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Location Targeting

This guide describes location targeting, and how you can use the Google Ads API to add, retrieve, and update location targeting for your campaigns.

Why is geo targeting important?

Location targeting allows you to serve ads to users in a particular geographical region. For example, assume you're advertising for a chain of supermarkets. Without location targeting, your ads would show in all regions worldwide, and your ads might receive clicks from users in regions where you have no supermarket locations. This generates cost while providing no possibility of a return on the investment. With location targeting, your campaigns show ads only in regions where you have open supermarkets. This approach also allows you to directly target customers searching locally for supermarkets.

The Google Ads API allows you to target your ads by country, region, or proximity around a specific geographical point.

Learn more about Targeting ads to geographic locations.

Geo target campaigns for a region

You can target campaigns to any geographical region for which Google Ads supports location targeting, for instance, a country, a state, a city, or a postal region. Each targetable location is uniquely identified by a Criterion ID. You can look up a criterion ID using GeoTargetConstantService.SuggestGeoTargetConstants. The resource_name of each GeoTargetConstant is of the form geoTargetConstants/{Criterion ID}. For example, the resource_name value of New York state is geoTargetConstants/21167.

You can add geo targets to your campaigns using the CampaignCriterionService. The following code snippet shows how to target your campaign with a criterion ID.

Java

private static CampaignCriterion buildLocationIdCriterion(
    long locationId, String campaignResourceName) {
  Builder criterionBuilder =
      CampaignCriterion.newBuilder().setCampaign(StringValue.of(campaignResourceName));

  criterionBuilder
      .getLocationBuilder()
      .setGeoTargetConstant(
          StringValue.of(GeoTargetConstantName.format(String.valueOf(locationId))));

  return criterionBuilder.build();
}

C#

private CampaignCriterion buildLocationCriterion(long locationId,
    string campaignResourceName)
{
    GeoTargetConstantName location = new GeoTargetConstantName(locationId.ToString());
    return new CampaignCriterion()
    {
        Campaign = campaignResourceName,
        Location = new LocationInfo()
        {
            GeoTargetConstant = location.ToString()
        }
    };
}

PHP

private static function createLocationCampaignCriterionOperation(
    int $locationId,
    string $campaignResourceName
) {
    // Constructs a campaign criterion for the specified campaign ID using the specified
    // location ID.
    $campaignCriterion = new CampaignCriterion([
        // Creates a location using the specified location ID.
        'location' => new LocationInfo([
            'geo_target_constant' => new StringValue(
                // Besides using location ID, you can also search by location names using
                // GeoTargetConstantServiceClient::suggestGeoTargetConstants() and directly
                // apply GeoTargetConstant::$resourceName here. An example can be found
                // in GetGeoTargetConstantByNames.php.
                ['value' => ResourceNames::forGeoTargetConstant($locationId)]
            )
        ]),
        'campaign' => new StringValue(['value' => $campaignResourceName])
    ]);

    return new CampaignCriterionOperation(['create' => $campaignCriterion]);
}

Python

def create_location_op(client, customer_id, campaign_id, location_id):
    campaign_service = client.get_service('CampaignService', version='v2')
    geo_target_constant_service = client.get_service('GeoTargetConstantService',
                                                     version='v2')

    # Create the campaign criterion.
    campaign_criterion_operation = client.get_type('CampaignCriterionOperation',
                                                   version='v2')
    campaign_criterion = campaign_criterion_operation.create
    campaign_criterion.campaign.value = campaign_service.campaign_path(
        customer_id, campaign_id)

    # Besides using location_id, you can also search by location names from
    # GeoTargetConstantService.suggest_geo_target_constants() and directly
    # apply GeoTargetConstant.resource_name here. An example can be found
    # in get_geo_target_constant_by_names.py.
    campaign_criterion.location.geo_target_constant.value = (
        geo_target_constant_service.geo_target_constant_path(location_id))

    return campaign_criterion_operation

Ruby

def create_location(client, customer_id, campaign_id, location_id)
  client.operation.create_resource.campaign_criterion do |criterion|
    criterion.campaign = client.path.campaign(customer_id, campaign_id)

    criterion.location = client.resource.location_info do  |li|
      # Besides using location_id, you can also search by location names from
      # GeoTargetConstantService.suggest_geo_target_constants() and directly
      # apply GeoTargetConstant.resource_name here. An example can be found
      # in get_geo_target_constant_by_names.rb.
      li.geo_target_constant = client.path.geo_target_constant(location_id)
    end
  end
end

