Replacing a hot path in your app's JavaScript with WebAssembly

It's consistently fast, yo.

In my previous articles I talked about how WebAssembly allows you to bring the library ecosystem of C/C++ to the web. One app that makes extensive use of C/C++ libraries is squoosh, our web app that allows you compress images with a variety of codecs that have been compiled from C++ to WebAssembly.

WebAssembly is a low-level virtual machine that runs the bytecode that is stored in .wasm files. This byte code is strongly typed and structured in such a way that it can be compiled and optimized for the host system much quicker than JavaScript can. WebAssembly provides an environment to run code that had sandboxing and embedding in mind from the very start.

In my experience, most performance problems on the web are caused by forced layout and excessive paint but every now and then an app needs to do a computationally expensive task that takes a lot of time. WebAssembly can help here.

The Hot Path

In squoosh we wrote a JavaScript function that rotates an image buffer by multiples of 90 degrees. While OffscreenCanvas would be ideal for this, it isn't supported across the browsers we were targeting, and a little buggy in Chrome.

This function iterates over every pixel of an input image and copies it to a different position in the output image to achieve rotation. For a 4094px by 4096px image (16 megapixels) it would need over 16 million iterations of the inner code block, which is what we call a "hot path". Despite that rather big number of iterations, two out of three browsers we tested finish the task in 2 seconds or less. An acceptable duration for this type of interaction.

for (let d2 = d2Start; d2 >= 0 && d2 < d2Limit; d2 += d2Advance) {
  for (let d1 = d1Start; d1 >= 0 && d1 < d1Limit; d1 += d1Advance) {
    const in_idx = ((d1 * d1Multiplier) + (d2 * d2Multiplier));
    outBuffer[i] = inBuffer[in_idx];
    i += 1;

One browser, however, takes over 8 seconds. The way browsers optimize JavaScript is really complicated, and different engines optimize for different things. Some optimize for raw execution, some optimize for interaction with the DOM. In this case, we've hit an unoptimized path in one browser.

WebAssembly on the other hand is built entirely around raw execution speed. So if we want fast, predictable performance across browsers for code like this, WebAssembly can help.

WebAssembly for predictable performance

In general, JavaScript and WebAssembly can achieve the same peak performance. However, for JavaScript this performance can only be reached on the "fast path", and it's often tricky to stay on that "fast path". One key benefit that WebAssembly offers is predictable performance, even across browsers. The strict typing and low-level architecture allows the compiler to make stronger guarantees so that WebAssembly code only has to be optimized once and will always use the “fast path”.

Writing for WebAssembly

Previously we took C/C++ libraries and compiled them to WebAssembly to use their functionality on the web. We didn't really touch the code of the libraries, we just wrote small amounts of C/C++ code to form the bridge between the browser and the library. This time our motivation is different: We want to write something from scratch with WebAssembly in mind so we can make use of the advantages that WebAssembly has.

WebAssembly architecture

When writing for WebAssembly, it's beneficial to understand a bit more about what WebAssembly actually is.

To quote

WebAssembly (abbreviated Wasm) is a binary instruction format for a stack-based virtual machine. Wasm is designed as a portable target for compilation of high-level languages like C/C++/Rust, enabling deployment on the web for client and server applications.

When you compile a piece of C or Rust code to WebAssembly, you get a .wasm file that contains a module declaration. This declaration consists of a list of "imports" the module expects from its environment, a list of exports that this module makes available to the host (functions, constants, chunks of memory) and of course the actual binary instructions for the functions contained within.

Something that I didn't realize until I looked into this: The stack that makes WebAssembly a "stack-based virtual machine" is not stored in the chunk of memory that WebAssembly modules use. The stack is completely VM-internal and inaccessible to web developers (except through DevTools). As such it is possible to write WebAssembly modules that don't need any additional memory at all and only use the VM-internal stack.

In our case we will need to use some additional memory to allow arbitrary access to the pixels of our image and generate a rotated version of that image. This is what WebAssembly.Memory is for.

Memory management

Commonly, once you use additional memory you will find the need to somehow manage that memory. Which parts of the memory are in use? Which ones are free? In C, for example, you have the malloc(n) function that finds a memory space of n consecutive bytes. Functions of this kind are also called "allocators". Of course the implementation of the allocator in use must be included in your WebAssembly module and will increase your file size. This size and performance of these memory management functions can vary quite significantly depending on the algorithm used, which is why many languages offer multiple implementations to choose from ("dmalloc", "emmalloc", "wee_alloc",...).

