Reviews

A review is someone's evaluation of something. We support reviews and ratings for a wide range of schema.org types, including businesses, products, and different creative works such as books or movies.

Google displays the following types of reviews in search results:

  • Critic reviews: A snippet from a longer review article that a single editor has created, curated, or compiled for a publisher.
  • Review snippets: A rich snippet of a review or rating markup from a review website, usually an average of the combined rating scores from reviewers. Review snippets appear in Google Search results either under the search result or in the Google Knowledge Cards.

To participate, implement the markup, follow the guidelines for either critic reviews or review snippets, and register your interest in the pilot.

Critic reviews

With your critic reviews displayed prominently in Google Search results, your readers will be able to easily find them and navigate to your website to read the complete reviews. Critic reviews appear in Search results with a snippet from the critic, the critic's name and the publisher icon. You can supply critic reviews for the following content types:

  • Local businesses
  • Movies
  • Books

Critic review examples

Business reviews

Embedded review

You can embed critic reviews inside your business listings. This is useful for sites that provide booking services for many businesses or for business listing aggregators.

Standalone reviews

You can provide standalone review blocks, which is suitable markup for sites that perform no direct function for the business being reviewed, such as news sites.

Critic review guidelines

In addition to the general structured data guidelines, review markup should follow the general guidelines and content-type guidelines listed below.

General

To be eligible for critic reviews, be aware of the following general guidelines:

  • Authoritative human editor(s) must create, curate, or compile content for critic reviews.
  • Refer clearly to a specific product or service. Do this by nesting the review or ratings within the markup of another schema.org type—such as schema.org/Book or schema.org/LocalBusiness —or by using that schema.org typed element as a value for the itemReviewed property.
  • Make sure the reviews and ratings you mark up are readily available to users from the marked-up page. It should be immediately obvious to users that the page has review or ratings content.
  • Provide review and/or rating information about a specific item, not about a category or a list of items. For example, “hotels in Madrid,” “summer dresses,” or “cake recipes” are not specific items. See also our structured data guidelines for multiple entities on the same page.
  • No reviews are shown for adult-related products or services.
  • Single reviewer name needs to be valid. For example, "50% off until Saturday" is not a valid name for a reviewer.
  • Ratings that don't use a 5-point scale: By default, Google assumes that your site uses a 5-point scale, where 5 is the best possible rating and 1 is the worst, but you can use any other scale. If you do, you can mark up the best and worst ratings, and Google will scale that to the 5-star system used in rich snippets.
Local businesses

The following guidelines apply to critic reviews of local businesses:

  • Snippets must not be written or provided by the business or content provider unless they are genuine, independent, and unpaid editorial reviews.
  • Critic reviews must allow for customers to express both positive and negative sentiments. They may not be vetted by the business or restricted by the content provider based on the positive/negative sentiment of the review before submission to Google.
  • Critic reviews cannot be template sentences built from data or automated metrics. For example, the following is not acceptable: "Based on X number of responses, on average people experienced X with this business."
  • Critic reviews for multiple-location businesses such as retail chains or franchises can only be submitted for the specific business location for which they were written. In other words, critic reviews for multiple-location businesses cannot be syndicated or applied to all business locations of the same company.
  • There can't be any commercial agreements (paid or otherwise) to provide critic reviews between the content provider and the reviewed business.
  • Do not include critic reviews that are duplicate or similar across many businesses.
  • Only include critic reviews that have been directly produced by your site, not reviews from third- party sites or syndicated reviews.
Movies and Books

The following guidelines apply to critic reviews of movies and books:

  • The snippet must be an exact excerpt from the long-form body of the review. It should not be the review headline, a question or a teaser.
  • The snippet must clearly indicate an opinion about the review subject. It should not be factual (e.g. "Gravity" is a film by Alfonso Cuarón) or a plot synopsis (e.g. Dr. Ryan Stone is an engineer on her first space mission).
  • The snippet must make sense on its own and should not be confusing to someone who isn't reading the whole article.
  • The snippet must be complete (not cut off, truncated, or ending in elllipses) and well-formed (having correct punctuation and grammar) thought.

Critic review definitions

Common properties

The following properties should be populated for all reviews, regardless of the review subject.

Properties
itemReviewed

Local business, Movie, Book, required

Annotation for the subject being reviewed. See below for details of each type of review.

author

Person or Organization, recommended

The author of the review. The reviewer’s name needs to be a valid name.

author.name

Text, recommended

Name of the author of the review. Provide the full name of the author. The value should be capitalized correctly. Names comprised of entirely uppercase or lowercase letters will be edited such that the first letter of every word is capitalized.

author.sameAs

URL, recommended

URL to a page that unambiguously identified the author, e.g. the author's official website, a profile page, a Wikipedia article.

datePublished

Date, required

Date of the review's first publication, in ISO 8601 date format.

inLanguage

Text, recommended

The BCP-47 language code of the review description, e.g. "ja" is Japanese. Strongly recommended for non-English reviews.

description

Text, required

Snippet from the body of the actual review that captures the author's opinion about the review subject. This snippet will be used on the Google Search result page, as shown in the mocks above. All of the following criteria should be met, else the review will be excluded from the feature.