Google may occasionally phase out some location criteria for various reasons: the location may be restructured into smaller or larger areas, geo-political changes, etc. Refer to the status field of a GeoTargetConstant object to determine if a location is ENABLED or REMOVAL_PLANNED. Read more about how location targets are phased out.

Look up by location name

You can also look up the criterion ID by location name using GeoTargetConstantService.SuggestGeoTargetConstants. The following code example shows how to look up a location criterion ID by location name.

Java

private void runExample(GoogleAdsClient googleAdsClient) {
  GeoTargetConstantServiceClient geoTargetClient =
      googleAdsClient.getLatestVersion().createGeoTargetConstantServiceClient();

  SuggestGeoTargetConstantsRequest.Builder requestBuilder =
      SuggestGeoTargetConstantsRequest.newBuilder();

  // Locale is using ISO 639-1 format. If an invalid locale is given, 'en' is used by default.
  requestBuilder.setLocale(StringValue.of("en"));

  // A list of country codes can be referenced here:
  // https://developers.google.com/adwords/api/docs/appendix/geotargeting
  requestBuilder.setCountryCode(StringValue.of("FR"));

  requestBuilder
      .getLocationNamesBuilder()
      .addAllNames(
          Stream.of("Paris", "Quebec", "Spain", "Deutschland")
              .map(StringValue::of)
              .collect(Collectors.toList()));

  SuggestGeoTargetConstantsResponse response =
      geoTargetClient.suggestGeoTargetConstants(requestBuilder.build());

  for (GeoTargetConstantSuggestion suggestion : response.getGeoTargetConstantSuggestionsList()) {
    System.out.printf(
        "%s (%s,%s,%s,%s) is found in locale (%s) with reach (%d) for search term (%s).%n",
        suggestion.getGeoTargetConstant().getResourceName(),
        suggestion.getGeoTargetConstant().getName().getValue(),
        suggestion.getGeoTargetConstant().getCountryCode().getValue(),
        suggestion.getGeoTargetConstant().getTargetType().getValue(),
        suggestion.getGeoTargetConstant().getStatus().name(),
        suggestion.getLocale().getValue(),
        suggestion.getReach().getValue(),
        suggestion.getSearchTerm().getValue());
  }
}

C#

public void Run(GoogleAdsClient client)
{
    // Get the GeoTargetConstantServiceClient.
    GeoTargetConstantServiceClient geoService =
        client.GetService(Services.V2.GeoTargetConstantService);

    // Locale is using ISO 639-1 format. If an invalid locale is given,
    // 'en' is used by default.
    string locale = "en";

    // A list of country codes can be referenced here:
    // https://developers.google.com/adwords/api/docs/appendix/geotargeting
    string countryCode = "FR";

    String[] locations = { "Paris", "Quebec", "Spain", "Deutschland" };

    SuggestGeoTargetConstantsRequest request = new SuggestGeoTargetConstantsRequest()
    {
        Locale = locale,
        CountryCode = countryCode,
        LocationNames = new SuggestGeoTargetConstantsRequest.Types.LocationNames()
    };

    request.LocationNames.Names.AddRange(locations);

    try
    {
        SuggestGeoTargetConstantsResponse response =
            geoService.SuggestGeoTargetConstants(request);

        foreach (GeoTargetConstantSuggestion suggestion
            in response.GeoTargetConstantSuggestions)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(
                $"{suggestion.GeoTargetConstant.ResourceName} " +
                $"({suggestion.GeoTargetConstant.Name}, " +
                $"{suggestion.GeoTargetConstant.CountryCode}, " +
                $"{suggestion.GeoTargetConstant.TargetType}, " +
                $"{suggestion.GeoTargetConstant.Status}) is found in locale " +
                $"({suggestion.Locale}) with reach ({suggestion.Reach.Value}) " +
                $"for search term ({suggestion.SearchTerm}).");
        }
    }
    catch (GoogleAdsException e)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Failure:");
        Console.WriteLine($"Message: {e.Message}");
        Console.WriteLine($"Failure: {e.Failure}");
        Console.WriteLine($"Request ID: {e.RequestId}");
    }
}

