Google App Engine

NDB Functions

Functions

ndb.add_flow_exception(exc)
Specify that an exception should not be logged, but is just part of normal program flow. (Normally, raising an exception writes a warning message to the application's logs.)

Arguments

exc
Exception class that should not be logged.

By default, the following exceptions are not logged:

  • webob.exc.HTTPException (and its subclasses)
  • ndb.Rollback
ndb.delete_multi(keys, **ctx_options)
Deletes entities identified by the passed sequence of keys.

Arguments

keys
Sequence of keys
**ctx_options
Context options
ndb.delete_multi_async(keys, **ctx_options)
Asynchronously deletes entities identified by the passed sequence of keys.

Arguments

keys
Sequence of keys
**ctx_options
Context options

Returns a list of Future objects. Each future's result will be None.

ndb.get_multi(keys, **ctx_options)
Fetches entities identified by the passed sequence of keys.

Arguments

keys
Sequence of keys
**ctx_options
Context options

Returns a list. Each list item is either a Model instance or None if the key wasn't found.

ndb.get_multi_async(keys, **ctx_options)
Asynchronously fetches entities identified by the passed sequence of keys.

Arguments

keys
Sequence of keys
**ctx_options
Context options

Returns a list of Future objects. Each future's result is a Model instance or None if the key wasn't found.

ndb.in_transaction()
Returns a Boolean indicating whether a transaction is currently active.
@ndb.non_transactional
@ndb.non_transactional(allow_existing=True)
Decorator to ensure that a function runs outside a transaction.

Arguments:

allow_existing
If True (the default) and if the decorated function is called by code in a transaction, the function runs independent of the transaction. If False and if the decorated function is called by code in a transaction, it raises an exception.
ndb.put_multi(entities, **ctx_options)
Stores a sequence of Model instances.

Arguments

entities
Sequence of Model instances
**ctx_options
Context options

Returns a list with the stored keys.

ndb.put_multi_async(entities, **ctx_options)
Asynchronously stores a sequence of Model instances.

Arguments

entities
Sequence of Model instances
**ctx_options
Context options

Returns a list of Future objects. Each future's result will be a stored key.

ndb.transaction(callback, **ctx_options)
Run a callback in a transaction.

Arguments

callback
Function or tasklet to be called
**ctx_options
Transaction options

Returns whatever callback returns. Raises whatever callback raises or a TransactionFailedError exception if the transaction failed.

To pass arguments to a callback function, use a lambda. For example,

def my_callback(key, inc):
  ...

transaction(lambda: my_callback(Key(...), 1))
ndb.transaction_async(callback, **ctx_options)
Asynchronously run a callback in a transaction.

Arguments

callback
Function or tasklet to be called
**ctx_options
Transaction options

Returns a Future. The future's result is whatever callback returns; or raises whatever callback raises or a TransactionFailedError if the transaction failed.

To pass arguments to a callback function, use a lambda. For example,

def my_callback(key, inc):
  ...

transaction(lambda: my_callback(Key(...), 1))
@ndb.transactional
@ndb.transactional(**ctx_options)
Decorator to make a function automatically run in a transaction.

Arguments:

This decorator can have transaction options

Context Options, Transaction Options

Context options allow you to run specific datastore operations with different configurations. For example, you might want to vary the read policy or the RPC deadline for individual requests. You can do this by passing context options to almost any operation. Some transaction-related functions take transaction options, which include additional options on top of a set of context options. Here are a few examples using context options. To set the RPC deadline to 1 second when reading an entity, you can use:

key.get(deadline=1)

To set the memcache timeout to 30 seconds when writing an entity, you can use:

ent.put(ndb_memcache_timeout=30)

To delete an item that has been cashed and force its reload, you can use:

key.delete(use_datastore=False)

The special keyword arguments options and config (which have identical meanings for historical reasons) allow one to specify several options as a Configuration object. This can be an ndb.ContextOptions object or (for the transactional functions and decorator) an ndb.TransactionOptions object. For example, key.get(options=ndb.ContextOptions(use_cache=True)) is equivalent to key.get(use_cache=True). The options set in such an options object can be overridden by keyword parameters.

The following context options are available

Option Type Description
deadline float Datastore call deadline, specified as a number of seconds. (By default, the call is only interrupted by the request handler deadline.)
read_policy ndb.EVENTUAL_CONSISTENCY Set this to ndb.EVENTUAL_CONSISTENCY if, instead of waiting for the Datastore to finish applying changes to all returned results, you wish to get possibly-not-current results faster.
force_writes bool If a write request should succeed even if the app is read-only. (This only applies to user controlled read-only periods.)
use_cache bool Specifies whether to store entities in in-process cache; overrides in-process cache policy for this operation.
use_memcache bool Specifies whether to store entities in memcache; overrides memcache policy for this operation.
use_datastore bool Specifies whether to store entities in Datastore; overrides Datastore policy for this operation.
memcache_timeout int Maximum lifetime for entities in memcache; overrides memcache timeout policy for this operation.
max_memcache_items int Maximum batch size for the auto-batching feature of the Context memcache methods. For example, with the default size of max_memcache_items (100), up to 100 memcache set operations will be combined into a single set_multi operation.

For some transaction-related functions, the following transaction options are available (along with the inherited context options listed above)

Option Type Description
xg bool Allow cross-group (XG) transactions. False by default.
propagation int What to do if the code tries to start a transaction while already in a transaction, ALLOWED by default. (Except that for the function ndb.transaction(), NESTED is the default) One of the following values:
ndb.TransactionOptions.NESTED
Create a nested transaction under an existing one. (Not yet supported.)
ndb.TransactionOptions.MANDATORY
Always propagate an exsiting transaction; throw an exception if there is no exsiting transaction. If a function that uses this policy throws an exception, it's probably not safe to catch the exception and commit the outer transaction; the function may have left the outer transaction in a bad state.
ndb.TransactionOptions.ALLOWED
If there is an existing transaction, propagate it. If a function that uses this policy throws an exception, it's probably not safe to catch the exception and commit the outer transaction; the function may have left the outer transaction in a bad state.
ndb.TransactionOptions.INDEPENDENT
Always use a new transaction, "pausing" any existing transactions. A function that uses this policy should not return any entities read in the new transaction, as the entities are not transactionally consistent with the caller's transaction.
retries int How many times to retry automatically in case of transaction failures. Zero means to try once but not re-try.

In some cases, options are ignored because of caching. For example, if you specify an RPC deadline for a read operation that is satisfied from the in-context cache, the deadline is ignored. On the other hand, unrecognized options cause TypeError to be raised.

Operations with different options are grouped together when auto-batching applies. For example, if you use put_async() to write some entities with deadline = 5 and some without specifying a deadline, and all are eligible for auto-batching, the auto-batcher will make two separate RPC calls—one for the group of entities with deadline = 5 and one for the other group—even though the default RPC deadline is also 5! This applies even if the option specified is irrelevant to the RPC operation (for example, ndb_should_cache).

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