Vinculação de Conta do Google com OAuth

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As contas são vinculadas usando fluxos implícitos e de código de autorização padrão do setor 2.0. Seu serviço precisa ser compatível com endpoints de autorização e troca de tokens compatíveis com o OAuth 2.0.

In the implicit flow, Google opens your authorization endpoint in the user's browser. After successful sign in, you return a long-lived access token to Google. This access token is now included in every request sent from Google.

In the authorization code flow, you need two endpoints:

  • The authorization endpoint, which presents the sign-in UI to your users that aren't already signed in. The authorization endpoint also creates a short-lived authorization code to record users' consent to the requested access.

  • The token exchange endpoint, which is responsible for two types of exchanges:

    1. Exchanges an authorization code for a long-lived refresh token and a short-lived access token. This exchange happens when the user goes through the account linking flow.
    2. Exchanges a long-lived refresh token for a short-lived access token. This exchange happens when Google needs a new access token because the one it had expired.

Choose an OAuth 2.0 flow

Although the implicit flow is simpler to implement, Google recommends that access tokens issued by the implicit flow never expire. This is because the user is forced to link their account again after a token expires with the implicit flow. If you need token expiration for security reasons, we strongly recommend that you use the authorization code flow instead.

Design guidelines

This section describes the design requirements and recommendations for the user screen that you host for OAuth linking flows. After it's called by Google's app, your platform displays a sign in to Google page and account linking consent screen to the user. The user is directed back to Google's app after giving their consent to link accounts.

This figure shows the steps for a user to link their Google account
            to your authentication system. The first screenshot shows
            user-initiated linking from your platform. The second image shows
            user sign-in to Google, while the third shows the user consent and
            confirmation for linking their Google account with your app. The
            final screenshot shows a successfully linked user account in the
            Google app.
Figure 1. Account linking user sign in to Google and consent screens.

Requirements

  1. You must communicate that the user’s account will be linked to Google, not a specific Google product like Google Home or Google Assistant.

Recommendations

We recommend that you do the following:

  1. Display Google's Privacy Policy. Include a link to Google’s Privacy Policy on the consent screen.

  2. Data to be shared. Use clear and concise language to tell the user what data of theirs Google requires and why.

  3. Clear call-to-action. State a clear call-to-action on your consent screen, such as “Agree and link.” This is because users need to understand what data they're required to share with Google to link their accounts.

  4. Ability to cancel. Provide a way for users to go back or cancel, if they choose not to link.

  5. Clear sign-in process. Ensure that users have clear method for signing in to their Google account, such as fields for their username and password or Sign in with Google.

  6. Ability to unlink. Offer a mechanism for users to unlink, such as a URL to their account settings on your platform. Alternatively, you can include a link to Google Account where users can manage their linked account.

  7. Ability to change user account. Suggest a method for users to switch their account(s). This is especially beneficial if users tend to have multiple accounts.

    • If a user must close the consent screen to switch accounts, send a recoverable error to Google so the user can sign in to the desired account with OAuth linking and the implicit flow.
  8. Include your logo. Display your company logo on the consent screen. Use your style guidelines to place your logo. If you wish to also display Google's logo, see Logos and trademarks.

Criar o projeto

Para criar um projeto e usar a vinculação de conta:

  1. Go to the Google API Console.
  2. Clique em Criar projeto .
  3. Digite um nome ou aceite a sugestão gerada.
  4. Confirme ou edite os campos restantes.
  5. Clique em Create .

Para visualizar o seu ID do projeto:

  1. Go to the Google API Console.
  2. Encontre seu projeto na tabela na página de destino. O ID do projeto aparece na coluna ID .

O processo de Vinculação da Conta do Google inclui uma tela de consentimento que informa aos usuários o aplicativo que solicita acesso aos dados deles, que tipo de dados eles estão solicitando e os termos aplicáveis. É necessário configurar a tela de permissão OAuth antes de gerar um ID do cliente da API do Google.

  1. Abra a página da Tela de permissão OAuth do Console de APIs do Google.
  2. Se solicitado, selecione o projeto que você acabou de criar.
  3. Na página "Tela de consentimento OAuth", preencha o formulário e clique no botão "Salvar".

    Nome do aplicativo: é o nome do aplicativo que está solicitando o consentimento. O nome precisa refletir com precisão o aplicativo e ser consistente com o nome do aplicativo que os usuários veem em outro lugar. O nome do aplicativo será mostrado na tela de consentimento de vinculação de contas.