PHP

public static function runExample(
    GoogleAdsClient $googleAdsClient,
    array $locationNames,
    string $locale,
    string $countryCode
) {
    $geoTargetConstantServiceClient = $googleAdsClient->getGeoTargetConstantServiceClient();

    $names = [];
    foreach ($locationNames as $locationName) {
        $names[] = new StringValue(['value' => $locationName]);
    }
    $response = $geoTargetConstantServiceClient->suggestGeoTargetConstants(
        new StringValue(['value' => $locale]),
        new StringValue(['value' => $countryCode]),
        ['locationNames' => new LocationNames(['names' => $names])]
    );

    // Iterates over all geo target constant suggestion objects and prints the requested field
    // values for each one.
    foreach ($response->getGeoTargetConstantSuggestions() as $geoTargetConstantSuggestion) {
        /** @var GeoTargetConstantSuggestion $geoTargetConstantSuggestion */
        printf(
            "Found '%s' ('%s','%s','%s',%s) in locale '%s' with reach %d"
            . " for the search term '%s'.%s",
            $geoTargetConstantSuggestion->getGeoTargetConstant()->getResourceName(),
            $geoTargetConstantSuggestion->getGeoTargetConstant()->getNameUnwrapped(),
            $geoTargetConstantSuggestion->getGeoTargetConstant()->getCountryCodeUnwrapped(),
            $geoTargetConstantSuggestion->getGeoTargetConstant()->getTargetTypeUnwrapped(),
            GeoTargetConstantStatus::name(
                $geoTargetConstantSuggestion->getGeoTargetConstant()->getStatus()
            ),
            $geoTargetConstantSuggestion->getLocaleUnwrapped(),
            $geoTargetConstantSuggestion->getReachUnwrapped(),
            $geoTargetConstantSuggestion->getSearchTermUnwrapped(),
            PHP_EOL
        );
    }
}

Python

def main(client):
    gtc_service = client.get_service('GeoTargetConstantService', version='v2')

    location_names = (
        client.get_type('SuggestGeoTargetConstantsRequest',
                        version='v2').LocationNames())

    for location in ['Paris', 'Quebec', 'Spain', 'Deutschland']:
        location_name = location_names.names.add()
        location_name.value = location

    # Locale is using ISO 639-1 format. If an invalid locale is given,
    # 'en' is used by default.
    locale = client.get_type('StringValue', version='v2')
    locale.value = 'en'

    # A list of country codes can be referenced here:
    # https://developers.google.com/adwords/api/docs/appendix/geotargeting
    country_code = client.get_type('StringValue', version='v2')
    country_code.value = 'FR'

    results = gtc_service.suggest_geo_target_constants(
        locale, country_code, location_names=location_names)

    geo_target_constant_status_enum = client.get_type(
        'GeoTargetConstantStatusEnum').GeoTargetConstantStatus

    try:
        for suggestion in results.geo_target_constant_suggestions:
            geo_target_constant = suggestion.geo_target_constant
            print('%s (%s, %s, %s, %s) is found in locale (%s) with reach (%d) '
                  'from search term (%s).'
                  % (geo_target_constant.resource_name,
                     geo_target_constant.name.value,
                     geo_target_constant.country_code.value,
                     geo_target_constant.target_type.value,
                     geo_target_constant_status_enum.Name(
                         geo_target_constant.status),
                     suggestion.locale.value,
                     suggestion.reach.value,
                     suggestion.search_term.value))
    except google.ads.google_ads.errors.GoogleAdsException as ex:
        print('Request with ID "%s" failed with status "%s" and includes the '
              'following errors:' % (ex.request_id, ex.error.code().name))
        for error in ex.failure.errors:
            print('\tError with message "%s".' % error.message)
            if error.location:
                for field_path_element in error.location.field_path_elements:
                    print('\t\tOn field: %s' % field_path_element.field_name)
        sys.exit(1)

