Image Charts (Deprecated)

Pie Charts

   

This document describes how to create pie charts using the Chart API.

Table of Contents

Chart-Specific Features

  1. Overview
  2. Chart Types (cht)
  3. Series Colors (chco)
  4. Pie Chart Labels (chl)
  5. Pie Chart Rotation (chp)

Standard Features

  1. Chart Title (chtt, chts)
  2. Chart Legend Text and Style (chdl, chdlp, chdls)
  3. Chart Margins (chma)
  4. Background Fills (chf)
    1. Solid Fills (chf)
    2. Gradient Fills (chf)
    3. Striped Fills (chf)
  5. Data functions (chfd)

Overview

Pie charts are good for showing simple proportional part-to-whole information. You can create a single series pie chart, where each series is made of multiple slices, or multi-series, concentric charts.

Each series describes one pie, and each data value specifies one slice. When using nested pie charts (described below), use multiple series.

To display the text associated with a slice, you will have to use either pie chart labels or a chart legend. Pie chart labels are text around the chart with lines pointing toward the slice. Legends are text associated by color.

Labels Legend Labels and Legend

chl=January|February|March|April

chdl=January|February|March|April

chl=January|February|March|April
chdl=30°|40°|50°|60°

Values are displayed relative to each other: so a chart with values 1,2,3 will look the same as a chart with values 100,200,300. However, when using text format data, values greater than 100 are trimmed to 100, so you will need to use text format with custom scaling to display slices greater than 100 properly (use the chds parameter with min/max values of chds=0,<max-slice-size>).

Negative values display as empty slices of the appropriate size.

Chart Types

There are three general types of pie charts that you can create: flat, concentric, or 3D. Specify a pie chart with the following syntax:

Syntax

cht=<chart_type>

Where <chart_type> is one of the the following types:

Parameter Description Example

p

Two dimensional pie chart.

Supply one data series only; subsequent data series are ignored.

By default, pie segment colors are interpolated from dark orange to pale yellow. Specify other colors as described in Series Colors.

Specify labels with chl as described in Pie chart labels.

The Google Chart API calculates the circle's radius from the minimum of width and height specified in the chart size (chs) parameter. If you are including labels, you probably need to specify the size of the width to be twice the size of the height, to ensure that your labels are fully visible.

Two-dimensional pie chart with four segments where segment colors are interpolated from dark to pale orange

cht=p
chs=200x100

p3

A three-dimensional pie chart.

Specify data and formatting in the same way as for two dimensional pie charts, above.

If you are including labels in a three-dimensional pie chart, you probably need to specify the size of the width to be 2.5 times the size of the height, to ensure that your labels are fully visible.

Three-dimensional pie chart with four segments where segment colors are interpolated from dark to pale orange

cht=p3
chs=250x100

pc

A concentric pie chart.

Supply two or more data series.

Two concentric pie charts with four segments each, where segment colors are interpolated from dark to pale orange

cht=pc
chd=s:Helo,Wrld

All types Negative numbers in data cause "blank" slices. Two concentric pie charts with four segments each, where segment colors are interpolated from dark to pale orange
cht=pc
chd=t:
10,-10,10,-10|
5,-5,5,-5,5,-5,5,-5,5,-5

 

Series Colors chco

You can specify the colors of all values, each value, or some values using the chco parameter.

Syntax

chco=<slice_1>|<slice_2>|<slice_n>,<series_color_1>,...,<series_color_n>
<color>
Slice colors in RRGGBB hexadecimal format. Specify a single series color and all slices in that series will be colored in gradations of that color from darkest (first data member) to lightest (last data member). Specify two or more colors delimited by a | to describe individual slice colors. When you have multiple series (that is, a chart with concentric rings), you can specify values for different series by separating values by a comma. When fewer slice/series colors are given than slices/series displayed, then the chart will cycle through from the beginning of the slice list for the series, or the series list for the chart. You cannot specify a distinct gradient for each series in a multi-series chart.
Description Example

Specify a single color to have gradations from darkest (first slice) to lightest (last slice).

Three dimensional pie chart with segments interpolated from dark to pale blue

chco=0000FF

Defining a gradient; here, from yellow to red. Range from yellow to red.
chd=t:10,20,30,40,50
chco=FFFF10,FF0000

Defining individual slice colors; specify one color per slice. One slice per color.
chd=t:10,20,30
chco=FF0000|00FF00|0000FF
This chart has two data series, but specifies color as a single gradient across all slices from yellow to red (BBBB00—BB0000). Two concentric pie charts with four segments each, where segment colors are interpolated from dark to pale orange
chco=BBBB00,BB0000

Here's a concentric chart that includes both series colors and individual slice colors. The chart has two concentric data series. In human-readable form, the colors are chco=green|red,blue|yellow. The comma breaks this into two series:

  • green|red - Alternating green and red slices.
  • blue|yellow - Alternating blue and yellow slices.
Two concentric pie charts with four segments each, where segment colors are interpolated from dark to pale orange
chd=s:eYY,ORVM
chco=008800|880000,000088|888800

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Pie Chart Labels chl

You can specify labels for individual pie chart slices using the chl parameter. You can also display a legend with the same or different values, one legend entry per slice.

A Note on String Values: Only URL-safe characters are permitted in label strings. To be safe, you should URL-encode any strings containing characters not in the character set 0-9a-zA-Z. You can find a URL encoder here.

Syntax

chl=
  <label_value>|
    ...
  <label_value>
<label_value>
A string value to apply to a slice. Labels are applied consecutively to the data points in chd. If you have multiple series (for a concentric pie chart, for example), labels are applied to all points in all sequences, in the order specified in chd. Use a pipe delimiter ( | ) between each label. Specify a missing intervening value by using two consecutive pipe characters with no space between them: || . You do not need to label all slices.

