Collegamento dell'Account Google con OAuth

Gli account sono collegati utilizzando i flussi OAuth 2.0 implicit e codice di autorizzazione standard del settore. Il servizio deve supportare gli endpoint di autorizzazione e di scambio di token conformi a OAuth 2.0.

In the implicit flow, Google opens your authorization endpoint in the user's browser. After successful sign in, you return a long-lived access token to Google. This access token is now included in every request sent from Google.

In the authorization code flow, you need two endpoints:

  • The authorization endpoint, which presents the sign-in UI to your users that aren't already signed in. The authorization endpoint also creates a short-lived authorization code to record users' consent to the requested access.

  • The token exchange endpoint, which is responsible for two types of exchanges:

    1. Exchanges an authorization code for a long-lived refresh token and a short-lived access token. This exchange happens when the user goes through the account linking flow.
    2. Exchanges a long-lived refresh token for a short-lived access token. This exchange happens when Google needs a new access token because the one it had expired.

Choose an OAuth 2.0 flow

Although the implicit flow is simpler to implement, Google recommends that access tokens issued by the implicit flow never expire. This is because the user is forced to link their account again after a token expires with the implicit flow. If you need token expiration for security reasons, we strongly recommend that you use the authorization code flow instead.

Design guidelines

This section describes the design requirements and recommendations for the user screen that you host for OAuth linking flows. After it's called by Google's app, your platform displays a sign in to Google page and account linking consent screen to the user. The user is directed back to Google's app after giving their consent to link accounts.

This figure shows the steps for a user to link their Google account
            to your authentication system. The first screenshot shows
            user-initiated linking from your platform. The second image shows
            user sign-in to Google, while the third shows the user consent and
            confirmation for linking their Google account with your app. The
            final screenshot shows a successfully linked user account in the
            Google app.
Figure 1. Account linking user sign in to Google and consent screens.

Requirements

  1. You must communicate that the user’s account will be linked to Google, not a specific Google product like Google Home or Google Assistant.

Recommendations

We recommend that you do the following:

  1. Display Google's Privacy Policy. Include a link to Google’s Privacy Policy on the consent screen.

  2. Data to be shared. Use clear and concise language to tell the user what data of theirs Google requires and why.

  3. Clear call-to-action. State a clear call-to-action on your consent screen, such as “Agree and link.” This is because users need to understand what data they're required to share with Google to link their accounts.

  4. Ability to cancel. Provide a way for users to go back or cancel, if they choose not to link.

  5. Clear sign-in process. Ensure that users have clear method for signing in to their Google account, such as fields for their username and password or Sign in with Google.

  6. Ability to unlink. Offer a mechanism for users to unlink, such as a URL to their account settings on your platform. Alternatively, you can include a link to Google Account where users can manage their linked account.

  7. Ability to change user account. Suggest a method for users to switch their account(s). This is especially beneficial if users tend to have multiple accounts.

    • If a user must close the consent screen to switch accounts, send a recoverable error to Google so the user can sign in to the desired account with OAuth linking and the implicit flow.
  8. Include your logo. Display your company logo on the consent screen. Use your style guidelines to place your logo. If you wish to also display Google's logo, see Logos and trademarks.

Crea il progetto

Per creare il progetto da utilizzare il collegamento dell'account:

  1. Go to the Google API Console.
  2. Fai clic su Crea progetto .
  3. Inserisci un nome o accetta il suggerimento generato.
  4. Conferma o modifica tutti i campi rimanenti.
  5. Fai clic su Crea .

Per visualizzare l'ID del progetto:

  1. Go to the Google API Console.
  2. Trova il tuo progetto nella tabella nella pagina di destinazione. L'ID progetto viene visualizzato nella colonna ID .

Il processo di collegamento dell'Account Google include una schermata per il consenso che indica agli utenti l'applicazione che richiede l'accesso ai loro dati, il tipo di dati richiesti e i termini applicabili. Prima di generare un ID client API di Google, devi configurare la schermata per il consenso OAuth.

  1. Apri la pagina Schermata consenso OAuth della console API di Google.
  2. Se richiesto, seleziona il progetto appena creato.
  3. Nella pagina "Schermata consenso OAuth", compila il modulo e fai clic sul pulsante "Salva".