Ruby

def get_geo_target_constant_by_names()
  # GoogleAdsClient will read a config file from
  # ENV['HOME']/google_ads_config.rb when called without parameters
  client = Google::Ads::GoogleAds::GoogleAdsClient.new

  gtc_service = client.service.geo_target_constant

  location_names = client.resource.location_names do |ln|
    ['Paris', 'Quebec', 'Spain', 'Deutschland'].each do |name|
      ln.names << name
    end
  end

  # Locale is using ISO 639-1 format. If an invalid locale is given,
  # 'en' is used by default.
  locale = 'en'

  # A list of country codes can be referenced here:
  # https://developers.google.com/adwords/api/docs/appendix/geotargeting
  country_code = 'FR'

  response = gtc_service.suggest_geo_target_constants(locale, country_code,
      location_names: location_names)

  response.geo_target_constant_suggestions.each do |suggestion|
    puts sprintf("%s (%s,%s,%s,%s) is found in locale (%s) with reach (%d)" \
        " from search term (%s).", suggestion.geo_target_constant.resource_name,
        suggestion.geo_target_constant.name,
        suggestion.geo_target_constant.country_code,
        suggestion.geo_target_constant.target_type,
        suggestion.geo_target_constant.status,
        suggestion.locale,
        suggestion.reach,
        suggestion.search_term)
  end
end

The code example above generates the following output:

geoTargetConstants/21167 (New York,US,State,ENABLED) is found in locale (en)
with reach (32900000) from search term (New York).

Target campaigns for proximity to a location

There are times when you might want to target even more precisely than a city or country. For example, you may want to advertise your supermarkets within 10 kilometers of your shop location. In such cases, you can use proximity targeting. The code to create a proximity target is similar to adding a location target, except that you have to create a ProximityInfo object instead of a LocationInfo object.

Java

private static CampaignCriterion buildProximityLocation(String campaignResourceName) {
  Builder builder =
      CampaignCriterion.newBuilder().setCampaign(StringValue.of(campaignResourceName));

  ProximityInfo.Builder proximityBuilder = builder.getProximityBuilder();
  proximityBuilder.setRadius(DoubleValue.of(10.0)).setRadiusUnits(ProximityRadiusUnits.MILES);

  AddressInfo.Builder addressBuilder = proximityBuilder.getAddressBuilder();
  addressBuilder
      .setStreetAddress(StringValue.of("38 avenue de l'Opéra"))
      .setCityName(StringValue.of("Paris"))
      .setPostalCode(StringValue.of("75002"))
      .setCountryCode(StringValue.of("FR"));

  return builder.build();
}

C#

private CampaignCriterion buildProximityCriterion(string campaignResourceName)
{
    ProximityInfo proximity = new ProximityInfo()
    {
        Address = new AddressInfo()
        {
            StreetAddress = "38 avenue de l'Opéra",
            CityName = "Paris",
            PostalCode = "75002",
            CountryCode = "FR"
        },
        Radius = 10d,
        // Default is kilometers.
        RadiusUnits = ProximityRadiusUnits.Miles
    };

    return new CampaignCriterion()
    {
        Campaign = campaignResourceName,
        Proximity = proximity
    };
}

PHP

private static function createProximityCampaignCriterionOperation(string $campaignResourceName)
{
    // Constructs a campaign criterion as a proximity.
    $campaignCriterion = new CampaignCriterion([
        'proximity' => new ProximityInfo([
            'address' => new AddressInfo([
                'street_address' => new StringValue(['value' => '38 avenue de l\'Opéra']),
                'city_name' => new StringValue(['value' => 'Paris']),
                'postal_code' => new StringValue(['value' => '75002']),
                'country_code' => new StringValue(['value' => 'FR']),
            ]),
            'radius' => new DoubleValue(['value' => 10.0]),
            // Default is kilometers.
            'radius_units' => ProximityRadiusUnits::MILES
        ]),
        'campaign' => new StringValue(['value' => $campaignResourceName])
    ]);

    return new CampaignCriterionOperation(['create' => $campaignCriterion]);
}

Python

def create_location_op(client, customer_id, campaign_id, location_id):
    campaign_service = client.get_service('CampaignService', version='v2')
    geo_target_constant_service = client.get_service('GeoTargetConstantService',
                                                     version='v2')