    Logotipo de app:uma imagem na tela de consentimento que ajuda os usuários a reconhecer o app. O logotipo é mostrado na tela de consentimento de vinculação de contas e nas configurações da conta.

    E-mail de suporte: para que os usuários entrem em contato com você em caso de dúvidas sobre o consentimento.

    Escopos das APIs do Google: os escopos permitem que o aplicativo acesse dados particulares do Google do usuário. Para o caso de uso da vinculação de Contas do Google, o escopo padrão (e-mail, perfil, openid) é suficiente, não é necessário adicionar escopos confidenciais. Geralmente, é uma prática recomendada solicitar escopos incrementalmente, no momento em que o acesso é necessário, em vez de antecipado. Saiba mais.

    Domínios autorizados:para proteger você e seus usuários, o Google só permite que apps autenticados com OAuth usem domínios autorizados. Os links dos seus aplicativos precisam ser hospedados nos domínios autorizados. Saiba mais.

    Link da página inicial do aplicativo:página inicial do seu aplicativo. Precisa estar hospedado em um domínio autorizado.

    Link da Política de Privacidade do aplicativo: exibido na tela de consentimento para vinculação de contas do Google. Precisa estar hospedado em um domínio autorizado.

    Link dos Termos de Serviço do aplicativo (opcional): precisa ser hospedado em um domínio autorizado.

    Figura 1. Tela de consentimento para vinculação de Contas do Google para um aplicativo fictício, Tunery

  4. Marque o "Status de verificação" se o seu aplicativo precisar de verificação, clique no botão "Enviar para verificação" e envie seu aplicativo para verificação. Consulte os requisitos de verificação do OAuth para saber mais detalhes.

Implementar o servidor OAuth

An OAuth 2.0 server implementation of the authorization code flow consists of two endpoints, which your service makes available by HTTPS. The first endpoint is the authorization endpoint, which is responsible for finding or obtaining consent from users for data access. The authorization endpoint presents a sign-in UI to your users that aren't already signed in and records consent to the requested access. The second endpoint is the token exchange endpoint, which is used to obtain encrypted strings, called tokens, that authorize a user to access your service.

When a Google application needs to call one of your service's APIs, Google uses these endpoints together to get permission from your users to call these APIs on their behalf.

An OAuth 2.0 authorization code flow session initiated by Google has the following flow:

  1. Google opens your authorization endpoint in the user's browser. If the flow started on a voice-only device for an Action, Google transfers the execution to a phone.
  2. The user signs in, if not signed in already, and grants Google permission to access their data with your API, if they haven't already granted permission.
  3. Your service creates an authorization code and returns it to Google. To do so, redirect the user's browser back to Google with the authorization code attached to the request.
  4. Google sends the authorization code to your token exchange endpoint, which verifies the authenticity of the code and returns an access token and a refresh token. The access token is a short-lived token that your service accepts as credentials to access APIs. The refresh token is a long-lived token that Google can store and use to acquire new access tokens when they expire.
  5. After the user has completed the account linking flow, every subsequent request sent from Google contains an access token.

Handle authorization requests

When you need to perform account linking using the OAuth 2.0 authorization code flow, Google sends the user to your authorization endpoint with a request that includes the following parameters:

Authorization endpoint parameters
client_id The Client ID you assigned to Google.
redirect_uri The URL to which you send the response to this request.
state A bookkeeping value that is passed back to Google unchanged in the redirect URI.
scope Optional: A space-delimited set of scope strings that specify the data Google is requesting authorization for.
response_type The type of value to return in the response. For the OAuth 2.0 authorization code flow, the response type is always code.
user_locale The Google Account language setting in RFC5646 format, used to localize your content in the user's preferred language.

For example, if your authorization endpoint is available at https://myservice.example.com/auth, a request might look like the following:

GET https://myservice.example.com/auth?client_id=GOOGLE_CLIENT_ID&redirect_uri=REDIRECT_URI&state=STATE_STRING&scope=REQUESTED_SCOPES&response_type=code&user_locale=LOCALE

For your authorization endpoint to handle sign-in requests, do the following steps:

  1. Verify that the client_id matches the Client ID you assigned to Google, and that the redirect_uri matches the redirect URL provided by Google for your service. These checks are important to prevent granting access to unintended or misconfigured client apps. If you support multiple OAuth 2.0 flows, also confirm that the response_type is code.
  2. Check if the user is signed in to your service. If the user isn't signed in, complete your service's sign-in or sign-up flow.
  3. Generate an authorization code for Google to use to access your API. The authorization code can be any string value, but it must uniquely represent the user, the client the token is for, and the code's expiration time, and it must not be guessable. You typically issue authorization codes that expire after approximately 10 minutes.
  4. Confirm that the URL specified by the redirect_uri parameter has the following form:
      https://oauth-redirect.googleusercontent.com/r/YOUR_PROJECT_ID
      https://oauth-redirect-sandbox.googleusercontent.com/r/YOUR_PROJECT_ID
      
  5. Redirect the user's browser to the URL specified by the redirect_uri parameter. Include the authorization code you just generated and the original, unmodified state value when you redirect by appending the code and state parameters. The following is an example of the resulting URL:
    https://oauth-redirect.googleusercontent.com/r/YOUR_PROJECT_ID?code=AUTHORIZATION_CODE&state=STATE_STRING

Handle token exchange requests

Your service's token exchange endpoint is responsible for two kinds of token exchanges:

  • Exchange authorization codes for access tokens and refresh tokens
  • Exchange refresh tokens for access tokens

Token exchange requests include the following parameters:

Token exchange endpoint parameters
client_id A string that identifies the request origin as Google. This string must be registered within your system as Google's unique identifier.
client_secret A secret string that you registered with Google for your service.
grant_type The type of token being exchanged. It's either authorization_code or refresh_token.
code When grant_type=authorization_code, this parameter is the code Google received from either your sign-in or token exchange endpoint.
redirect_uri When grant_type=authorization_code, this parameter is the URL used in the initial authorization request.
refresh_token When grant_type=refresh_token, this parameter is the refresh token Google received from your token exchange endpoint.
Exchange authorization codes for access tokens and refresh tokens

After the user signs in and your authorization endpoint returns a short-lived authorization code to Google, Google sends a request to your token exchange endpoint to exchange the authorization code for an access token and a refresh token.

For these requests, the value of grant_type is authorization_code, and the value of code is the value of the authorization code you previously granted to Google. The following is an example of a request to exchange an authorization code for an access token and a refresh token:

POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: oauth2.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

client_id=GOOGLE_CLIENT_ID&client_secret=GOOGLE_CLIENT_SECRET&grant_type=authorization_code&code=AUTHORIZATION_CODE&redirect_uri=REDIRECT_URI

To exchange authorization codes for an access token and a refresh token, your token exchange endpoint responds to POST requests by executing the following steps:

  1. Verify that the client_id identifies the request origin as an authorized origin, and that the client_secret matches the expected value.
  2. Verify that the authorization code is valid and not expired, and that the client ID specified in the request matches the client ID associated with the authorization code.
  3. Confirm that the URL specified by the redirect_uri parameter is identical to the value used in the initial authorization request.
  4. If you can't verify all of the above criteria, return an HTTP 400 Bad Request error with {"error": "invalid_grant"} as the body.
  5. Otherwise, use the user ID from the authorization code to generate a refresh token and an access token. These tokens can be any string value, but they must uniquely represent the user and the client the token is for, and they must not be guessable. For access tokens, also record the expiration time of the token, which is typically an hour after you issue the token. Refresh tokens don't expire.
  6. Return the following JSON object in the body of the HTTPS response:
    {
    "token_type": "Bearer",
    "access_token": "ACCESS_TOKEN",
    "refresh_token": "REFRESH_TOKEN",
    "expires_in": SECONDS_TO_EXPIRATION
    }
    

Google stores the access token and the refresh token for the user and records the expiration of the access token. When the access token expires, Google uses the refresh token to get a new access token from your token exchange endpoint.

Exchange refresh tokens for access tokens

When an access token expires, Google sends a request to your token exchange endpoint to exchange a refresh token for a new access token.

For these requests, the value of grant_type is refresh_token, and the value of refresh_token is the value of the refresh token you previously granted to Google. The following is an example of a request to exchange a refresh token for an access token:

POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: oauth2.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

client_id=GOOGLE_CLIENT_ID&client_secret=GOOGLE_CLIENT_SECRET&grant_type=refresh_token&refresh_token=REFRESH_TOKEN

To exchange a refresh token for an access token, your token exchange endpoint responds to POST requests by executing the following steps:

  1. Verify that the client_id identifies the request origin as Google, and that the client_secret matches the expected value.
  2. Verify that the refresh token is valid, and that the client ID specified in the request matches the client ID associated with the refresh token.
  3. If you can't verify all of the above criteria, return an HTTP 400 Bad Request error with {"error": "invalid_grant"} as the body.
  4. Otherwise, use the user ID from the refresh token to generate an access token. These tokens can be any string value, but they must uniquely represent the user and the client the token is for, and they must not be guessable. For access tokens, also record the expiration time of the token, typically an hour after you issue the token.
  5. Return the following JSON object in the body of the HTTPS response:
    {
    "token_type": "Bearer",
    "access_token": "ACCESS_TOKEN",
    "expires_in": SECONDS_TO_EXPIRATION
    }
Lidar com solicitações de informações do usuário

O ponto final userinfo é um recurso protegido OAuth 2.0 que reivindicações de retorno sobre o utilizador ligado. Implementar e hospedar o endpoint userinfo é opcional, exceto para os seguintes casos de uso:

Depois que o token de acesso for recuperado com êxito de seu endpoint de token, o Google envia uma solicitação ao endpoint de userinfo para recuperar informações básicas de perfil sobre o usuário vinculado.

cabeçalhos de solicitação de endpoint userinfo
Authorization header O token de acesso do tipo Bearer.

Por exemplo, se o seu userinfo endpoint está disponível em https://myservice.example.com/userinfo , um pedido pode parecer o seguinte:

GET /userinfo HTTP/1.1
Host: myservice.example.com
Authorization: Bearer ACCESS_TOKEN

Para que seu endpoint userinfo lide com solicitações, execute as seguintes etapas:

  1. Extraia o token de acesso do cabeçalho de autorização e retorne as informações do usuário associado ao token de acesso.
  2. Se o token de acesso é inválido, retornará um erro não autorizado HTTP 401 com o uso do WWW-Authenticate cabeçalho de resposta. Abaixo está um exemplo de uma resposta de erro userinfo:
    HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
    WWW-Authenticate: error="invalid_token",
    error_description="The Access Token expired"
    
    Se um 401 Unauthorized, ou qualquer outro tipo de resposta de erro vencida é devolvido durante o processo de ligação, o erro será não-recuperável, o token recuperado será descartado e o utilizador terá para iniciar o processo de vinculação novamente.
  3. Se o token de acesso é válido, de retorno e resposta HTTP 200 com o seguinte objeto JSON no corpo da resposta HTTPS:

    {
    "sub": "USER_UUID",
    "email": "EMAIL_ADDRESS",
    "given_name": "FIRST_NAME",
    "family_name": "LAST_NAME",
    "name": "FULL_NAME",
    "picture": "PROFILE_PICTURE",
    }
    
    Se o seu userinfo endpoint retorna uma resposta sucesso HTTP 200, o recuperado token e reivindicações são registradas contra a Google do usuário conta.

    resposta do endpoint userinfo
    sub Um ID exclusivo que identifica o usuário em seu sistema.
    email Endereço de e-mail do usuário.
    given_name Opcional: Primeiro nome do usuário.
    family_name Opcional: Último nome do usuário.
    name Opcional: nome completo do usuário.
    picture Foto do perfil do usuário: opcional.

Como validar a implementação

Você pode validar a sua implementação, utilizando o Parque OAuth 2.0 ferramenta.

Na ferramenta, execute as seguintes etapas:

  1. Clique em Configuração para abrir a janela de configuração do OAuth 2.0.
  2. No campo de fluxo OAuth, selecione do lado do cliente.
  3. No campo OAuth Endpoints, selecione Personalizado.
  4. Especifique seu ponto de extremidade OAuth 2.0 e o ID do cliente que você atribuiu ao Google nos campos correspondentes.
  5. Na secção Passo 1, não selecione quaisquer âmbitos do Google. Em vez disso, deixe este campo em branco ou digite um escopo válido para o seu servidor (ou uma string arbitrária se você não usar escopos OAuth). Quando estiver pronto, clique em Autorizar APIs.
  6. Nas secções Passo 2 e Passo 3, ir por meio do fluxo OAuth 2.0 e verificar que cada passo funciona como pretendido.

Você pode validar sua implementação usando a Conta do Google Linking Demonstração ferramenta.

Na ferramenta, execute as seguintes etapas:

  1. Clique no sinal-in com o botão Google.
  2. Escolha a conta que deseja vincular.
  3. Digite o ID do serviço.
  4. Opcionalmente, insira um ou mais escopos para os quais você solicitará acesso.
  5. Clique em Iniciar demonstração.
  6. Quando solicitado, confirme se você pode consentir e negar a solicitação de vinculação.
  7. Confirme que você foi redirecionado para sua plataforma.