    Nome applicazione: il nome dell'applicazione che richiede il consenso. Il nome deve riflettere accuratamente la tua applicazione ed essere coerente con il nome dell'applicazione che gli utenti vedono altrove. Il nome dell'applicazione verrà visualizzato nella schermata per il consenso al collegamento dell'account.

    Logo dell'applicazione: un'immagine sulla schermata per il consenso che aiuterà gli utenti a riconoscere la tua app. Il logo viene mostrato nella schermata per il consenso per il collegamento dell'account e nelle impostazioni account

    Email dell'assistenza: consente agli utenti di contattarti se hanno domande sul loro consenso.

    Ambiti per le API di Google:gli ambiti consentono all'applicazione di accedere ai dati privati di Google dell'utente. Per il caso d'uso del collegamento dell'Account Google, l'ambito predefinito (email, profilo, openid) è sufficiente e non è necessario aggiungere ambiti sensibili. Una best practice consiste generalmente nel richiedere gli ambiti in modo incrementale, nel momento in cui è richiesto l'accesso, anziché in anticipo. Scopri di più.

    Domini autorizzati: per proteggere te e i tuoi utenti, Google consente l'utilizzo dei domini autorizzati solo alle applicazioni che si autenticano tramite OAuth. I link delle tue applicazioni devono essere ospitati su domini autorizzati. Scopri di più.

    Link alla home page dell'applicazione: home page della tua applicazione. Deve essere ospitato su un dominio autorizzato.

    Link alle Norme sulla privacy dell'applicazione:mostrato nella schermata per il consenso al collegamento dell'Account Google. Deve essere ospitato su un dominio autorizzato.

    Link ai Termini di servizio dell'applicazione (facoltativo): deve essere ospitato su un dominio autorizzato.

    Figura 1. Schermata di consenso al collegamento dell'Account Google per un'applicazione fittizia, Tunery

  4. Seleziona lo "Stato di verifica" se la tua richiesta richiede una verifica, quindi fai clic sul pulsante "Invia per la verifica" per inviarla per la verifica. Per maggiori dettagli, consulta i requisiti di verifica OAuth.

Implementare il server OAuth

To support the OAuth 2.0 implicit flow, your service makes an authorization endpoint available by HTTPS. This endpoint is responsible for authentication and obtaining consent from users for data access. The authorization endpoint presents a sign-in UI to your users that aren't already signed in and records consent to the requested access.

When a Google application needs to call one of your service's authorized APIs, Google uses this endpoint to get permission from your users to call these APIs on their behalf.

A typical OAuth 2.0 implicit flow session initiated by Google has the following flow:

  1. Google opens your authorization endpoint in the user's browser. The user signs in, if not signed in already, and grants Google permission to access their data with your API, if they haven't already granted permission.
  2. Your service creates an access token and returns it to Google. To do so, redirect the user's browser back to Google with the access token attached to the request.
  3. Google calls your service's APIs and attaches the access token with each request. Your service verifies that the access token grants Google authorization to access the API and then completes the API call.

Handle authorization requests

When a Google application needs to perform account linking via an OAuth 2.0 implicit flow, Google sends the user to your authorization endpoint with a request that includes the following parameters:

Authorization endpoint parameters
client_id The client ID you assigned to Google.
redirect_uri The URL to which you send the response to this request.
state A bookkeeping value that is passed back to Google unchanged in the redirect URI.
response_type The type of value to return in the response. For the OAuth 2.0 implicit flow, the response type is always token.
user_locale The Google Account language setting in RFC5646 format used to localize your content in the user's preferred language.

For example, if your authorization endpoint is available at https://myservice.example.com/auth, a request might look like the following:

GET https://myservice.example.com/auth?client_id=GOOGLE_CLIENT_ID&redirect_uri=REDIRECT_URI&state=STATE_STRING&response_type=token&user_locale=LOCALE

For your authorization endpoint to handle sign-in requests, do the following steps:

  1. Verify the client_id and redirect_uri values to prevent granting access to unintended or misconfigured client apps:

    • Confirm that the client_id matches the client ID you assigned to Google.
    • Confirm that the URL specified by the redirect_uri parameter has the following form:
      https://oauth-redirect.googleusercontent.com/r/YOUR_PROJECT_ID
      https://oauth-redirect-sandbox.googleusercontent.com/r/YOUR_PROJECT_ID
      
  2. Check if the user is signed in to your service. If the user isn't signed in, complete your service's sign-in or sign-up flow.