 

Examples

Description Example

Labels for a three-dimensional pie chart.

Three dimensional pie chart with May, June, July, August, September and October labels for each segment

chl=May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct
chs=220x100

When specifying the size of your chart with chs, consider how much room your labels will need.

Generally, a two-dimensional pie chart needs to be approximately twice as wide as it is high, and a three-dimensional pie chart needs to be approximately two and a half times wider than it is high, to display labels properly.

In the first example, the labels are only partially displayed, because the chart is not wide enough.

The second example shows that the chart needs a width of 280 pixels to display the labels in full. (Borders added explicitly to the <img> element.)

Three dimensional pie chart with May, June, July, August, September and October labels for each segment

chl=May|June|July|August|
September|October
chs=220x100


Three dimensional pie chart with May, June, July, August, September and October labels for each segmentchl=May|June|July|August|
September|October
chs=280x100

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Pie Chart Rotation chp

By default, the first series is drawn starting at 3:00, continuing clockwise around the chart, but you can specify a custom rotation using the chp parameter.

Syntax

chp=<radians>
  
<radians>
A floating point value describing how many radians to rotate the chart clockwise. One complete turn is 2π (2 pi—about 6.28) radians.

Examples

Description Example

To change the orientation of a pie chart, use chp=<angle_in_radians>

Pie chart with two segments

chd=t:20,80


Pie chart with two segments, rotated by 0.628

chd=t:80,20
chp=0.628

Here's another example of pie chart rotations. These can be combined with chart shape markers to create some interesting effects. Pie chart with two segments, rotated by 0.628

 

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Standard Features

The rest of the features on this page are standard chart features.

Chart Title chtt, chts [All charts]

You can specify the title text, color, and font size for your chart.

Syntax

chtt=<chart_title>
chts=<color>,<font_size>,<opt_alignment>

 

chtt - Specifies the chart title.

<chart_title>
Title to show for the chart. You cannot specify where this appears, but you can optionally specify the font size and color. Use a + sign to indicate spaces, and a pipe character ( | ) to indicate line breaks.

 

chts [Optional] - Colors and font size for the chtt parameter.

<color>
The title color, in RRGGBB hexadecimal format. Default color is black.
<font_size>
Font size of the title, in points.
<opt_alignment>
[Optional] Alignment of the title. Choose one of the following case-sensitive string values: "l" (left), "c" (centered) "r" (right). Default is "c".

 

Examples

Description Example

A chart with a title, using default color and font size.

Specify a space with a plus sign (+).

Use a pipe character (|) to force a line break.

chts is not specified here.

Vertical bar chart with title
chtt=Site+visitors+by+month|
January+to+July

A chart with a blue, right-aligned, 20-point title.

Vertical bar chart with blue, 20 pixel, title
chtt=Site+visitors
chts=FF0000,20,r

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Chart Legend Text and Style chdl, chdlp, chdls [All charts]

The legend is a side section of the chart that gives a small text description of each series. You can specify the text associated with each series in this legend, and specify where on the chart it should appear.

See also chma, to learn how to set the margins around your legend.

A note on string values: Only URL-safe characters are permitted in label strings. To be safe, you should URL-encode any strings containing characters not in the character set 0-9a-zA-Z. You can find a URL encoder in the Google Visualization Documentation.

Syntax

chdl=<data_series_1_label>|...|<data_series_n_label>
chdlp=<opt_position>|<opt_label_order>
chdls=<color>,<size>

 

chdl - The text for each series, to display in the legend.

<data_series_label>
The text for the legend entries. Each label applies to the corresponding series in the chd array. Use a + mark for a space. If you do not specify this parameter, the chart will not get a legend. There is no way to specify a line break in a label. The legend will typically expand to hold your legend text, and the chart area will shrink to accommodate the legend.

chdlp - [Optional] The position of the legend, and order of the legend entries. You can specify <position> and/or <label_order>. If you specify both, separate them with a bar character. You can add an 's' to any value if you want empty legend entries in chdl to be skipped in the legend. Examples: chdlp=bv, chdlp=r, chdlp=bv|r, chdlp=bvs|r

<opt_position>
[Optional] Specifies the position of the legend on the chart. To specify additional padding between the legend and the chart area or the image border, use the chma parameter. Choose one of the following values:
  • b - Legend at the bottom of the chart, legend entries in a horizontal row.
  • bv - Legend at the bottom of the chart, legend entries in a vertical column.
  • t - Legend at the top of the chart, legend entries in a horizontal row.
  • tv - Legend at the top of the chart, legend entries in a vertical column.
  • r - [Default] Legend to the right of the chart, legend entries in a vertical column.
  • l - Legend to the left of the chart, legend entries in a vertical column.
<opt_label_order>
[Optional] The order in which the labels are shown in the legend. Choose one of the following value:
  • l - [Default for vertical legends] Display labels in the order given to chdl.
  • r - Display labels in the reverse order as given to chdl. This is useful in stacked bar charts to show the legend
    in the same order as the bars appear.
  • a - [Default for horizontal legends] Automatic ordering: roughly means sorting by length, shortest first, as measured in 10 pixel blocks. When two elements are the same length (divided into 10 pixel blocks), the one listed first will appear first.
  • 0,1,2... - Custom label order. This is a list of zero-based label indexes from chdl, separated by commas.

chdls - [Optional] Specifies the color and font size of the legend text.

<color>
The legend text color, in RRGGBB hexadecimal format.
<size>
The point size of the legend text.

 

Examples

Description Example

Two examples of legends. Specify legend text in the same order as your data series.

