Verifying Googlebot and other Google crawlers

You can verify if a web crawler accessing your server really is a Google crawler, such as Googlebot. This is useful if you're concerned that spammers or other troublemakers are accessing your site while claiming to be Googlebot.

Google's crawlers fall into three categories:

Type Description Reverse DNS mask IP ranges
Googlebot The main crawler for Google's search products. Always respects robots.txt rules. crawl-***-***-***-*** or geo-crawl-***-***-***-*** googlebot.json
Special-case crawlers Crawlers that perform specific functions (such as AdsBot), which may or may not respect robots.txt rules. rate-limited-proxy-***-***-***-*** special-crawlers.json
User-triggered fetchers Tools and product functions where the end user triggers a fetch. For example, Google Site Verifier acts on the request of a user. Because the fetch was requested by a user, these fetchers ignore robots.txt rules.
Fetchers controlled by Google originate from IPs in the user-triggered-fetchers-google.json object and resolve to a hostname. IPs in the user-triggered-fetchers.json object resolve to hostnames. These IPs are used, for example, if a site running on Google Cloud (GCP) has a feature that requires fetching external RSS feeds on the request of the user of that site.
***-***-***-*** or google-proxy-***-***-***-*** user-triggered-fetchers.json and user-triggered-fetchers-google.json

There are two methods for verifying Google's crawlers:

  • Manually: For one-off lookups, use command line tools. This method is sufficient for most use cases.
  • Automatically: For large scale lookups, use an automatic solution to match a crawler's IP address against the list of published Googlebot IP addresses.

Use command line tools

  1. Run a reverse DNS lookup on the accessing IP address from your logs, using the host command.
  2. Verify that the domain name is either,, or
  3. Run a forward DNS lookup on the domain name retrieved in step 1 using the host command on the retrieved domain name.
  4. Verify that it's the same as the original accessing IP address from your logs.

Example 1:

host domain name pointer

host has address

Example 2:

host domain name pointer

host has address

Example 3:

host domain name pointer

host has address

Use automatic solutions

Alternatively, you can identify Googlebot by IP address by matching the crawler's IP address to the lists of Google crawlers' and fetchers' IP ranges:

For other Google IP addresses from where your site may be accessed (for example, Apps Scripts), match the accessing IP address against the general list of Google IP addresses. Note that the IP addresses in the JSON files are represented in CIDR format.