  3. Generate an access token for Google to use to access your API. The access token can be any string value, but it must uniquely represent the user and the client the token is for and must not be guessable.

  4. Send an HTTP response that redirects the user's browser to the URL specified by the redirect_uri parameter. Include all of the following parameters in the URL fragment:

    • access_token: The access token you just generated
    • token_type: The string bearer
    • state: The unmodified state value from the original request

    The following is an example of the resulting URL:

    https://oauth-redirect.googleusercontent.com/r/YOUR_PROJECT_ID#access_token=ACCESS_TOKEN&token_type=bearer&state=STATE_STRING

Google's OAuth 2.0 redirect handler receives the access token and confirms that the state value hasn't changed. After Google has obtained an access token for your service, Google attaches the token to subsequent calls to your service APIs.

Handle userinfo requests

The userinfo endpoint is an OAuth 2.0 protected resource that return claims about the linked user. Implementing and hosting the userinfo endpoint is optional, except for the following use cases:

After the access token has been successfully retrieved from your token endpoint, Google sends a request to your userinfo endpoint to retrieve basic profile information about the linked user.

userinfo endpoint request headers
Authorization header The access token of type Bearer.

For example, if your userinfo endpoint is available at https://myservice.example.com/userinfo, a request might look like the following:

GET /userinfo HTTP/1.1
Host: myservice.example.com
Authorization: Bearer ACCESS_TOKEN

For your userinfo endpoint to handle requests, do the following steps:

  1. Extract access token from the Authorization header and return information for the user associated with the access token.
  2. If the access token is invalid, return an HTTP 401 Unauthorized error with using the WWW-Authenticate Response Header. Below is an example of a userinfo error response:
    HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
    WWW-Authenticate: error="invalid_token",
    error_description="The Access Token expired"
    
    If a 401 Unauthorized, or any other unsuccessful error response is returned during the linking process, the error will be non-recoverable, the retrieved token will be discarded and the user will have to initiate the linking process again.
  3. If the access token is valid, return and HTTP 200 response with the following JSON object in the body of the HTTPS response:

    {
    "sub": "USER_UUID",
    "email": "EMAIL_ADDRESS",
    "given_name": "FIRST_NAME",
    "family_name": "LAST_NAME",
    "name": "FULL_NAME",
    "picture": "PROFILE_PICTURE",
    }
    
    If your userinfo endpoint returns an HTTP 200 success response, the retrieved token and claims are registered against the user's Google account.

    userinfo endpoint response
    sub A unique ID that identifies the user in your system.
    email Email address of the user.
    given_name Optional: First name of the user.
    family_name Optional: Last name of the user.
    name Optional: Full name of the user.
    picture Optional: Profile picture of the user.

Convalidare l'implementazione

È possibile convalidare l'implementazione utilizzando il parco giochi OAuth 2.0 strumento.

Nello strumento, eseguire le seguenti operazioni:

  1. Fare clic su Configurazione per aprire la finestra di configurazione OAuth 2.0.
  2. Nel campo di flusso OAuth, selezionare sul lato client.
  3. Nel campo OAuth endpoint, selezionare Personalizzato.
  4. Specifica il tuo endpoint OAuth 2.0 e l'ID client che hai assegnato a Google nei campi corrispondenti.
  5. Nella sezione Passaggio 1, non selezionare tutti gli ambiti di Google. Lascia invece vuoto questo campo o digita un ambito valido per il tuo server (o una stringa arbitraria se non utilizzi gli ambiti OAuth). Quando hai finito, clicca API Autorizza.
  6. Nelle sezioni Fase 2 e Fase 3, passare attraverso il flusso OAuth 2.0 e verificare che ogni passo funziona come previsto.

È possibile convalidare l'implementazione utilizzando l' account Google Linking Demo strumento.

Nello strumento, eseguire le seguenti operazioni:

  1. Fare clic sul segno-in con pulsante di Google.
  2. Scegli l'account che desideri collegare.
  3. Inserisci l'ID del servizio.
  4. Facoltativamente, inserisci uno o più ambiti per i quali richiedere l'accesso.
  5. Fare clic su Start Demo.
  6. Quando richiesto, conferma che puoi acconsentire e negare la richiesta di collegamento.
  7. Conferma di essere reindirizzato alla tua piattaforma.