Red, blue, and green line chart with matching legends

chdl=NASDAQ|FTSE100|DOW
chco=FF0000,00FF00,0000FF

Venn diagram with two smaller circles enclosed by a larger circle


chdl=First|Second|Third
chco=ff0000,00ff00,0000ff

The first chart demonstrates horizontal legend entries (chdlp=t, default layout is horizontal), and the second demonstrates bottom vertical legend entries (chdlp=bv).

Venn diagram with two smaller circles enclosed by a larger circle
chdl=First|Second|Third
chco=ff0000,00ff00,0000ff
chdlp=t


Venn diagram with two smaller circles enclosed by a larger circle
chdl=First|Second|Third
chco=ff0000,00ff00,0000ff
chdlp=bv

This example demonstrates changing the font size.

Venn diagram with two smaller circles enclosed by a larger circle
chdls=0000CC,14

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Chart Margins chma [All charts]

You can specify the size of the chart's margins, in pixels. Margins are calculated inward from the specified chart size (chs); increasing the margin size does not increase the total chart size, but rather shrinks the chart area, if necessary.

The margins are by default whatever is left over after the chart size is calculated. This default value varies by chart type. The margins that you specify are a minimum value; if the chart area leaves room for margins, the margin size will be whatever is left over; you cannot squeeze the margins smaller than what is required for any legends and labels. Here's a diagram showing the basic parts of a chart:

Chart margin, legend area, and chart area

The chart margins include the axis labels and the legend area. The legend area resizes automatically to fit the text exactly, unless you specify a larger width using chma, in which case it will expand the margin size wider, squeezing the chart area smaller. You cannot crop a legend by specifying a size that is too small, but you can make it take up more space than it needs.

Tip: In a bar chart, if the bars have a fixed size (the default), the chart area width cannot be reduced. You must specify a smaller or resizeable bar size using chbh.

 

Syntax

chma=
  <left_margin>,<right_margin>,<top_margin>,<bottom_margin>|<opt_legend_width>,<opt_legend_height>
<left_margin>, <right_margin>, <top_margin>, <bottom_margin>
Minimum margin size around the chart area, in pixels. Increase this value to include some padding to prevent axis labels from bumping against the borders of the chart.
<opt_legend_width>, <opt_legend_height>
[Optional] Width of the margin around the legend, in pixels. Use this to avoid having the legend bump up against the chart area or the edges of the image.

 

Examples

Description Example

In this example, the chart has a minimum margin of 30 pixels on each side. Because the chart legend is more than 30 pixels wide, the margin on the right side is set to the width of the chart legend, and is different from the other margins.

Axis labels are outside the plot area, and are therefore drawn within the margin space.

Line chart with gray background and margins on each side.
chma=30,30,30,30

To add a margin around the legend, set a value for the <opt_legend_width> and <opt_legend_height> parameters.

In this example, the legend is approximately 60 pixels wide. If you set the the <opt_legend_width> to 80 pixels, the margin extends to 20 pixels outside the legend.

Line chart with gray background and margins on each side.
chma=20,20,20,30|80,20

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Axis Styles and Labels [Line, Bar, Google-o-meter, Radar, Scatter]

You can specify which axes to display on the chart, and give them custom labels and positions, ranges, and styles.

Not all charts show axis lines by default. You can specify exactly which axes your chart should show using the chxt parameter. Default axis lines do not show numbers; you must specify an axis in the chxt parameter to show numbers.

You can choose to have your axes display numbers reflecting the data values, or you can specify custom axes. The default is to display numeric values, with values scaled to range from 0—100. However, you can change that range using chxr to display any range, and you can style the values (for example, to show currency symbols or decimal places) using chxs.

If you choose to use custom values, for example: "Mon, Tues, Wed", you can use the chxl parameter. To place these labels in specific locations along the axis, use the chxp parameter.

Finally, you can use the chxs and chxtc parameters to specify color, size, alignment, and other properties of both custom and numeric axis labels.

A note on string values: Only URL-safe characters are permitted in label strings. To be safe, you should URL-encode any strings containing characters not in the character set 0-9a-zA-Z. You can find a URL encoder in the Google Visualization Documentation.

This section covers the following topics:


Visible Axes chxt

Bar, line, radar, and scatter charts show one or two axis lines by default, but these lines do not include values. To display values on your axis lines, or to change which axes are shown, you must use the chxt parameter. By default, the axis values range from 0-100, unless you scale them explicitly using the chxr property. To hide all axis lines in a line chart, specify :nda after the chart type value in the cht parameter (example: cht=lc:nda).

By default, the top and bottom axes do not show tick marks by the values, while the left and right axes do show them. You can change this behavior using the chxs parameter.

Syntax

chxt=
  <axis_1>
    ,...,
  <axis_n>
<axis>
An axis to show on the chart. Available axes are:
  • x - Bottom x-axis
  • t - Top x-axis [Not supported by Google-o-Meter]
  • y - Left y-axis
  • r - Right y-axis [Not supported by Google-o-Meter]

You can specify multiple axes of the same type, for example: cht=x,x,y. This will stack two sets of x-axes along the bottom of the chart. This is useful when adding custom labels along an axis that shows numeric values (see the example below). Axes are drawn from the inside out, so if you have x,x, the first x refers to the innermost copy, the next x refers to the next outwards copy, and so on.

 

Examples

Description Example

This example shows a line chart with an x-axis, a y-axis, a top axis (t), and a right axis (r).

Because no labels are specified, the chart defaults to a range of 0 to 100 for all axes.

Note that by default, the top and bottom axes don't show tick marks by the labels.