    # Create the campaign criterion.
    campaign_criterion_operation = client.get_type('CampaignCriterionOperation',
                                                   version='v2')
    campaign_criterion = campaign_criterion_operation.create
    campaign_criterion.campaign.value = campaign_service.campaign_path(
        customer_id, campaign_id)

    # Besides using location_id, you can also search by location names from
    # GeoTargetConstantService.suggest_geo_target_constants() and directly
    # apply GeoTargetConstant.resource_name here. An example can be found
    # in get_geo_target_constant_by_names.py.
    campaign_criterion.location.geo_target_constant.value = (
        geo_target_constant_service.geo_target_constant_path(location_id))

    return campaign_criterion_operation

Ruby

def create_proximity(client, customer_id, campaign_id)
  client.operation.create_resource.campaign_criterion do |criterion|
    criterion.campaign = client.path.campaign(customer_id, campaign_id)

    criterion.proximity = client.resource.proximity_info do |proximity|
      proximity.address = client.resource.address_info do |address|
        address.street_address = "38 avenue de l'Opéra"
        address.city_name = "Paris"
        address.postal_code = "75002"
        address.country_code = "FR"
      end

      proximity.radius = 10
      proximity.radius_units = :MILES
    end
  end
end

Retrieve geo targets

You can retrieve the geo targets for a campaign using the GoogleAdsService.Search. You can filter your results in the WHERE clause.

SELECT
  campaign_criterion.campaign,
  campaign_criterion.location.geo_target_constant,
  campaign_criterion.proximity.geo_point.longitude_in_micro_degrees,
  campaign_criterion.proximity.geo_point.latitude_in_micro_degrees,
  campaign_criterion.proximity.radius,
  campaign_criterion.negative
FROM campaign_criterion
WHERE
  campaign_criterion.campaign = 'customers/{customer_id}/campaigns/{campaign_id}'
  AND campaign_criterion.type IN (LOCATION, PROXIMITY)

Update geo targets

To update location targets for a campaign, you need to retrieve the list of existing geo targets and compare it with the list of new targets. You can then use the remove operation to remove the targets you don't need, and the create operation to add the new geo targets you need (but are missing in the existing campaign).

Exclude geo targets

You can also exclude LocationInfo, but not ProximityInfo. This feature is most useful if you want to target a region, but exclude a sub-region (for example, to target the entire United States, except for New York City). To exclude a region, set the negative field in CampaignCriterion to be true.

Target multiple geographic regions

Using a LocationGroup, you can enable a campaign to target multiple geographic regions. A region is centered on the locations defined by the location extensions of the campaign, or by an optional Feed.

The radius defined on the LocationGroup ascribes a circular region around each location, and consists of a radius object, length, and radius_units, which can be either meters or miles (LocationGroupRadiusUnitsEnum).

The locations in a LocationGroup can be filtered by a list of geotargeting criterion IDs prescribed in the geo_target_constant field. If defined, no locations that exist outside of the given critera IDs will be targeted.

Here are some tips when creating a LocationGroup:

  • LocationGroup.feed must be the resource_name of a Feed (if a Feed is being used).

  • LocationGroup.feed can only be mutated on CREATE actions. You cannot mutate this field on UPDATE actions.

  • A RESOURCE_NOT_FOUND error can occur when adding a Feed to a LocationGroup due to any of the following causes:

    • The Feed does not exist.
    • The Feed is inactive.
    • The Feed does not have attributes mapped to location campaign critera.

Whether or not a Feed can be used for a LocationGroup can be determined by looking at its FeedMapping entries—at least one FeedMapping should have a criterion_type of LOCATION_EXTENSION_TARGETING. Here is a GAQL query that returns the feeds with the proper feed-mapping criterion type:

SELECT
  feed.id,
  feed_mapping.criterion_type
FROM feed_mapping
WHERE
  feed.id = <feed id>
  AND feed_mapping.criterion_type = LOCATION_EXTENSION_TARGETING

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