  • The snippet cannot exceed 200 characters.
  • Use non-smart double quotation marks (") to denote titles, e.g. ""Gravity" is the best movie."
  • Follow the critic review guidelines in the content of the snippet.

publisher

Organization, required

Annotation for the publisher of the review.

publisher.name

Text, required

Name of the publisher of the review, e.g. "The New York Times."

publisher.sameAs

URL, recommended

The URL of the publisher's official website or Wikipedia page.

reviewRating

Rating, recommended

The rating given in this review. A nested Rating or more specific subtype, most typically AggregateRating.

reviewRating.bestRating

Text*

The highest value allowed in this rating system.

* Required if the rating system is not on a 5-point scale. If bestRating is omitted, 5 is assumed.

reviewRating.worstRating Text*

The lowest value allowed in this rating system.

* Required if the rating system is not on a 5-point scale. If worstRating is omitted, 1 is assumed.

reviewRating.ratingValue

Text

The rating given to the reviewed item. Letter grades are allowed, e.g. "B+".

aggregateRating

AggregateRating

Annotation for the average score assigned to the item being reviewed. This typically applies to user ratings rather than professional critic ratings.

aggregateRating.bestRating

Text

The highest value allowed in the reviewer's rating system. If this field is omitted, 5 is assumed. Letter grades are allowed, e.g. "A".

aggregateRating.worstRating

Text

The lowest value allowed in the reviewer's rating system. If this field is omitted, 1 is assumed. Letter grades are allowed, e.g. "C-".

aggregateRating.ratingValue

Text

The average rating given to the reviewed item. Letter grades are allowed, e.g. "B+".

aggregateRating.ratingCount

Number

The number of ratings given to the reviewed item.

URL

URL

Canonical URL of the web page that contains the full text of the review.

  • If no value is provided, Google assumes that the crawled page is the location of the review in its entirety.
  • If your structured data is on a page other than the one containing the full text of the review, or if you have multiple URLs for the full-text review, you must populate this field.
  • The webpage indicated by this field must contain a full-length review that is longer than 300 words.

Review subject properties

In addition to the common properties described above, each review type has specific properties that must be defined.

Local business
Properties
itemReviewed.name Text, required

Name of the business that is the subject of the review.

itemReviewed.sameAs URL, required

URL to a page that unambiguously identifies the business. The official website of the business is strongly preferred.

itemReviewed.address PostalAddress, required

Address of the specific business location.

itemReviewed.address.streetAddress Text, required

Street number, street name, and unit number (if applicable).

itemReviewed.address.addressLocality Text, required

City.

itemReviewed.address.addressRegion Text, required, where applicable

State or province.

itemReviewed.address.postalCode Text, required

Postal or zip code.

itemReviewed.address.addressCountry Text, required

The 2-letter ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code.

itemReviewed.geo GeoCoordinates

Geographic coordinates of the business.

itemReviewed.geo.latitude Numeric, recommended

The latitude of the business location. The precision should be at least 5 decimal places.

itemReviewed.geo.longitude Numeric, recommended

The longitude of the business location. The precision should be at least 5 decimal places.

itemReviewed.telephone Text, recommended

Business phone number, inclusive of country code. Specify the public phone number of the business normally used by customers.

Movie

Review.itemReviewed should be of type Movie and contain the following properties.

Properties
itemReviewed.name Text, Required

Name of the movie that is the subject of the review.

itemReviewed.sameAs URL, Required

URL to a page that unambiguously identifies the movie. URLs to the IMDB page, Wikipedia page, or official website are stongly preferred.

itemReviewed.datePublished Date, recommended

Original theatrical/direct-to-video release date of the movie, in ISO 8601 format.

itemReviewed.director Person, recommended

Annotation for the director of the movie.

itemReviewed.director.name Text, recommended

Name of the director.

itemReviewed.director.sameAs URL, recommended

URL to a page that unambiguously identifies the director. URLs to the IMDB page or Wikipedia page are strongly preferred.

itemReviewed.actor Person

Annotation(s) for main cast of the movie.

itemReviewed.actor.name Text

Name of the actor.

itemReviewed.actor.sameAs URL

URL to a page that unambiguously identifies the actor. URLs to the IMDB page or Wikipedia page are strongly preferred.

Book

Review.itemReviewed should be of type Book and contain the following properties.