Line chart with the labels: 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 on the left and right and labels: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 above and below
chxt=x,y,r,t

You can include multiple sets of labels for each axis by including the same value more than once. This example shows two sets of x and two sets of y-axes. This isn't particularly useful when using only the default axis labels, as is shown here. But you can specify custom labels for each copy of each axis, using the chxl parameter.


chxt=x,x,y,y



chxt=x,x,y,y
chxl=
  1:|Freezing|Hot|
  3:|Low|High

This example shows a horizontal bar chart with an x-axis, a y-axis, an upper t-axis, and a right r-axis.

Axis labels are omitted, so the Chart API displays a range of 0 to 100 for the x-axis and for the t-axis.

The range for the y-axis and for the r-axis is determined by the number of bars. In this case, there are five bars, so the Chart API displays a range of 0 to 4. The first label is centered at the base of the first bar, the second label is centered at the base of the second bar, and so on.

Line chart with the labels: 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 on the left and right and labels: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 above and below
chxt=x,y,r,t

You can suppress default axes in a line chart by specifying :nda after the chart type. Line chart with hidden axes
cht=lc:nda

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Axis Range chxr

You can specify the range of values that appear on each axis independently, using the chxr parameter. Note that this does not change the scale of the chart elements, only the scale of the axis labels. If you want to make the axis numbers describe the actual data values, set <start_val> and <end_val> to the lower and upper values of your data format range, respectively. See Axis Scaling for more information.

You must make an axis visible using the chxt parameter if you want to specify its range.

To specify custom axis values, use the chxl parameter.

Syntax

Separate multiple axis label ranges using the pipe character ( | ).

chxr=
  <axis_index>,<start_val>,<end_val>,<opt_step>
    |...|
  <axis_index>,<start_val>,<end_val>,<opt_step>
<axis_index>
Which axis to apply the labels to. This is a zero-based index into the axis array specified by chxt. For example, the r-axis would be 1 in chxt=x,r,y.
<start_val>
A number, defining the low value for this axis.
<end_val>
A number, defining the high value for this axis.
<opt_step>
[Optional] The count step between ticks on the axis. There is no default step value; the step is calculated to try to show a set of nicely spaced labels.

 

Examples

Description Example

This example shows left and right y-axes (y and r) and one x-axis (x).

Each axis has a defined range. Because no labels or positions are specified, values are taken from the given range, and are evenly spaced within that range. In the line chart, values are evenly spread along the x-axis.

Axis direction is reversed for the r-axis (index 2), because the first value (1000) is larger than the last value (0).


chxt=x,y,r
chxr=
  0,0,500|
  1,0,200|
  2,1000,0

In this example, values are specified for the x-axis.

Axis labels are evenly spaced along the axis. A value of five (5) is specified for the <opt_step> parameter.

Bar chart with 200, 300, and 400 on the x-axis chxt=x
chxr=0,10,50,5

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Custom Axis Labels chxl

You can specify custom string axis labels on any axis, using the chxl parameter. You can specify as many labels as you like. If you display an axis (using the chxt parameter) and do not specify custom labels, the standard, numeric labels will be applied. To specify a custom numeric range, use the chxr parameter instead.

To set specific locations along the axis for your labels, use the chxp parameter.

Syntax

Specify one parameter set for each axis that you want to label. Separate multiple sets of labels using the pipe character ( | ).

chxl=
  <axis_index>:|<label_1>|...|<label_n>
    |...|
  <axis_index>:|<label_1>|...|<label_n>
<axis_index>
Which axis to apply labels to. This is an index into the chxt parameter array. For example, if you have chxt=x,x,y,y then index 0 would be the first x-axis, 1 would be the second x-axis.
<label_1>| ... |<label_n>
One or more labels to place along this axis. These can be string or number values; strings do not need to be in quotes. label_1 is displayed at the lowest position on the axis, and label_n is displayed at the highest position. Additional labels are spaced evenly between them. Indicate spaces with a + mark. There is no way to specify a line break in a label. Separate labels with a pipe character. Note: Do not place a pipe after the final label in the chxl parameter.

 

Examples

Description Example

This chart shows how to add custom labels to two axes. Note how the values are evenly spaced, and how the last chxl value does not end with a pipe.

Line chart with 0 and 100 on the left, A, B, and C on the right, Jan,July, Jan, July, and Jan on the x-axis and 2005, 2006 and 2007 below
chxt=x,y
chxl=
0:|Jan|Feb|March|April|May|
1:|Min|Mid|Max

This example includes axis labels on the left and right y-axes (y and r). It also includes two sets of values for the x-axis (x). You could consider adding tick marks on the y-axis using chxs.

Line chart with 0 and 100 on the left, A, B, and C on the right, Jan,July, Jan, July, and Jan on the x-axis and 2005, 2006 and 2007 below
chxt=x,y,r,x
chxl=
0:|Jan|July|Jan|July|Jan|
1:|0|50|100|
2:|A|B|C|
3:|2005|2006|2007

This example includes axis labels on the left and right y-axes (y and r). It also includes two sets of values for the x-axis (x). Note the empty labels for the lower x-axis set, used to space the values apart.

This example uses default values for the axis labels on the left y-axis.

Bar chart with 0 and 100 on the left, A, B, and C on the right, Jan, July,Jan, July, and Jan on the x-axis and 2005, 2006 and 2007 below
chxt=x,y,r,x
chxl=
0:|Jan|July|Jan|July|Jan|
2:|A|B|C|
3:|2005||2006||2007

If you want to add a generic label to describe a whole axis (for example, to label one axis "cost" and another "student"), use the chxt property to add an additional axis on each side, then use chxl to add a single custom label to each side, and chxp to space it in the middle of the axis.


chxt=x,x,y,y
chxl=1:|Martinis|3:|Score
chxp=1,50|3,50

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Axis Label Positions chxp

You can specify which axis labels to show, whether using the default labels or custom labels specified using chxl. If you do not specify exact positions using this parameter, labels will be spaced evenly and at a default step value along the axes. If you do not specify chxl, then the tick mark labels will be the default values (typically data values, or the bar numbers in bar charts).