In our case we know the dimensions of the input image (and therefore the dimensions of the output image) before we run the WebAssembly module. Here we saw an opportunity: Traditionally, we'd pass the input image's RGBA buffer as a parameter to a WebAssembly function and return the rotated image as a return value. To generate that return value we would have to make use of the allocator. But since we know the total amount of memory needed (twice the size of the input image, once for input and once for output), we can put the input image into the WebAssembly memory using JavaScript, run the WebAssembly module to generate a 2nd, rotated image and then use JavaScript to read back the result. We can get away without using any memory management at all!

Spoiled for choice

If you looked at the original JavaScript function that we want to WebAssembly-fy, you can see that it's a purely computational code with no JavaScript-specific APIs. As such it should be fairly straight forward to port this code to any language. We evaluated 3 different languages that compile to WebAssembly: C/C++, Rust and AssemblyScript. The only question we need to answer for each of the languages is: How do we access raw memory without using memory management functions?

C and Emscripten

Emscripten is a C compiler for the WebAssembly target. Emscripten's goal is to function as a drop-in replacement for well-known C compilers like GCC or clang and is mostly flag compatible. This is a core part of the Emscripten's mission as it wants to make compiling existing C and C++ code to WebAssembly as easy as possible.

Accessing raw memory is in the very nature of C and pointers exist for that very reason:

uint8_t* ptr = (uint8_t*)0x124;
ptr[0] = 0xFF;

Here we are turning the number 0x124 into a pointer to unsigned, 8-bit integers (or bytes). This effectively turns the ptr variable into an array starting at memory address 0x124, that we can use like any other array, allowing us to access individual bytes for reading and writing. In our case we are looking at an RGBA buffer of an image that we want to re-order to achieve rotation. To move a pixel we actually need to move 4 consecutive bytes at once (one byte for each channel: R, G, B and A). To make this easier we can create an array of unsigned, 32-bit integers. By convention, our input image will start at address 4 and our output image will start directly after the input image ends:

int bpp = 4;
int imageSize = inputWidth * inputHeight * bpp;
uint32_t* inBuffer = (uint32_t*) 4;
uint32_t* outBuffer = (uint32_t*) (inBuffer + imageSize);

for (int d2 = d2Start; d2 >= 0 && d2 < d2Limit; d2 += d2Advance) {
  for (int d1 = d1Start; d1 >= 0 && d1 < d1Limit; d1 += d1Advance) {
    int in_idx = ((d1 * d1Multiplier) + (d2 * d2Multiplier));
    outBuffer[i] = inBuffer[in_idx];
    i += 1;

After porting the entire JavaScript function to C, we can compile the C file with emcc:

$ emcc -O3 -s ALLOW_MEMORY_GROWTH=1 -o c.js rotate.c

As always, emscripten generates a glue code file called c.js and a wasm module called c.wasm. Note that the wasm module gzips to only ~260 Bytes, while the glue code is around 3.5KB after gzip. After some fiddling, we were able to ditch the glue code and instantiate the WebAssembly modules with the vanilla APIs. This is often possible with Emscripten as long as you are not using anything from the C standard library.


Rust is a new, modern programming language with a rich type system, no runtime and an ownership model that guarantees memory-safety and thread-safety. Rust also supports WebAssembly as a first-class citizen and the Rust team has contributed a lot of excellent tooling to the WebAssembly ecosystem.

One of these tools is wasm-pack, by the rustwasm working group. wasm-pack takes your code and turns it into a web-friendly module that works out-of-the-box with bundlers like webpack. wasm-pack is an extremely convenient experience, but currently only works for Rust. The group is considering to add support for other WebAssembly-targeting languages.

