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Workbox Background Sync

What is Workbox Background Sync?

When you send data to a web server, sometimes the requests will fail. It may be because the user has lost connectivity, or it may be because the server is down; in either case you often want to try sending the requests again later.

The new BackgroundSync API is an ideal solution to this problem. When a service worker detects that a network request has failed, it can register to receive a sync event, which gets delivered when the browser thinks connectivity has returned. Note that the sync event can be delivered even if the user has left the application, making it much more effective than the traditional method of retrying failed requests.

Workbox Background Sync is designed to make it easier to use the BackgroundSync API and integrate its usage with other Workbox modules. It also implements a fallback strategy for browsers that don't yet implement BackgroundSync.

Browsers that support the BackgroundSync API will automatically replay failed requests on your behalf at an interval managed by the browser, likely using exponential backoff between replay attempts. In browsers that don't natively support the BackgroundSync API, Workbox Background Sync will automatically attempt a replay whenever your service worker starts up.

Basic Usage

The easiest way to use Background Sync is to use the Plugin that will automatically Queue up failed requests and retry them when future sync events are fired.

const bgSyncPlugin = new workbox.backgroundSync.Plugin('myQueueName', {
  maxRetentionTime: 24 * 60 // Retry for max of 24 Hours (specified in minutes)
});

workbox.routing.registerRoute(
  /\/api\/.*\/*.json/,
  new workbox.strategies.NetworkOnly({
    plugins: [bgSyncPlugin]
  }),
  'POST'
);

Advanced Usage

Workbox Background Sync also provides a Queue class, which you can instantiate and add failed requests to. The failed requests are stored in IndexedDB and are retried when the browser thinks connectivity is restored (i.e. when it receives the sync event).

Creating a Queue

To create a Workbox Background Sync Queue you need to construct it with a queue name (which must be unique to your origin):

const queue = new workbox.backgroundSync.Queue('myQueueName');

The queue name is used as part of the tag name that gets register()-ed by the global SyncManager. It's also used as the Object Store name for the IndexedDB database.

Adding a request to the Queue

Once you've created your Queue instance, you can add failed requests to it. You add failed request by invoking the .pushRequest() method. For example, the following code catches any requests that fail and adds them to the queue:

const queue = new workbox.backgroundSync.Queue('myQueueName');

self.addEventListener('fetch', (event) => {
  // Clone the request to ensure it's safe to read when
  // adding to the Queue.
  const promiseChain = fetch(event.request.clone())
  .catch((err) => {
      return queue.pushRequest({request: event.request});
  });

  event.waitUntil(promiseChain);
});

Once added to the queue, the request is automatically retried when the service worker receives the sync event (which happens when the browser thinks connectivity is restored). Browsers that don't support the BackgroundSync API will retry the queue every time the service worker is started up. This requires the page controlling the service worker to be running, so it won't be quite as effective.

Testing Workbox Background Sync

Sadly, testing BackgroundSync is somewhat unintuitive and difficult for a number of reasons.

The best approach to test your implementation is to do the following:

  1. Load up a page and register your service worker.
  2. Turn off your computer's network or turn off your web server.
    • ⚠️ DO NOT USE CHROME DEVTOOLS OFFLINE ⚠️ The offline checkbox in DevTools only affects requests from the page. Service Worker requests will continue to go through.
  3. Make network requests that should be queued with Workbox Background Sync.
    • You can check the requests have been queued by looking in Chrome DevTools > Application > IndexedDB > workbox-background-sync > requests
  4. Now turn on your network or web server.
  5. Force an early sync event by going to Chrome DevTools > Application > Service Workers, entering the tag name of workbox-background-sync:<your queue name> where <your queue name> should be the name of the queue you set, and then clicking the 'Sync' button.

    Example of Sync button in Chrome DevTools

  6. You should see network requests go through for the failed requests and the IndexedDB data should now be empty since the requests have been successfully replayed.