Syntax

Separate multiple positioning sets using the pipe character (|).

chxp=
  <axis_1_index>,<label_1_position>,...,<label_n_position>
    |...|
  <axis_m_index>,<label_1_position>,...,<label_n_position>
<axis_index>
The axis for which you are specifying positions. This is an index into the chxt parameter array. For example, if you have chxt=x,x,y,y then index 0 would be the first x-axis, 1 would be the second x-axis, and so on.
<label_1_position>,...,<label_n_position>
The position of the label along the axis. This is a comma-separated list of numeric values, where each value sets the position of the corresponding label in the chxl array: the first entry applies to the first label, and so on. The position is a value in the range for that axis. Note that this will always be 0—100 unless you have specified a custom range using chxr. You must have as many positions as you have labels for that axis.

 

Examples

Description Example

This example includes r-axis labels at specified positions on the chart. The label text is specified using the chxl parameter.

Labels with a specified position of 0 are placed at the bottom of the y- or r-axis, or at the left of the x- or t-axis.

Labels with a specified position of 100 are placed at the top of the y- or r-axis, or at the right of the x- or t-axis.

Line chart with min, average, and max on the right, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 on the left, and 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 along the x-axis
chxt=x,y,r
chxl=2:|min|average|max
chxp=2,10,35,75

This example demonstrates showing the default label values, but only at specified locations.

chxp=1,10,35,75 - The y-axis should show only three labels: 10, 35, and 75. Because no custom label text is specified, these axis values are shown. Note how you don't have to space labels evenly apart when you use chxp. If chxp had not been specified here, the default label value distance on the y-axis would be every 20 units, as shown in the second graph.

Line chart with 10, 35, and 75 on the left, and 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 along the x-axis
chxt=x,y
chxp=1,10,35,75

Line chart with default axis positions.
chxt=x,y
chxp not specified

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Axis Label Styles chxs

You can specify the font size, color, and alignment for axis labels, both custom labels and default label values. All labels on the same axis have the same format. If you have multiple copies of an axis, you can format each one differently. You can also specify the format of a label string, for example to show currency symbols or trailing zeroes.

By default, the top and bottom axes do not show tick marks by the values, while the left and right axes do show them.

Syntax

Values for multiple axes should be separated using a pipe character (|).

chxs=
 <axis_index><opt_format_string>,<opt_label_color>,<opt_font_size>,<opt_alignment>,<opt_axis_or_tick>,<opt_tick_color>,<opt_axis_color>
   |...|
 <axis_index><opt_format_string>,<opt_label_color>,<opt_font_size>,<opt_alignment>,<opt_axis_or_tick>,<opt_tick_color>,<opt_axis_color>
<axis_index>
The axis to which this applies. This is a zero-based index into the chxt parameter.
<opt_format_string>
[Optional] This is an optional format string that, if used, follows immediately after the axis index number without an intervening comma. It starts with a literal letter N followed by the following values, all optional: The formatting string syntax is as follows:
       N<preceding_text>*<number_type><decimal_places>zs<x or y>*<following_text>
Here is the meaning of each element:
  • <preceding_text> - Literal text to precede each value.
  • *...* - An optional block wrapped in literal asterisks, in which you can specify formatting details for numbers. The following values are supported, and are all optional:
    • <number_type> - The number format, for numeric values. Choose one of the following:
      • f - [Default] Floating point format. Consider specifying precision as well with the <decimal_places> value.
      • p - Percentage format. A % sign is appended automatically. Note: When using this format, data values from 0.0 — 1.0 map to 0 — 100% (for example, 0.43 will be shown as 43%).
      • e - Scientific notation format.
      • c<CUR> - Format the number in the currency specified, with the appropriate currency marker. Replace <CUR> with a three-letter currency code. Example: cEUR for Euros. You can find a list of codes on the ISO web site, although not all symbols are supported.
    • <decimal_places> - An integer specifying how many decimal places to show. The value is rounded (not truncated) to this length. Default is 2.
    • z - Display trailing zeros. Default is no.
    • s - Display group separators. Default is no.
    • x or y -Display the data from the x- or y-coordinate, as specified. The meaning of x data varies by chart type: experiment with your chart to determine what it means. Default is 'y'.
  • <following_text> - Literal text to follow each value.
<opt_label_color>
The color to apply to the axis text (but not axis line), in RRGGBB hexadecimal format. Axis line color is specified separately using opt_axis_color. Default is gray.
<opt_font_size>
[Optional] specifies the font size in pixels. This parameter is optional.
<opt_alignment>
[Optional] Label alignment. For top or bottom axes, this describes how the label aligns to the tick mark above or below it; for left or right axes, this describes how the aligns inside its bounding box, which touches the axis. Specify one of the following numbers:
  • -1 - Top or bottom: labels are to the right of the ticks; Left or right: labels are left-aligned in their area. Default for r-axis labels.
  • 0 - Top or bottom: labels are centered on the ticks; Left or right: labels are centered in their area. Default for x- and t-axis labels.
  • 1 - Top or bottom: labels are to the left of the ticks; Left or right: labels are right-aligned in their area. Default for y-axis labels.
<opt_axis_or_tick>
[Optional; not supported in Google-o-meter] Whether to show tick marks and/or axis lines for this axis. Tick marks and axis lines are only available for innermost axes (for example, they are not supported for the outer of two x-axes). Use one of the following values:
  • l (lowercase 'L') - Draw axis line only.
  • t - Draw tick marks only. Tick marks are the little lines next to axis labels.
  • lt - [Default] Draw both an axis line and tick marks for all labels.
  • _ - (Underscore) Draw neither axis line nor tick marks. If you want to hide an axis line, use this value.
<tick_color>
[Optional; not supported in Google-o-meter] The tick mark color, in RRGGBB hexadecimal format. Default is gray.
<opt_axis_color>
[Optional] The color of this axis line, in RRGGBB hexadecimal format. Default is gray.

