Overview of Google crawlers (user agents)

"Crawler" is a generic term for any program (such as a robot or spider) that is used to automatically discover and scan websites by following links from one webpage to another. Google's main crawler is called Googlebot. This table lists information about the common Google crawlers you may see in your referrer logs, and how they should be specified in robots.txt, the robots meta tags, and the X-Robots-Tag HTTP directives.

The following table shows the crawlers used by various products and services at Google:

  • User agent token is used in the User-agent: line in robots.txt to match a crawler type when writing crawl rules for your site. Some crawlers have more than one token, as shown in the table; you need to match only one crawler token for a rule to apply. This list is not complete, but covers most of the crawlers you might see on your website.
  • Full user agent string is a full description of the crawler, and appears in the request and your web logs.
Crawler User agent token (product token) Full user agent string


APIs-Google (+https://developers.google.com/webmasters/APIs-Google.html)



AdsBot Mobile Web Android

(Checks Android web page ad quality)


Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; Android 5.0; SM-G920A) AppleWebKit (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome Mobile Safari (compatible; AdsBot-Google-Mobile; +http://www.google.com/mobile/adsbot.html)

AdsBot Mobile Web

(Checks iPhone web page ad quality)


Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS 9_1 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/601.1.46 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/9.0 Mobile/13B143 Safari/601.1 (compatible; AdsBot-Google-Mobile; +http://www.google.com/mobile/adsbot.html)


(Checks desktop web page ad quality)


AdsBot-Google (+http://www.google.com/adsbot.html)
Googlebot Image
  • Googlebot-Image
  • Googlebot
Googlebot News
  • Googlebot-News
  • Googlebot
Googlebot Video
  • Googlebot-Video
  • Googlebot

Googlebot Desktop


  • Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Googlebot/2.1; +http://www.google.com/bot.html)
  • Mozilla/5.0 AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko; compatible; Googlebot/2.1; +http://www.google.com/bot.html) Chrome/W.X.Y.Z Safari/537.36

    or (rarely used):
  • Googlebot/2.1 (+http://www.google.com/bot.html)

Googlebot Smartphone


Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; Android 6.0.1; Nexus 5X Build/MMB29P) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/W.X.Y.Z Mobile Safari/537.36 (compatible; Googlebot/2.1; +http://www.google.com/bot.html)

Mobile AdSense


(Various mobile device types) (compatible; Mediapartners-Google/2.1; +http://www.google.com/bot.html)

Mobile Apps Android

(Checks Android app page ad quality. Obeys AdsBot-Google robots rules.)





Does not respect robots.txt rules - here's why

FeedFetcher-Google; (+http://www.google.com/feedfetcher.html)

Google Read Aloud


Does not respect robots.txt rules - here's why

Current agents:

  • Desktop agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/41.0.2272.118 Safari/537.36 (compatible; Google-Read-Aloud; +https://developers.google.com/search/docs/advanced/crawling/overview-google-crawlers)
  • Mobile agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; Android 7.0; SM-G930V Build/NRD90M) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/59.0.3071.125 Mobile Safari/537.36 (compatible; Google-Read-Aloud; +https://developers.google.com/search/docs/advanced/crawling/overview-google-crawlers)

Former agent (deprecated): google-speakr

Duplex on the web


May ignore the * wildcard - here's why

Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; Android 8.0; Pixel 2 Build/OPD3.170816.012; DuplexWeb-Google/1.0) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/74.0.3729.131 Mobile Safari/537.36

Google Favicon

(Retrieves favicons for various services)

Google Favicon

For user-initiated requests, ignores robots.txt rules

Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/49.0.2623.75 Safari/537.36 Google Favicon
Web Light


Does not respect robots.txt rules - here's why

Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; Android 4.2.1; en-us; Nexus 5 Build/JOP40D) AppleWebKit/535.19 (KHTML, like Gecko; googleweblight) Chrome/38.0.1025.166 Mobile Safari/535.19
Google StoreBot Storebot-Google

Desktop agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; Storebot-Google/1.0) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/79.0.3945.88 Safari/537.36

Mobile agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; Android 8.0; Pixel 2 Build/OPD3.170816.012; Storebot-Google/1.0) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/81.0.4044.138 Mobile Safari/537.36

User agents in robots.txt

Where several user agents are recognized in the robots.txt file, Google will follow the most specific. If you want all of Google to be able to crawl your pages, you don't need a robots.txt file at all. If you want to block or allow all of Google's crawlers from accessing some of your content, you can do this by specifying Googlebot as the user agent. For example, if you want all your pages to appear in Google Search, and if you want AdSense ads to appear on your pages, you don't need a robots.txt file. Similarly, if you want to block some pages from Google altogether, blocking the Googlebot user agent will also block all Google's other user agents.

But if you want more fine-grained control, you can get more specific. For example, you might want all your pages to appear in Google Search, but you don't want images in your personal directory to be crawled. In this case, use robots.txt to disallow the Googlebot-Image user agent from crawling the files in your personal directory (while allowing Googlebot to crawl all files), like this:

User-agent: Googlebot

User-agent: Googlebot-Image
Disallow: /personal

To take another example, say that you want ads on all your pages, but you don't want those pages to appear in Google Search. Here, you'd block Googlebot, but allow the Mediapartners-Google user agent, like this:

User-agent: Googlebot
Disallow: /

User-agent: Mediapartners-Google

User agents in robots meta tags

Some pages use multiple robots meta tags to specify directives for different crawlers, like this:

<meta name="robots" content="nofollow">
<meta name="googlebot" content="noindex">

In this case, Google will use the sum of the negative directives, and Googlebot will follow both the noindex and nofollow directives. More detailed information about controlling how Google crawls and indexes your site.