In Rust, slices are what arrays are in C. And just like in C, we need to create slices that use our start addresses. This goes against the memory safety model that Rust enforces, so to get our way we have to use the unsafe keyword, allowing us to write code that doesn't comply with that model.

let imageSize = (inputWidth * inputHeight) as usize;
let inBuffer: &mut [u32];
let outBuffer: &mut [u32];
unsafe {
  inBuffer = slice::from_raw_parts_mut::<u32>(4 as *mut u32, imageSize);
  outBuffer = slice::from_raw_parts_mut::<u32>((imageSize * 4 + 4) as *mut u32, imageSize);

for d2 in 0..d2Limit {
  for d1 in 0..d1Limit {
    let in_idx = (d1Start + d1 * d1Advance) * d1Multiplier + (d2Start + d2 * d2Advance) * d2Multiplier;
    outBuffer[i as usize] = inBuffer[in_idx as usize];
    i += 1;

Compiling the Rust files using

$ wasm-pack build

yields a 7.6KB wasm module with about 100 bytes of glue code (both after gzip).


AssemblyScript is a fairly young project that aims to be a TypeScript-to-WebAssembly compiler. It's important to note, however, that it won't just consume any TypeScript. AssemblyScript uses the same syntax as TypeScript but switches out the standard library for their own. Their standard library models the capabilities of WebAssembly. That means you can't just compile any TypeScript you have lying around to WebAssembly, but it does mean that you don't have to learn a new programming language to write WebAssembly!

for (let d2 = d2Start; d2 >= 0 && d2 < d2Limit; d2 += d2Advance) {
  for (let d1 = d1Start; d1 >= 0 && d1 < d1Limit; d1 += d1Advance) {
    let in_idx = ((d1 * d1Multiplier) + (d2 * d2Multiplier));
    store<u32>(offset + i * 4 + 4, load<u32>(in_idx * 4 + 4));
    i += 1;

Considering the small type surface that our rotate() function has, it was fairly easy to port this code to AssemblyScript. The functions load<T>(ptr: usize) and store<T>(ptr: usize, value: T) are provided by AssemblyScript to access raw memory. To compile our AssemblyScript file, we only need to install the AssemblyScript/assemblyscript npm package and run

$ asc rotate.ts -b assemblyscript.wasm --validate -O3

AssemblyScript will provide us with a ~300 Bytes wasm module and no glue code. The module just works with the vanilla WebAssembly APIs.

WebAssembly Forensics

Rust's 7.6KB is surprisingly big when compared to the 2 other languages. There are a couple of tools in the WebAssembly ecosystem that can help you analyze your WebAssembly files (regardless of the language the got created with) and tell you what is going on and also help you improve your situation.


Twiggy is another tool from Rust's WebAssembly team that extracts a bunch of insightful data from a WebAssembly module. The tool is not Rust-specific and allows you to inspect things like the module's call graph, determine unused or superfluous sections and figure out which sections are contributing to the total file size of your module. The latter can be done with Twiggy's top command:

$ twiggy top rotate_bg.wasm

In this case we can see that a majority of our file size stems from the allocator. That was surprising since our code is not using dynamic allocations. Another big contributing factor is a "function names" subsection.


wasm-strip is a tool from the WebAssembly Binary Toolkit, or wabt for short. It contains a couple of tools that allow you to inspect and manipulate WebAssembly modules. wasm2wat is a disassembler that turns a binary wasm module into a human-readable format. Wabt also contains wat2wasm which allows you to turn that human-readable format back into a binary wasm module. While we did use these two complementary tools to inspect our WebAssembly files, we found wasm-strip to be the most useful. wasm-strip removes unnecessary sections and metadata from a WebAssembly module:

$ wasm-strip rotate_bg.wasm

This reduces the file size of the rust module from 7.5KB to 6.6KB (after gzip).


wasm-opt is a tool from Binaryen. It takes a WebAssembly module and tries to optimize it both for size and performance based only on the bytecode. Some tools like Emscripten already run this tool, some others do not. It's usually a good idea to try and save some additional bytes by using these tools.

wasm-opt -O3 -o rotate_bg_opt.wasm rotate_bg.wasm

With wasm-opt we can shave off another handful of bytes to leave a total of 6.2KB after gzip.


After some consultation and research, we re-wrote our Rust code without using Rust's standard library, using the #![no_std] feature. This also disables dynamic memory allocations altogether, removing the allocator code from our module. Compiling this Rust file with

$ rustc --target=wasm32-unknown-unknown -C opt-level=3 -o rust.wasm

yielded a 1.6KB wasm module after wasm-opt, wasm-strip and gzip. While it is still bigger than the modules generated by C and AssemblyScript, it is small enough to be considered a lightweight.