 

Examples

Description Example

Font size and color are specified for the second x-axis (Jan, Feb, Mar).

Line chart with min, average, and max on the left, 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 on the right, 0 to 100 along the x-axis and Jan, Feb, and Mar in blue below

chxt=x,y,r,x
chxr=2,0,4
chxl=3:|Jan|Feb|Mar|
     1:|min|average|max
chxp=1,10,35,75
chxs=3,0000DD,13,0,t

Font size, color, and alignment are specified for the right y-axis. Tick marks, but no axis line, are drawn.

Line chart with 0 to 100 along the x-axis, Jan, Feb, Mar below, 0 to 4 on the y-axis, and red tickmarks with blue text for min, average and max on the right.

chxt=x,y,r,x
chxl=3:|Jan|Feb|Mar|
     2:|min|average|max
chxp=2,10,35,95
chxs=2,0000DD,13,-1,t,FF0000

This chart includes three data sets, and shows three sets of axis labels, one per series. Each set of labels is formatted using a custom formatting string, as described here:

  • 0N*e,000000|
    • 0 means the first data series
    • N means a formatting string
    • * means the start of the format specifiers
    • e means scientific notation
    • * means the end of the format specifiers
    • 000000 means black text.
  • 1N*cUSD*Mil,FF0000|
    • 1 means the second series
    • N means a formatting string
    • * means the start of the format specifiers
    • c means a currency marker
    • USD specifies the US dollar as the currency marker to use
    • * means the end of the format specifiers
    • Mil is a literal following string
    • FF0000 means red text.
  • 2N*sz2*,0000FF
    • 2 means the third series
    • N means a formatting string
    • * means the start of the format specifiers
    • s means to show grouping specifiers (in US English locale, that is a comma every three zeroes)
    • z2 means show two trailing zeroes
    • 0000FF means blue text.

The axis label ranges are set using the chxr parameter (axis_index, start, end, step). If not set, they would have been 0—100 by default.


chd=s:
  984sttvuvkQIBLKNCAIi,
  DEJPgq0uov17zwopQODS,
  AFLPTXaflptx159gsDrn
chxr=
  0,0,1000000,250000|
  1,0,60|
  2,0,5000
chxs=
  0N*e,000000|
  1N*cUSD*Mil,FF0000|
  2N*sz2*,0000FF

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Axis Tick Mark Styles chxtc

You can specify long tick marks for specific axes. Typically this is used to extend a tick mark across the length of a chart. Use the chxs parameter to change the tick mark color.

Values for multiple axes should be separated using a pipe character (|). Values within a series should be separated by a comma.

Syntax

chxtc=
  <axis_index_1>,<tick_length_1>,...,<tick_length_n>
    |...|
  <axis_index_m>,<tick_length_1>,...,<tick_length_n>
<axis_index>
The axis to which this applies. This is a zero-based index into the chxt parameter. Separate values for different axes using a bar delimiter.
<tick_length_1>,...,<tick_length_n>
Length of the tick marks on that axis, in pixels. If a single value is given, it will apply to all values; if more than one value is given, the axis tick marks will cycle through the list of values for that axis. Positive values are drawn outside the chart area and cropped by the chart borders. The maximum positive value is 25. Negative values are drawn inside the chart area and cropped by the chart area borders.

 

Examples

Description Example

Example of using chxtc to create long red tick marks. The tick mark length here exceeds the chart area width, but is cropped to fit within the chart.

  • chxt=x,y,r,x - Show a left axis, a right axis, and two bottom axes.
  • chxl=2:|min|average|max|3:|Jan|Feb|Mar - The label text assigned to the 'r' (right side) and outer x-axes.
  • chxp=2,10,35,95 - Custom label positions along the r-axis (index=2) for the three labels.
  • chxs=2,0000dd,13,-1,t,FF0000 - Axis label styles for the r-axis: text color, text size, left-aligned, with red tick marks.
  • chxtc=1,10|2,-180 - Axis tick lengths for the y- and r-axes. The first value specifies 10-pixel-long ticks, outside the axis. The second value specifies 180-pixel-long ticks inside the axis; the negative number means that the tick goes inside the axis, and the tick is cropped to fit inside the chart.

Line chart with 0 to 100 along the x-axis, Jan, Feb, Mar below, 0 to 4 on the y-axis, and long red tickmarks with blue text for min, average and max on the right.

chxt=x,y,r,x
chxl=
  2:|min|average|max|
  3:|Jan|Feb|Mar
chxp=2,10,35,95
chxs=
  2,0000dd,13,-1,t,FF0000
chxtc=1,10|2,-180

This chart demonstrates alternating tick lengths. chxtc specifies two tick length values for the y-axis (5 and 15), and the ticks drawn on the chart alternate between the two values.
chxt=x,y
chxtc=
  1,5,15

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Background Fills chf [All charts]

You can specify fill colors and styles for the chart data area and/or the whole chart background. Fill types include solid fills, striped fills, and gradients. You can specify different fills for different areas (for example, the whole chart area, or just the data area). The chart area fill overwrites the background fill. All fills are specified using the chf parameter, and you can mix different fill types (solids, stripes, gradients) in the same chart by separating values with pipe character ( | ). Chart area fills overwrite chart background fills.

Solid Fills chf [All Charts]

You can specify a solid fill for the background and/or chart area, or assign a transparency value to the whole chart. You can specify multiple fills using the pipe character (|). (Maps: background only).

