Samoa as
Andorra ad
Angola ao
Anguilla ai
Antarctica aq
Antigua and Barbuda ag
Argentina ar
Armenia am
Aruba aw
Australia au
Austria at
Azerbaijan az
Bahamas bs
Bahrain bh
Bangladesh bd
Barbados bb
Belarus by
Belgium be
Belize bz
Benin bj
Bermuda bm
Bhutan bt
Bolivia bo
Bosnia and Herzegovina ba
Botswana bw
Bouvet Island bv
Brazil br
British Indian Ocean Territory io
Brunei Darussalam bn
Bulgaria bg
Burkina Faso bf
Burundi bi
Cambodia kh
Cameroon cm
Canada ca
Cape Verde cv
Cayman Islands ky
Central African Republic cf
Chad td
Chile cl
China cn
Christmas Island cx
Cocos (Keeling) Islands cc
Colombia co
Comoros km
Congo cg
Congo, the Democratic Republic of the cd
Cook Islands ck
Costa Rica cr
Cote D'ivoire ci
Croatia hr
Cuba cu
Cyprus cy
Czech Republic cz
Denmark dk
Djibouti dj
Dominica dm
Dominican Republic do
Ecuador ec
Egypt eg
El Salvador sv
Equatorial Guinea gq
Eritrea er
Estonia ee
Ethiopia et
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) fk
Faroe Islands fo
Fiji fj
Finland fi
France fr
French Guiana gf
French Polynesia pf
French Southern Territories tf
Gabon ga
Gambia gm
Georgia ge
Germany de
Ghana gh
Gibraltar gi
Greece gr
Greenland gl
Grenada gd
Guadeloupe gp
Guam gu
Guatemala gt
Guinea gn
Guinea-Bissau gw
Guyana gy
Haiti ht
Heard Island and Mcdonald Islands hm
Holy See (Vatican City State) va
Honduras hn
Hong Kong hk
Hungary hu
Iceland is
India in
Indonesia id
Iran, Islamic Republic of ir
Iraq iq
Ireland ie
Israel il
Italy it
Jamaica jm
Japan jp
Jordan jo
Kazakhstan kz
Kenya ke
Kiribati ki
Korea, Democratic People's Republic of kp
Korea, Republic of kr
Kuwait kw
Kyrgyzstan kg
Lao People's Democratic Republic la
Latvia lv
Lebanon lb
Lesotho ls
Liberia lr
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya ly
Liechtenstein li
Lithuania lt
Luxembourg lu
Macao mo
Macedonia, the Former Yugosalv Republic of mk
Madagascar mg
Malawi mw
Malaysia my
Maldives mv
Mali ml
Malta mt
Marshall Islands mh
Martinique mq
Mauritania mr
Mauritius mu
Mayotte yt
Mexico mx
Micronesia, Federated States of fm
Moldova, Republic of md
Monaco mc
Mongolia mn
Montserrat ms
Morocco ma
Mozambique mz
Myanmar mm
Namibia na
Nauru nr
Nepal np
Netherlands nl
Netherlands Antilles an
New Caledonia nc
New Zealand nz
Nicaragua ni
Niger ne
Nigeria ng
Niue nu
Norfolk Island nf
Northern Mariana Islands mp
Norway no
Oman om
Pakistan pk
Palau pw
Palestinian Territory, Occupied ps
Panama pa
Papua New Guinea pg
Paraguay py
Peru pe
Philippines ph
Pitcairn pn
Poland pl
Portugal pt
Puerto Rico pr
Qatar qa
Reunion re
Romania ro
Russian Federation ru
Rwanda rw
Saint Helena sh
Saint Kitts and Nevis kn
Saint Lucia lc
Saint Pierre and Miquelon pm
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines vc
Samoa ws
San Marino sm
Sao Tome and Principe st
Saudi Arabia sa
Senegal sn
Serbia and Montenegro cs
Seychelles sc
Sierra Leone sl
Singapore sg
Slovakia sk
Slovenia si
Solomon Islands sb
Somalia so
South Africa za
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands gs
Spain es
Sri Lanka lk
Sudan sd
Suriname sr
Svalbard and Jan Mayen sj
Swaziland sz
Sweden se
Switzerland ch
Syrian Arab Republic sy
Taiwan, Province of China tw
Tajikistan tj
Tanzania, United Republic of tz
Thailand th
Timor-Leste tl
Togo tg
Tokelau tk
Tonga to
Trinidad and Tobago tt
Tunisia tn
Turkey tr
Turkmenistan tm
Turks and Caicos Islands tc
Tuvalu tv
Uganda ug
Ukraine ua
United Arab Emirates ae
United Kingdom uk
United States us
United States Minor Outlying Islands um
Uruguay uy
Uzbekistan uz
Vanuatu vu
Venezuela ve
Viet Nam vn
Virgin Islands, British vg
Virgin Islands, U.S. vi
Wallis and Futuna wf
Western Sahara eh
Yemen ye
Zambia zm
Zimbabwe zw

Authentication required

You need to be signed in with Google+ to do that.

Signing you in...

Google Developers needs your permission to do that.