Before we jump to conclusions based on file size alone — we went on this journey to optimize performance, not file size. So how did we measure performance and what were the results?

How to benchmark

Despite WebAssembly being a low-level bytecode format, it still needs to be sent through a compiler to generate host-specific machine code. Just like JavaScript, the compiler works in multiple stages. Said simply: The first stage is much faster at compiling but tends to generate slower code. Once the module starts running, the browser observes which parts are frequently used and sends those through a more optimizing but slower compiler.

Our use-case is interesting in that the code for rotating an image will be used once, maybe twice. So in the vast majority of cases we will never get the benefits of the optimizing compiler. This is important to keep in mind when benchmarking. Running our WebAssembly modules 10,000 times in a loop would give unrealistic results. To get realistic numbers, we should run the module once and make decisions based on the numbers from that single run.

Performance comparison

These two graphs are different views onto the same data. In the first graph we compare per browser, in the second graph we compare per language used. Please note that I chose a logarithmic timescale. It’s also important that all benchmarks were using the same 16 megapixel test image and the same host machine, except for one browser, which could not be run on the same machine.

Without analyzing these graphs too much, it is clear that we solved our original performance problem: All WebAssembly modules run in ~500ms or less. This confirms what we laid out at the start: WebAssembly gives you predictable performance. No matter which language we choose, the variance between browsers and languages is minimal. To be exact: The standard deviation of JavaScript across all browsers is ~400ms, while the standard deviation of all our WebAssembly modules across all browsers is ~80ms.


Another metric is the amount of effort we had to put in to create and integrate our WebAssembly module into squoosh. It is hard to assign a numeric value to effort, so I won't create any graphs but there are a few things I would like to point out:

AssemblyScript was frictionless. Not only does it allow you to use TypeScript to write WebAssembly, making code-review very easy for my colleagues, but it also produces glue-free WebAssembly modules that are very small with decent performance. The tooling in the TypeScript ecosystem, like prettier and tslint, will likely just work.

Rust in combination with wasm-pack is also extremely convenient, but excels more at bigger WebAssembly projects were bindings and memory management are needed. We had to diverge a bit from the happy-path to achieve a competitive file size.

C and Emscripten created a very small and highly performant WebAssembly module out of the box, but without the courage to jump into glue code and reduce it to the bare necessities the total size (WebAssembly module + glue code) ends up being quite big.


So what language should you use if you have a JS hot path and want to make it faster or more consistent with WebAssembly. As always with performance questions, the answer is: It depends. So what did we ship?

Comparing at the module size / performance tradeoff of the different languages we used, the best choice seems to be either C or AssemblyScript. We decided to ship Rust. There are multiple reasons for this decision: All the codecs shipped in Squoosh so far are compiled using Emscripten. We wanted to broaden our knowledge about the WebAssembly ecosystem and use a different language in production. AssemblyScript is a strong alternative, but the project is relatively young and the compiler isn't as mature as the Rust compiler.

While the difference in file size between Rust and the other languages size looks quite drastic in the scatter graph, it is not that big a deal in reality: Loading 500B or 1.6KB even over 2G takes less than a 1/10th of a second. And Rust will hopefully close the gap in terms of module size soon.

In terms of runtime performance, Rust has a faster average across browsers than AssemblyScript. Especially on bigger projects Rust will be more likely to produce faster code without needing manual code optimizations. But that shouldn't keep you from using what you are most comfortable with.

That all being said: AssemblyScript has been a great discovery. It allows web developers to produce WebAssembly modules without having to learn a new language. The AssemblyScript team has been very responsive and is actively working on improving their toolchain. We will definitely keep an eye on AssemblyScript in the future.

Update: Rust

After publishing this article, Nick Fitzgerald from the Rust team pointed us to their excellent Rust Wasm book, which contains a section on optimizing file size. Following the instructions there (most notably enabling link time optimizations and manual panic handling) allowed us to write “normal” Rust code and go back to using Cargo (the npm of Rust) without bloating the file size. The Rust module ends up with 370B after gzip. For details, please take a look at the PR I opened on Squoosh.

Special thanks to Ashley Williams, Steve Klabnik, Nick Fitzgerald and Max Graey for all their help on this journey.

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