Syntax

chf=<fill_type>,s,<color>|...
<fill_type>
The part of the chart being filled. Specify one of the following values:
  • bg - Background fill
  • c - Chart area fill. Not supported for map charts.
  • a - Make the whole chart (including backgrounds) transparent. The first six digits of <color> are ignored, and only the last two (the transparency value) are applied to the whole chart and all fills.
  • b<index> - Bar solid fills (bar charts only). Replace <index> with the series index of the bars to fill with a solid color. The effect is similar to specifying chco in a bar chart. See Bar Chart Series Colors for an example.
s
Indicates a solid or transparency fill.
<color>
The fill color, in RRGGBB hexadecimal format. For transparencies, the first six digits are ignored, but must be included anyway.

 

Examples

Description Example

This example fills the chart background with pale gray (EFEFEF).

Red line chart with black area fill.

chf=bg,s,EFEFEF

This example fills the chart background with pale gray (EFEFEF) and fills the chart area in black (000000).

Red line chart with black chart area and pale gray background.

chf=c,s,000000|
bg,s,EFEFEF

This example applies a 50% transparency to the whole chart (80 in hexadecimal is 128, or about 50% transparency). Notice the table cell background showing through the chart.

Scatter plot with points in blue, and a 50% transparency.

chf=a,s,00000080

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Gradient Fills chf [Line, Bar, Google-o-meter, Radar, Scatter,Venn]

You can apply one or more gradient fills to chart areas or backgrounds. Gradient fills are fades from a one color to another color. (Pie, Google-o-meter charts: background only.)

Each gradient fill specifies an angle, and then two or more colors anchored to a specified location. The color varies as it moves from one anchor to another. You must have at least two colors with different <color_centerpoint> values, so that one can fade into the other. Each additional gradient is specified by a <color>,<color_centerpoint> pair.

Syntax

chf=<fill_type>,lg,<angle>,<color_1>,<color_centerpoint_1>
    ,...,
  <color_n>,<color_centerpoint_n>
<fill_type>
The chart area to fill. One of the following:
  • bg - Background fill
  • c - Chart area fill.
  • b<index> - Bar gradient fills (bar charts only). Replace <index> with the series index of the bars to fill with a gradient. See Bar Chart Series Colors for an example.
lg
Specifies a gradient fill.
<angle>
A number specifying the angle of the gradient from 0 (horizontal) to 90 (vertical).
<color>
The color of the fill, in RRGGBB hexadecimal format.
<color_centerpoint>
Specifies the anchor point for the color. The color will start to fade from this point as it approaches another anchor. The value range is from 0.0 (bottom or left edge) to 1.0 (top or right edge), tilted at the angle specified by <angle>.

 

Examples

Description Example

Chart area has a horizontal linear gradient, specified with an angle of zero degrees (0).

The colors are peach (FFE7C6), centered on the left side (position 0.0) and blue (76A4FB) centered on the right side (position 1.0).

The chart background is drawn in gray (EFEFEF).

Dark gray line chart with pale gray background and chart area in a white to blue linear gradient from left to right

chf=
  c,lg,0,
  FFE7C6,0,
(peach)
  76A4FB,1
(blue)

Chart area has a diagonal (bottom left to top right) linear gradient, specified with an angle of forty-five degrees (45).

Peach (FFE7C6) is the first color specified. The bottom left of the chart is pure peach.

Blue (6A4FB) is the second color specified. The top right of the chart is pure blue. Note how we specify an offset of 0.75, to provide a peak of blue that fades away towards the top right corner.

The chart background is drawn in gray (EFEFEF).

Dark gray line chart with pale gray background and chart area in a white to blue diagonal linear gradient from bottom left to top right

chf=
  c,lg,45,
  FFE7C6,0,
(peach)
  76A4FB,0.75
(blue)

Chart area has a vertical (top to bottom) linear gradient, specified with an angle of ninety degrees (90).

Blue (76A4FB) is the first color specified. The top of the chart is pure blue.

Peach (FFE7C6) is the second color specified. The bottom of the chart is pure peach.

The chart background is drawn in gray (EFEFEF).

Dark gray line chart with pale gray background and chart area in a white to blue vertical linear gradient from bottom to top

chf=
  c,lg,90,
  FFE7C6,0,
(peach)
  76A4FB,0.5
(blue)

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Striped fills chf [Line, Bar, Google-o-meter, Radar, Scatter, Venn]

You can specify a striped background fill for your chart area, or the whole chart. (Pie, Google-o-meter charts: background only.)

Syntax

chf=
  <fill_type>,ls,<angle>,<color_1>,<width_1>
    ,...,
  <color_n>,<width_n>
<fill_type>
The chart area to fill. One of the following:
  • bg - Background fill
  • c - Chart area fill
  • b<index> - Bar striped fills (bar charts only). Replace <index> with the series index of the bars to fill with stripes. See Bar Chart Series Colors for an example.
ls
Specifies linear stripe fill.
<angle>
The angle of all stripes, relative to the y-axis. Use 0 for vertical stripes or 90 for horizontal stripes.
<color>
The color for this stripe, in RRGGBB hexadecimal format. Repeat <color> and <width> for each additional stripe. You must have at least two stripes. Stripes alternate until the chart is filled.
<width>
The width of this stripe, from 0 to 1, where 1 is the full width of the chart. Stripes are repeated until the chart is filled. Repeat <color> and <width> for each additional stripe. You must have at least two stripes. Stripes alternate until the chart is filled.

