Search engines crawl your page in order to understand your content. If you don't give them permission to crawl your page, they can't know what your page contains, and therefore are unable to list your page in search results.
If you want search engines to crawl your page, remove the HTTP headers or meta tags that are preventing crawlers from doing so. Your Lighthouse report lists the problematic headers or tags. Lighthouse only checks for the general headers or tags that affect all crawlers. It doesn't flag headers or tags that block specific search engine bots.
See Robots meta tag and X-Robots-Tag HTTP header specifications for details about exactly how you can configure your meta tags and HTTP headers to get more control over how search engines crawl your page. Below is an overview of the issues that Lighthouse flags.
The tag below prevents all search engine crawlers from accessing your page:
<meta name="robots" content="noindex"/>
The HTTP response header below does the same:
You can inspect your page's response headers via the Headers tab of Chrome DevTools.
You might also have meta tags that block specific crawlers, such as:
<meta name="AdsBot-Google" content="noindex"/>
Lighthouse doesn't check for bot-specific directives like this. Nonetheless, directives like this can still make your page harder to discover in various ways.