Properties
itemReviewed.name Text, Required

Name of the book that is the subject of the review.

itemReviewed.isbn Text, Required

ISBN of the book. In cases where no ISBN exists, use sameAs (see below).

itemReviewed.sameAs URL, Required unless isbn is defined

URL to a page that unambiguously identifies the book. URLs to the Google Play Books page, Wikipedia page, or official website are stongly preferred.

itemReviewed.author PersonRequired

Annotation for the author of the book.

itemReviewed.author.name Text, Required

Name of the director.

itemReviewed.author.sameAs URL, recommended

URL to a page that unambiguously identifies the author. URLs to the Wikipedia page are strongly preferred.

itemReviewed.datePublished Date, recommended

Original publication date of the book, in ISO 8601 format.

Review snippets

When Google finds valid reviews or ratings markup, we may show a rich snippet that includes stars and other summary info from reviews or ratings. In addition to the text of the review, a rating is an evaluation described on a numeric scale (such as 1 to 5). You can supply ratings for the following content types:

  • Local businesses
  • Movies
  • Books
  • Music
  • Products

Review snippet examples

Types of features

Simple review

Shows the key properties for a simple review.

Microdata

RDFa

JSON-LD

Embedded review

You can embed a review into another schema.org type using its review property.

Microdata Example

RDFa Example

JSON-LD Example

Review with rating

You can add ratings to your reviews.

Microdata Example

RDFa Example

JSON-LD Example

Rating types

Aggregate rating

Example of marking up an aggregate rating.

Microdata Example

RDFa Example

JSON-LD Example

Aggregate rating with no best score
Microdata Example

RDFa Example

JSON-LD Example

Review snippet guidelines

In addition to the general structured data guidelines, review markup should follow these additional guidelines.

General

To be eligible for review snippets, be aware of the following general guidelines:

  • Aggregate ratings: An aggregate evaluation of an item by many people should be marked up as a schema.org/AggregateRating. Google may display aggregate ratings as rich snippets or, for certain types of items, answers in search results.

  • Refer clearly to a specific product or service. Do this by nesting the review or ratings within the markup of another schema.org type—such as schema.org/Book or schema.org/LocalBusiness —or by using that schema.org typed element as a value for the itemReviewed property.
  • Make sure the reviews and ratings you mark up are readily available to users from the marked-up page. It should be immediately obvious to users that the page has review or ratings content.
  • Provide review and/or rating information about a specific item, not about a category or a list of items. For example, “hotels in Madrid,” “summer dresses,” or “cake recipes” are not specific items. See also our structured data guidelines for multiple entities on the same page.
  • No reviews are shown for adult-related products or services.
  • Single reviewer name needs to be valid. For example, "50% off until Saturday" is not a valid name for a reviewer.
  • Ratings that don't use a 5-point scale: By default, Google assumes that your site uses a 5-point scale, where 5 is the best possible rating and 1 is the worst, but you can use any other scale. If you do, you can mark up the best and worst ratings, and Google will scale that to the 5-star system used in rich snippets.
Local Businesses

Google may display information from aggregate ratings markup in the Google Knowledge Cards. The following guidelines apply to review snippets in knowledge cards for local businesses:

  • Ratings must be sourced directly from users.
  • Don't rely on human editors to create, curate or compile ratings information for local businesses. These types of reviews are critic reviews.
  • Sites must collect ratings information directly from users and not from other sites.

Review snippet definitions

Common review properties

Properties
itemReviewed

Thing, required*

The item that is being reviewed. This needs to be a valid schema.org type.

* If the review is embedded into another schema.org type using the review property, the itemReviewed property can be omitted.

reviewBody

Text, recommended

The actual body of the review.

author

Person or Organization, required

The author of the review. The reviewer’s name needs to be a valid name.

datePublished

Date, recommended

The date that the review was published, in ISO 8601 date format.

reviewRating

Rating, recommended

The rating given in this review. A nested Rating or more specific subtype, most typically AggregateRating.

reviewRating.ratingValue

Number, recommended

A numerical quality rating for the item.

reviewRating.bestRating

Number, required *

The highest value allowed in this rating system.

* Required if the rating system is not on a 5-point scale. If bestRating is omitted, 5 is assumed.

reviewRating.worstRating

Number, required *

The lowest value allowed in this rating system.

* Required if the rating system is not on a 5-point scale. If worstRating is omitted, 1 is assumed.

publisher

Organization, recommended

The publisher of the review.

Aggregated rating properties

Properties
itemReviewed

Thing, required*

The item that is being rated. This needs to be a valid schema.org type.

* If aggregate rating is embedded into another schema.org type, using aggregateRating property, then there is no need to mark up the itemReviewed property.

ratingCount

Number, required

The total number of ratings for the item on your site. At least one of ratingCount or reviewCount is required.

reviewCount

Number, required

Specifies the number of people who provided a review with or without an accompanying rating. At least one of ratingCount or reviewCount is required.

ratingValue

Number, required

A numerical quality rating for the item.

bestRating

Number, required*

The highest value allowed in this rating system.

* Required if the rating system is not a 5-point scale. If bestRating is omitted, 5 is assumed.

worstRating

Number, required*

The lowest value allowed in this rating system.

* Required if the rating system is not a 5-point scale. If worstRating is omitted, 1 is assumed.

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