 

Examples

Description Example
  • bg,ls,0 - Background stripe fill with stripes at a zero degree angle to the y-axis (parallel to the y-axis). The stripes fill the chart background as well as the plot area.
  • CCCCCC,0.15 - The first stripe is dark gray, 15% as wide as the chart.
  • FFFFFF,0.1 - The second stripe is white, 10% as wide as the chart.
Blue line chart with alternating gray and white stripes from left to right
chf=
  bg,ls,0,
  CCCCCC,0.15,
  FFFFFF,0.1
  • c,ls,90 - Chart area with horizontal stripes at an angle of ninety degrees from the y-axis. The stripes fill the plot area, but the chart background is omitted.
  • 999999,0.25 - The first stripe is dark gray, 25% as wide as the chart.
  • CCCCCC,0.25 - Same as the first stripe, but a lighter gray.
  • FFFFFF,0.25 - Same as the first stripe, but white.
Blue line chart with a dark gray, pale gray, white and dark gray stripes from bottom to top
chf=
  c,ls,90,
  999999,0.25,
  CCCCCC,0.25,
  FFFFFF,0.25

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Data Functions chfd [All chd charts]

You can specify a custom function to run over chart data using muParser function syntax. The data used in the function can come from one of two sources:

  • A data series from chd - The data is pulled from the specified series in chd.
  • A range of values declared in the chfd parameter itself - You declare a start, stop, and step value for an arbitrary data range.

It is important to note that in all cases you must assign the output to an existing series in chd; that series will be overwritten by the function output. The chart is rendered only after all functions have been processes, so if you assign multiple functions to output to the same data series, the functions will be run in the order given, but only the output of the final function will be plotted on the chart. Note that you can chain functions, so that one function can take as input a series that was output by a previous function.

To assign colors or chm markers to a function line, assign the colors or markers to the function's series index. Note that markers are placed according to the data after it has been manipulated by the function.

Syntax

chfd=
  <output_series_index>,<function_data>,<function_string>
    |...|
  <output_series_index>,<function_data>,<function_string>
<output_series_index>
Zero-based index of a data series in chd to which the function output will be written. Any existing data will be completely overwritten by the function output. If a series is not being used as input for a function, best practice is to assign a single dummy value to that series.
<function_data>
The variables and data to plot. The data can be from a range that you define, or from one of the chd data series. You can specify multiple variables for each function, using a ; (semicolon) delimiter for multiple variables. Note that if you define multiple variables for a single function, and these variables have a different number of points, the function will stop when it reaches the first endpoint. For example, if a function defines both x=1—5 step 1 and y=1—10 step 1, the function will end when it reaches the fifth point.
    <variable_name>,<input_series_index>
        
OR
    <variable_name>,<start>,<end>,<step>
  • variable_name - An arbitrary string name for the variable. Use this in the function defined by function_string.
  • input_series_index - The index of a chd data series to use as input data.
  • start - The numeric start value of a range.
  • end - The numeric end value of a range.
  • step - The numeric step value from start to end. Can be positive or negative, but cannot be zero.
Examples: x,0,100,1 declares a variable named x with values 0, 1, 2, ... 100. x,0,100,1;r,0,3.1,.1 declares the same x variable plus a variable named r with values 0, 0.1, 0.2, ..., 3.0, 3.1. x,0 declares a variable named x that uses the data from the first chd series. These variables will be used by function_string. They will not be plotted on the graph unless you specify them in function_string. The smaller the step, the smoother your graph.
<function_string>
Your function, written in the muParser syntax. The function is applied to the variables and data specified in variable_data. You can only reference the variables declared in this local function set, not in another piped set of chfd parameters. Summary muParser functions are not supported (min, max sum, avg). IMPORTANT: Remember to use %2B instead of + in your functions!

 

Examples

Description Example

A simple sine wave. Some things to notice:

  • chd=t:-1 - We use a dummy variable for the chart data, because our data is declared in the chfd parameter.
  • chco=FF0000 - Red is specified for the first series. Even though we don't use the data from chd, the corresponding color for that series will be used for that plotted function.
  • chfd=0,x,0,11,0.1,sin(x)*50%2B50 - We declare one variable, called x, with values 0—11, incremented by 0.1. It is assigned to the first series, which means it will get the first series color (FF0000). The function applied to x is sin(x) * 50 + 50. Note how we must encode the + in that function.

 

Sine wave specified by chfd
cht=lc
chd=t:-1
chco=FF0000
chfd=
  0,x,0,11,0.1,sin(x)*50%2B50
chxt=x,y
This line uses data from the chd parameter. A function that runs over chd data.
chd=t:5,10
chfd=0,x,0,x*4

A mix of function and non-function lines.

Notice how the colors are specified by the series color parameter chco.

Notice the placement of markers on the function output; the data points are calculated from start, end, and step, so if your range is 0—11 step 0.1, point 0 is 0, point 1 is 0.1 and so on, until point 110, which has a value of 11.

One series using chfd, one using chd for its data.
chd=t:
  -1
  15,45
chco=
  FF0000,000000
chfd=
  0,x,0,11,0.1,sin(x)*50%2B50
chm=
  c,00A5C6,0,110,10
  a,00A5C6,0,60,10

To define a function in two dimensions, use an lxy chart, assign two dummy series, and assign a function to each.

  • 0,x,0,10,0.1,sin(x)*50%2B50 - Series 0 (the x-axis values) has a variable named x, with values from 0—10, step 0.1, and a function sin(x)*50 + 50
  • 0,y,0,10,0.1,sin(y)*50%2B50 - Series 0 (the y-axis values) has a variable named y, with values from 0—10, step 0.1, and a function sin(x)*50 + 50
A circle
cht=lxy
chd=t:-1|-1
chfd=
  0,x,0,10,0.1,sin(x)*50%2B50|
  1,y,0,10,0.1,cos(y)*50%2B50

The chfd parameter can really let you express your creativity.

Try clicking these images to open and play with them in the chart playground; you'll get hooked!



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