Source language support
The currently supported languages are C and C++. The PNaCl toolchain is based on Clang 3.3, which fully supports C++11 and most of C11. A detailed status of the language support is available here.
For information on using languages other than C/C++, see the FAQ section on other languages.
As for the standard libraries, the PNaCl toolchain is currently based on
libstdc++ version 4.6.1, and the
newlib standard C library
(version is available through the macro
libc++ support is also included; see
C++ libraries for more details.
When compiling C/C++ code, the PNaCl toolchain defines the
macro. In addition,
__native_client__ is defined for compatibility
with other NaCl toolchains.
Memory Model and Atomics
Memory Model for Concurrent Operations
The memory model offered by PNaCl relies on the same coding guidelines as the C11/C++11 one: concurrent accesses must always occur through atomic primitives (offered by atomic intrinsics), and these accesses must always occur with the same size for the same memory location. Visibility of stores is provided on a happens-before basis that relates memory locations to each other as the C11/C++11 standards do.
Non-atomic memory accesses may be reordered, separated, elided or fused according to C and C++’s memory model before the pexe is created as well as after its creation.
As in C11/C++11 some atomic accesses may be implemented with locks on
certain platforms. The
ATOMIC_*_LOCK_FREE macros will always be
1, signifying that all types are sometimes lock-free. The
is_lock_free methods and
atomic_is_lock_free will return the
current platform’s implementation at translation time. These macros,
methods and functions are in the C11 header
<stdatomic.h> and the
The PNaCl toolchain supports concurrent memory accesses through legacy
__sync_* builtins, as well as through C11/C++11 atomic
volatile memory accesses can also be used, though these
are discouraged. See Volatile Memory Accesses.
PNaCl supports concurrency and parallelism with some restrictions:
- Threading is explicitly supported and has no restrictions over what prevalent implementations offer. See Threading.
volatileand atomic operations are address-free (operations on the same memory location via two different addresses work atomically), as intended by the C11/C++11 standards. This is critical in supporting synchronous “external modifications” such as mapping underlying memory at multiple locations.
- Inter-process communication through shared memory is currently not supported. See Future Directions.
- Signal handling isn’t supported, PNaCl therefore promotes all primitives to cross-thread (instead of single-thread). This may change at a later date. Note that using atomic operations which aren’t lock-free may lead to deadlocks when handling asynchronous signals. See Future Directions.
- Direct interaction with device memory isn’t supported, and there is no intent to support it. The embedding sandbox’s runtime can offer APIs to indirectly access devices.
Setting up the above mechanisms requires assistance from the embedding sandbox’s runtime (e.g. NaCl’s Pepper APIs), but using them once setup can be done through regular C/C++ code.
Atomic Memory Ordering Constraints
Atomics follow the same ordering constraints as in regular C11/C++11, but all accesses are promoted to sequential consistency (the strongest memory ordering) at pexe creation time. We plan to support more of the C11/C++11 memory orderings in the future.
Some additional restrictions, following the C11/C++11 standards:
- Atomic accesses must at least be naturally aligned.
- Some accesses may not actually be atomic on certain platforms, requiring an implementation that uses global locks.
- An atomic memory location must always be accessed with atomic primitives, and these primitives must always be of the same bit size for that location.
- Not all memory orderings are valid for all atomic operations.
Volatile Memory Accesses
The C11/C++11 standards mandate that
volatile accesses execute in
program order (but are not fences, so other memory operations can
reorder around them), are not necessarily atomic, and can’t be
elided. They can be separated into smaller width accesses.
Before any optimizations occur, the PNaCl toolchain transforms
volatile loads and stores into sequentially consistent
atomic loads and stores, and applies regular compiler optimizations
along the above guidelines. This orders
volatiles according to the
atomic rules, and means that fences (including
act in a better-defined manner. Regular memory accesses still do not
have ordering guarantees with
volatile and atomic accesses, though
the internal representation of
__sync_synchronize attempts to
prevent reordering of memory accesses to objects which may escape.
Relaxed ordering could be used instead, but for the first release it is more conservative to apply sequential consistency. Future releases may change what happens at compile-time, but already-released pexes will continue using sequential consistency.
The PNaCl toolchain also requires that
volatile accesses be at least
naturally aligned, and tries to guarantee this alignment.
The above guarantees ease the support of legacy (i.e. non-C11/C++11) code, and combined with builtin fences these programs can do meaningful cross-thread communication without changing code. They also better reflect the original code’s intent and guarantee better portability.
Threading is explicitly supported through C11/C++11’s threading libraries as well as POSIX threads.
Communication between threads should use atomic primitives as described in Memory Model and Atomics.
PNaCl and NaCl support
longjmp without any
restrictions beyond C’s.
Inline assembly isn’t supported by PNaCl because it isn’t portable. The
one current exception is the common compiler barrier idiom
asm("":::"memory"), which gets transformed to a sequentially
consistent memory barrier (equivalent to
PNaCl this barrier is only guaranteed to order
volatile and atomic
memory accesses, though in practice the implementation attempts to also
prevent reordering of memory accesses to objects which may escape.
NaCl supports a fairly wide subset of inline assembly through GCC’s inline assembly syntax, with the restriction that the sandboxing model for the target architecture has to be respected.
PNaCl currently doesn’t support SIMD. We plan to add SIMD support in the very near future.
NaCl supports SIMD.
Inter-process communication through shared memory is currently not
supported by PNaCl/NaCl. When implemented, it may be limited to
operations which are lock-free on the current platform (
methods). It will rely on the address-free properly discussed in Memory
Model for Concurrent Operations.
Signal handling from user code currently isn’t supported by PNaCl. When
supported, the impact of
volatile and atomics for same-thread signal
handling will need to be carefully detailed.
NaCl supports signal handling.
PNaCl currently doesn’t support exception handling. It supports the
-fno-exceptions flag, and by default it transforms all
throw statements into
abort. We plan to add exception-handling
support in the very near future, and zero-cost exception handling soon
NaCl supports exception handling.
PNaCl currently doesn’t support computed
goto, a non-standard
extension to C used by some interpreters.
NaCl supports computed